Ergonomics<br />Industrial and Office<br />Prepared by: Dan Sawall<br />dan.sawall@yahoo.com<br />http://www.linkedin.com/...
What is Ergonomics?<br />Ergonomics is not an exact science and can be open to interpretation.  However a little common se...
Used to prevent injuries and illnesses associated with the design of physical work.
Science of fitting the work to the user instead of forcing the user to fit the work.
Used to increase employee safety and comfort and to optimize work performance and quality.</li></ul>2<br />
Why Do We Need Ergonomics?<br />Examples of work requirements that can cause discomfort, fatigue, injury, and illness are:...
Repeated heavy lifting
High pinch forces
Working with hands above shoulders
Handling objects that are sharp, very hot, or very cold.
Long periods of work without a change in body posture.</li></ul>Effects on the Company<br />Effects on the Operator<br /><...
Pain
Illness – sprains, back ache, etc.
Low morale
Frustration & Irritation
Poor Quality
Absenteeism
Higher costs
Higher employee turnover & training</li></ul>3<br />
What are the Benefits?<br />If people feel more at ease and comfortable on the job, they will be safer and there is a high...
Higher quality
Reduced operator injury
Increased morale
Greater job satisfaction
Lower medical & insurance costs
Reduced lost time
Lower absenteeism
Less employee turnover</li></ul>4<br />
What are the risks?<br /><ul><li>Physical Activity
Fatigue
Physical Exertion
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Ergonomics 8 2011

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Ergonomics have become a concern within the workplace as improper or poor ergonomics can cause repetitive strain injuries, resulting in lost productivity, worker’s compensation claims and other liabilities for an organization.

Today, American companies spend nearly $30 billion annually on Repetitive Stress Injuries and Cumulative Trauma Disorders. These injuries could be prevented or the severity reduced through ergonomics health and wellness training.

I created this Ergonomics PowerPoint to share with others to enhance training. Feel free to share it with others. Any feedback is welcome.

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  • TrueTrueFalseA: Report issues whenever it’s convenient.B: Taking a short nap
  • 6. False7. True8. C. On a holder between the keyboard or next to the screenNo False
  • TrueTrueFalseA: Report issues whenever it’s convenient.B: Taking a short nap
  • 6. True7. True8. C: On a holder between keyboard or next to screen9. No10. False
  • Ergonomics 8 2011

    1. 1. Ergonomics<br />Industrial and Office<br />Prepared by: Dan Sawall<br />dan.sawall@yahoo.com<br />http://www.linkedin.com/in/dansawall<br />
    2. 2. What is Ergonomics?<br />Ergonomics is not an exact science and can be open to interpretation. However a little common sensegoes a long way.<br />Ergonomics is:<br /><ul><li>A study of the relation between people and their work environment.
    3. 3. Used to prevent injuries and illnesses associated with the design of physical work.
    4. 4. Science of fitting the work to the user instead of forcing the user to fit the work.
    5. 5. Used to increase employee safety and comfort and to optimize work performance and quality.</li></ul>2<br />
    6. 6. Why Do We Need Ergonomics?<br />Examples of work requirements that can cause discomfort, fatigue, injury, and illness are:<br /><ul><li>Stretching to reach
    7. 7. Repeated heavy lifting
    8. 8. High pinch forces
    9. 9. Working with hands above shoulders
    10. 10. Handling objects that are sharp, very hot, or very cold.
    11. 11. Long periods of work without a change in body posture.</li></ul>Effects on the Company<br />Effects on the Operator<br /><ul><li>Fatigue
    12. 12. Pain
    13. 13. Illness – sprains, back ache, etc.
    14. 14. Low morale
    15. 15. Frustration & Irritation
    16. 16. Poor Quality
    17. 17. Absenteeism
    18. 18. Higher costs
    19. 19. Higher employee turnover & training</li></ul>3<br />
    20. 20. What are the Benefits?<br />If people feel more at ease and comfortable on the job, they will be safer and there is a higher chance of quality productivity.<br /><ul><li>Higher productivity
    21. 21. Higher quality
    22. 22. Reduced operator injury
    23. 23. Increased morale
    24. 24. Greater job satisfaction
    25. 25. Lower medical & insurance costs
    26. 26. Reduced lost time
    27. 27. Lower absenteeism
    28. 28. Less employee turnover</li></ul>4<br />
    29. 29. What are the risks?<br /><ul><li>Physical Activity
    30. 30. Fatigue
    31. 31. Physical Exertion
    32. 32. Fatigue & Recovery
    33. 33. Over-exertion & Cumulative Trauma
    34. 34. Body Type</li></ul>5<br />
    35. 35. What are Risk Factors?<br /><ul><li>Frequent Hand Use
    36. 36. Arms Extended
    37. 37. Bending & Twisting
    38. 38. Static Body Posture
    39. 39. Using Force
    40. 40. Vibration
    41. 41. Contact Stress
    42. 42. Temperature
    43. 43. Noise
    44. 44. Fatigue</li></ul>6<br />
    45. 45. Understanding Ergonomic Risk<br />Improper posture when completing office and industrial tasks can cause musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) including:<br /><ul><li>Damage, pain and sprains primarily to:
    46. 46. Lower back
    47. 47. Shoulders
    48. 48. Upper limbs
    49. 49. Wrists and fingers
    50. 50. Causing:
    51. 51. Extended pain
    52. 52. Disability
    53. 53. Medical Treatment</li></ul>7<br />
    54. 54. Understanding Ergonomic Risk<br />Fatigue<br /><ul><li>If activities exceed our personal limits of stamina or strength (varies from person to person), two kinds of fatigue may occur.
    55. 55. Whole: Body fatigue occurs when several body parts are overexerted.
    56. 56. Localized: Effects the particular part of the body that is working (e.g. arms or hands).</li></ul>Physical Exertions<br /><ul><li>Either dynamic or static.
    57. 57. Dynamic exertion is where there is visible movement of the body.
    58. 58. Static exertion is where the body or part of the body is held in place.
    59. 59. Static exertion is often more tiring because the muscles do not have a chance to recover.</li></ul>8<br />
    60. 60. Fatigue and Recovery<br /><ul><li>Localized fatigue is best relieved by changing activities to rest working muscle groups or by resting the working limb.
    61. 61. Whole body fatigue is best reduced by decreasing the level of body activity or by resting the body.</li></ul>9<br />The amount of force you exert and the length of time both effect how soon and how much fatigue will set in.<br />
    62. 62. Over-exertion<br />If you work in an activity that exceeds your strength or stamina, over-exertion and cumulative trauma injuries are possible.<br /><ul><li>Over-exertioncan cause immediate injuries to muscles, tendons and ligaments (e.g. sprains, strains and tears).
    63. 63. Cumulative Trauma injuries are “wear and tear” type and include damage to hands, wrists, shoulders, elbow and some back disorders.</li></ul>10<br />
    64. 64. Analyzing Tasks – Recognizing Problems<br />Ergonomic Analysis Methods<br />We need to know:<br /><ul><li>How much force is involved for each body posture?
    65. 65. How often is it repeated?
    66. 66. How long is it held?
    67. 67. How often is the total task repeated?
    68. 68. How long the task is worked?</li></ul>11<br />
    69. 69. Analyzing Tasks – Recognizing Problems<br />Posture - Constant Use of Hands and Fingers<br /><ul><li>Twisting or Bending of the Wrists – effects the median nerve passing through the carpal tunnel which can lead to carpal tunnel syndrome.
    70. 70. Repetitive Hand & Wrist Motions – effects the tendons passing through the carpal tunnel which can lead to tendinitis / tenosynovitis.
    71. 71. Vibration – effects the blood vessels in the fingers which can lead to Raynaud’s Phenomenon.
    72. 72. Pinch grips - can lead to contact stress and over-exertion of the hands.</li></ul>12<br />
    73. 73. Analyzing Tasks – Recognizing Problems<br />Posture - Constant Use of Hands and Fingers<br />Since we use our hands and fingers to assemble things, we have to be concerned with the position of our hands, type of grip forces involved, vibration, pressure, temperature and number of repetitions.<br /><ul><li>A wrap or power grip is best.
    74. 74. Pinch forces over 7lbs can cause injury.
    75. 75. Hook and contact grasps expose the operator to the potential of contact stress with sharp or hard objects.
    76. 76. DO NOT strike objects with your hand or any body part.</li></ul>13<br />
    77. 77. Analyzing Tasks – Recognizing Problems<br />Arms and Shoulders<br /><ul><li>Working with your arms above the shoulder or your elbows positioned at an angle > 25 degrees can compress and entrap shoulder nerves. It also causes fatigue to muscles.
    78. 78. The longer the reach, the greater effect of any weight involved. The more off center the reach, the greater effect of any weight involved.</li></ul>14<br />Inverted Drill Press<br />
    79. 79. Analyzing Tasks – Recognizing Problems<br />Bending and Twisting<br /><ul><li>The lower the reach, the greater effect of any weight involved.
    80. 80. The more off center the reach, the greater effect of any weight involved.</li></li></ul><li>Analyzing Tasks – Recognizing Problems<br />Force<br />Pushing vs. Pulling<br /><ul><li>Pushing is better than pulling!
    81. 81. Lets you use larger muscles with less strain on your back.
    82. 82. You are less likely to slip.
    83. 83. Pushing can be split into whole body or arms only.
    84. 84. Suggested standing force limits are 50 lbs. using 2 hands.</li></ul>16<br />
    85. 85. Reducing the Risk<br />The Basics<br /><ul><li>Design each work station – follow a checklist.
    86. 86. Use ergonomically designed tools – follow a checklist.
    87. 87. Have work instructions for the operator to follow.
    88. 88. Do an analysis of the task.</li></ul>17<br />
    89. 89. Reducing the Risk<br /><ul><li>Constant Use of Hands & Fingers: Rotate to jobs where hand use is lower.
    90. 90. Arms Extended & Unsupported: Alter the design of the work station to bring the work closer. Minimize work above shoulders and avoid work that requires elbow abduction (elbows up).
    91. 91. Bending & Twisting: Reposition the objects to the front of the worker at an appropriate height.
    92. 92. Using Significant Force: Reduce the weight of the load if possible, keep your body in neutral postures, use assisted lifts, reduce pinch forces, use power grips and minimize lift distance.
    93. 93. Static Body Posture: Alternate between standing and sitting. Rest one foot on a support while standing.</li></ul>18<br />
    94. 94. Reducing the Risk<br /><ul><li>Vibration: Isolate your body from vibration source, rotate to non-vibrating job and use better designed tools.
    95. 95. Contact Stress: Cushion exposed body parts (e.g. gloves), pad hard or sharp objects, and round or smooth rough edges.
    96. 96. Heat / Cold: Limit exposure to temperature extremes, use heating / cooling systems and wear protective clothing.
    97. 97. Noise: Reduce exposure to high noise levels. Wear hearing protection, as needed.</li></ul>19<br />
    98. 98. Lifting<br /><ul><li>Think about your destination and make a clear path before moving a load.
    99. 99. Balance yourself with your feet positioned shoulder width apart. Position one foot slightly ahead of the other.
    100. 100. Remember people often do more lifting in their work areas than they realize!</li></ul>20<br />
    101. 101. Lifting<br /><ul><li>Face the load and grip it with whole hands. Hold it close to the body at the waist.
    102. 102. Bend at the knees, NOT the back. Use your leg muscles and straighten your legs to lift.</li></ul>21<br />
    103. 103. Lifting<br /><ul><li>Don’t jerk or twist when lifting.
    104. 104. Turn with your feet to avoid a back injury.
    105. 105. ASK for help or get mechanical assistance if the load is too heavy or large.</li></ul>22<br />
    106. 106. Awkward Positions<br /><ul><li>Poor postures place unusual or excessive forces on body parts. This can even include sitting or standing in the same position for a long time.
    107. 107. Awkward positions create unnecessary stress at the wrists, shoulders and neck, causing you to get tired faster.</li></ul>Repetition<br /><ul><li>Fatigue and strains build up when tasks involving motion are performed repetitively for hours without a break.
    108. 108. Change tasks during the day or take periodic breaks. It will provide muscles and tendons with the time needed to “recover” to their normal state.</li></ul>Examples:<br /><ul><li>Reaching
    109. 109. Twisting
    110. 110. Bending
    111. 111. Excessive typing</li></ul>23<br />
    112. 112. In Front of a Computer Often?<br /><ul><li>Sit up with your back against the backrest and your feet flat on the floor (otherwise use a stool).
    113. 113. You should be able to view your screen without tilting and turning your head.
    114. 114. Keep the mouse close enough where your elbow doesn’t have to reach out.
    115. 115. Place documents you are working off of on a holder between the keyboard and the screen (or nearby) to avoid stretching the neck too much.</li></ul>24<br />
    116. 116. Comfort & Fatigue Management<br />Reduce discomfort and fatigue by:<br /><ul><li>Moving around or changing positions
    117. 117. Taking short breaks
    118. 118. Stretching</li></ul>Self-help when sitting or standing:<br /><ul><li>Face the work directly. Use good posture.
    119. 119. Avoid constant reaching or bending. Place frequently used material within close reach.
    120. 120. Avoid cradling the telephone with your head.
    121. 121. Re-focus on distant objects when feeling tired.</li></ul>25<br />
    122. 122. Comfort & Fatigue Management<br />Standing / Industrial work:<br /><ul><li>Have rubber or padded mats installed.
    123. 123. When standing, put one foot on a footrest torelieve back fatigue.
    124. 124. Wear gloves.
    125. 125. Install extra insoles and lifts in shoes.
    126. 126. Avoid kneeling. If kneeling is necessary, wear kneepads.</li></ul>Sitting:<br /><ul><li>Chairs should have adjustable seats,backrests and armrests.
    127. 127. Desks should have plenty of clearanceabove the knees.</li></ul>26<br />
    128. 128. No Lost Cause! What you can do….<br /><ul><li>Being in shape by exercising regularly, eating healthy and maintaining a vigorous lifestyle affect how you feel at work.
    129. 129. Do what you can to change what is affecting you negatively at work.
    130. 130. Report concerns immediately.
    131. 131. Share ideas on improvement or equipment.
    132. 132. Report malfunctioning equipment.
    133. 133. Apply these simple techniques to everyday routines in AND out of work.</li></ul>27<br />
    134. 134. Quiz<br />1. True or False<br /> It’s important to know about Industrial and Office ergonomics to reduce the possible cause of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD’s).<br />2. True or False<br /> When lifting, it’s good to bend at the knees and not the back.<br />3. True or False<br /> When at a computer, the further the mouse is away from the body, the better it is for the elbow.<br />4. When you believe there is an ergonomic issue you should do all except:<br />Report issues whenever it’s convenient.<br />Share ideas on improvement.<br />Report malfunctioning equipment.<br />Apply effective techniques outside of work.<br />5. What is NOT a good way to reduce comfort and fatigue on the job:<br />Taking short breaks<br />Taking a short nap<br />Stretching<br />Moving around & changing positions<br />28<br />
    135. 135. Quiz<br />6. True or False<br />When you are multitasking and your phone rings, cradle the telephone with your head.<br />7. True or False<br />When feeling weary, it’s okay to relax eyes for a few seconds and refocus on distant objects.<br />8. When typing at a computer from another document, you should place it:<br />Flat on the desk next to you<br />On your lap<br />On a holder between the keyboard or next to the screen<br />Propped up on the keyboard in front of the screen<br />9. Yes or No<br />Is ergonomics designed for work environments to maximize efficiency alone? <br />10. True or False<br />If you’ve been working for 20 years, it won’t make a difference to change your posture and awkward routines on the job.<br />29<br />
    136. 136. Review<br />1.Trueor False<br /> It’s important to know about Industrial and Office ergonomics to reduce the possible cause of Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSD’s).<br />2.Trueor False<br /> When lifting, it’s good to bend at the knees and not the back.<br />3. True or False<br /> When at a computer, the further the mouse is away from the body, the better it is for the elbow.<br />4. When you believe there is an ergonomic issue you should do all except:<br />Report issues whenever it’s convenient.<br />Share ideas on improvement.<br />Report malfunctioning equipment.<br />Apply effective techniques outside of work.<br />5. What is NOT a good way to reduce comfort and fatigue on the job:<br />Taking short breaks<br />Taking a short nap<br />Stretching<br />Moving around & changing positions<br />30<br />
    137. 137. Review<br />6.True or False<br />When you are multitasking and your phone rings, cradle the telephone with your head.<br />7.Trueor False<br />When feeling weary, it’s okay to relax eyes for a few seconds and refocus on distant objects.<br />8. When typing at a computer from another document, you should place it:<br />Flat on the desk next to you<br />On your lap<br />On a holder between the keyboard or next to the screen<br />Propped up on the keyboard in front of the screen<br />9. Yes or No<br />Is ergonomics designed for work environments to maximize efficiency alone? <br />10. True or False<br />If you’ve been working for 20 years, it won’t make a difference to change your posture and awkward routines on the job.<br />31<br />

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