Ubiquitous computing ( ubicomp ) is a post-desktop model of human-computer interaction in which information processing has been thoroughly integrated into everyday objects and activities .
The idea that almost any device, from clothing to tools to appliances to cars to homes to the human body to your coffee mug, can be imbedded with chips to connect the device to an infinite network of other devices.
Goal of is ubicomp : to create an environment where the connectivity of devices is embedded in such a way that the connectivity is unobtrusive and always available.
ubicomp’s devices characteristics : very tiny - even invisible - small, inexpensive, robust networked processing devices either mobile or embedded in almost any type of object such as cars, tools, appliances, clothing and various consumer goods - all communicating through increasingly interconnected networks.
a domestic ubiquitous computing environment might interconnect lighting and environmental controls with personal biometric monitors woven into clothing so that illumination and heating conditions in a room might be modulated, continuously and imperceptibly
posits refrigerators "aware" of their suitably-tagged contents, able to both plan a variety of menus from the food actually on hand, and warn users of stale or spoiled food.
The first era of computing is known as the Mainframe era – many people to one computer. This computer was the central system from which entire offices, and sometimes, companies called their computing infrastructure.
The second era of computing is known as the PC era – one computer to one person.
The third era of computing is known as the Ubiquitous computing - one person using many computers.
Figure below show the three generation of computing.
Ubiquitous computing verse virtual reality primarily a horse power problem very difficult integration of human factors, computer science, engineering, and social sciences. puts people inside a computer-generated three dimensional world forces the computer to live out here in the world with people Virtual reality Ubiquitous computing
In his book “ The Rise of the Network Society” , he suggests that there is an ongoing shift from already-decentralised, stand-alone microcomputers and mainframes towards entirely pervasive computing.
In his model of a pervasive computing system, Castells uses the example of the Internet as the start of a pervasive computing system. The logical progression from that paradigm is a system where that networking logic becomes applicable in every realm of daily activity, in every location and every context .
Castells envisages a system where billions of miniature, ubiquitous inter-communication devices will be spread worldwide, "like pigment in the wall paint".
If you walk into an environment anywhere in the world, you would probably not find an infrastructure suitable for ubiquitous computing devices.
That means many technology-producing companies desire to produce their own proprietary products speaking their own proprietary language. This leads to “noninteroperability” between devices from different companies.
Depend on the challenge two there is lack of a systems administrator.
4 . Social Implications of aware technologies
Ubiquitous computing will have a social impact on our society just as the previous two eras of computing did. For exu067uample: How will an individual know if they are within a “smart” environment where embedded devices are gathering data? Is it ethical to gather information from individuals without their knowledge?
The Smart Space (SS) Lab was established as one example of the ubiquitous computing environment. This laboratory is currently involved in the following areas of research in order to simplify the creation of this type of environment in convenient locations.
Ubiquitous Open Platform : A service platform is a tool to provide ubiquitous computing services such as sensing, actuation and networking by installing this platform in private spaces such as the home and the office, as well as public spaces
Ubiquitous Base Software: these software that serves as the base environment for the dynamic connection of the above platforms, is able to receive input from users for services provided in this environment, and feed back output that is generated by these services