Use of Italics• Titles of books, periodicals, films, videos, TV shows, and microfilm publications American Psychologist• Genera, species, and varieties Macaca mulatta• Introduction of a new, technical, or key term or label (after a term has been used once, do not italicize it) The term backward masking box labeled empty• A letter, word, or phrase cited as a linguistic example words such as big and small
Use of Italics (continued)• Words that could be misread the small group [meaning a designation, not group size]• Letters used as statistical symbols or algebraic variables a/b = c/d• Some test scores and scales MMPI scales: Hs, Pd• Periodical volume numbers in reference lists American Psychologist, 26, 46 – 67• Anchors of a scale health ratings ranged from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent)
Do Not Use Italics• Foreign phrases and abbreviations common in English a priori per se• Chemical terms NaCl• Trigonometric terms sin, tan, log• Nonstatistical subscripts to statistical symbols or mathematical expressions Fmax S +S A B
Do Not Use Italics (continued)• Greek letters β• Mere emphasis (Italics are acceptable if emphasis might otherwise be lost; in general, however, use syntax to provide emphasis) Incorrect: it is important to bear in mind…• Letters used as abbreviations intertrial interval (ITI)
Use Brackets• To enclose the values that are limits of a confidence interval 95% Cls [-7.2, 4.3], [9.2, 12.4], and [-1.2, -0.5]• To enclose material inserted in a quotation by some person other than the original writer “when *his own and others’+ behaviors were studied”
Use Brackets (continued)• To enclose parenthetical material that is already within parentheses (The results for the control group [n = 8] are also presented in Figure 2.) Exception 1: Do not use brackets if the material can be set of easily with commas. (as lmai, 1990, later concluded) Exception 2: In mathematical material, the placement of brackets and parentheses is reversed; that is, patentheses appear within brackets.
Do Not User Brackets• To set off statistics that already include parentheses Correct: was statistically significant, F(I, 32) = 4.37, p = 0.45 Incorrect: was statistically significant (F[I, 32] = 4.37, p = 0.45)
Use Parentheses (continued)• To group mathematical expressions (k – 1)/(g – 2)• To enclose the citation or page number of a direct quotation The author stated, “The effect disappeared within minutes” (Lopez, 1993, p.311)• To enclose numbers that identify displayed formulas and equations a = b + c (1)
Use Parentheses (continued)• To enclose statistical values was statistically significant (p = .031)• To enclose degrees of freedom F(2, 116) = 3.71
Do Not User Parentheses• To enclose material within other parentheses (the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]) [Use brackets to avoid nested parentheses.]• Back to back Correct: (e.g. defensive pessimism; Norem & Cantor, 1986) Incorrect: (e.g. defensive pessimism) (Norem & Cantor, 1986)
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