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  • 1. APA Style Italics BracketsParenthesis
  • 2. Use of Italics• Titles of books, periodicals, films, videos, TV shows, and microfilm publications American Psychologist• Genera, species, and varieties Macaca mulatta• Introduction of a new, technical, or key term or label (after a term has been used once, do not italicize it) The term backward masking box labeled empty• A letter, word, or phrase cited as a linguistic example words such as big and small
  • 3. Use of Italics (continued)• Words that could be misread the small group [meaning a designation, not group size]• Letters used as statistical symbols or algebraic variables a/b = c/d• Some test scores and scales MMPI scales: Hs, Pd• Periodical volume numbers in reference lists American Psychologist, 26, 46 – 67• Anchors of a scale health ratings ranged from 1 (poor) to 5 (excellent)
  • 4. Do Not Use Italics• Foreign phrases and abbreviations common in English a priori per se• Chemical terms NaCl• Trigonometric terms sin, tan, log• Nonstatistical subscripts to statistical symbols or mathematical expressions Fmax S +S A B
  • 5. Do Not Use Italics (continued)• Greek letters β• Mere emphasis (Italics are acceptable if emphasis might otherwise be lost; in general, however, use syntax to provide emphasis) Incorrect: it is important to bear in mind…• Letters used as abbreviations intertrial interval (ITI)
  • 6. Use Brackets• To enclose the values that are limits of a confidence interval 95% Cls [-7.2, 4.3], [9.2, 12.4], and [-1.2, -0.5]• To enclose material inserted in a quotation by some person other than the original writer “when *his own and others’+ behaviors were studied”
  • 7. Use Brackets (continued)• To enclose parenthetical material that is already within parentheses (The results for the control group [n = 8] are also presented in Figure 2.) Exception 1: Do not use brackets if the material can be set of easily with commas. (as lmai, 1990, later concluded) Exception 2: In mathematical material, the placement of brackets and parentheses is reversed; that is, patentheses appear within brackets.
  • 8. Do Not User Brackets• To set off statistics that already include parentheses Correct: was statistically significant, F(I, 32) = 4.37, p = 0.45 Incorrect: was statistically significant (F[I, 32] = 4.37, p = 0.45)
  • 9. Use Parentheses• To set off structurally independent elements The patterns were statistically significant (see Figure 5).• To set of reference citations in text Dumas and Dore (1991) reported• To introduce an abbreviation effect on the galvanic skin response (GSR)• To set off letters that identify items in a series within a sentence of paragraph The subject areas included (a) synonyms associated with cultural interactions, (b) descriptors for ethnic group membership, and © psychological symptoms.
  • 10. Use Parentheses (continued)• To group mathematical expressions (k – 1)/(g – 2)• To enclose the citation or page number of a direct quotation The author stated, “The effect disappeared within minutes” (Lopez, 1993, p.311)• To enclose numbers that identify displayed formulas and equations a = b + c (1)
  • 11. Use Parentheses (continued)• To enclose statistical values was statistically significant (p = .031)• To enclose degrees of freedom F(2, 116) = 3.71
  • 12. Do Not User Parentheses• To enclose material within other parentheses (the Beck Depression Inventory [BDI]) [Use brackets to avoid nested parentheses.]• Back to back Correct: (e.g. defensive pessimism; Norem & Cantor, 1986) Incorrect: (e.g. defensive pessimism) (Norem & Cantor, 1986)

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