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Development of the Piano
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Development of the Piano






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Development of the Piano Development of the Piano Presentation Transcript

  • History of the Development of the Pianofortefrom the Science Perspective
  • Lyre Psaltery Dulcimer MechanismHarpsichord Keyboard & Frame Pianoforte
  • Lyre Ancient Egyptian musician playing the Lyre (left)
  • Lyre• Since at least 490B.C.• One of the earliest musical instruments• In ancient Greek and Egypt music• Plucking
  • Lyre Psaltery Dulcimer MechanismHarpsichord Keyboard & Frame Pianoforte
  • Psaltery and DulcimerA Psaltery (left) and A Dulcimer (right)
  • Psaltery• In the 12th century• Emerged from the Lyre• Played by plucking the strings• Gave rise to the Harpsichord
  • DulcimerA Dulcimer made in Italy in the mid-eighteen century
  • Dulcimer• In the 12th century• Emerged from the Lyre• Played by hitting them with small wooden hammers• Gave rise to the Pianoforte
  • Psaltery and Dulcimer• A larger soundboard at the back• Acts as the amplifier• Better resonance effect• Greater volume
  • Lyre Psaltery Dulcimer MechanismHarpsichord Keyboard & Frame Pianoforte
  • Harpsichord •In the late 15th century •The mechanized psalteryA Harpsichord with two manuals
  • Harpsichord• Plucked by a quill or alternatively a plectrum made of leather• Replucking can be avoided Internal Structure of the Harpsichord
  • Limitations of Harpsichord1. Volume is not loud enough2. Almost impossible to play with dynamics3. Sustaining power is poor4. Retuning of the instrument and replacement of the quills are frequently required
  • Lyre Psaltery Dulcimer MechanismHarpsichord Keyboard & Frame Pianoforte
  • Pianoforte• First made in 1709• The Italian harpsichord maker Bartolommeo Christofori• Mechanized Dulcimer Steinway & Sons Concert Grand Piano Model D
  • Differences between Harpsichord and Pianoforte• Piano has a heavy iron frame• One keyboard, usually of seven octaves• Thicker strings• Soft pedal and Sustaining pedals
  • From Early Pianoforte to Modern Pianoforte
  • 1. Enhanced loudness• Formula of kinetic energy, E=1/2 mv2• Nersenne’s formula for the vibration frequency• Increasing the loudness will also increase the tension
  • By improving the frame In 1855 the American manufacturer Henry Steinway brought out a grand piano with a cast iron frame The Change of Frame
  • By thickening the strings • E=1/2 mv2 • The magnitude of sound energy is directly proportional to the mass of string Strings of Pianoforte
  • 2. Widened range • In 1709: C2 to F6 • Now: A0 to C8Change of Range of Keyboard of Pianoforte
  • 3. Increased complexityDiagrams of the Hitting Device of Early (Upper) and Modern (Lower) Pianofortes
  • Natural End of Development• Strings cannot be further lengthened• Soundboards cannot be further thickened• Same force results in same timbre