Työaikaisen liikenneturvallisuuden parantaminen

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Perjantaimeeting 8.11.2013 …

Perjantaimeeting 8.11.2013
Simo Salminen, vanhempi tutkija, Työterveyslaitos

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  • 1. Työaikaisen liikenneturvallisuuden parantaminen Simo Salminen 11.11.13 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 2. WORK-RELATED TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 2 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 3. TYÖLIIKENNEKUOLEMAT Vuosina 1975-1994 puolet työkuolemista liikenteessä (joko työmatkalla tai työaikana liikenteessä) Tilanne ei ole muuttunut, vain tilastointi on 0-tapaturmaa ajattelu: Kukaan ei kuole tai loukkaannu vakavasti työssä 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 3 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 4. Työliikenne- vs. työmatkatapaturmat Työaikana liikenteessä -miehet -50-65 v. Työmatkalla -naiset -50-65 v. (yli 50v. naisilla 2,5) -95% autolla -kevyt & julkinen liik -tammikuussa -tammikuussa -klo 13-15 -klo 7-9, 15-17 -toimihenkilöt, avainhenkilöt -kaikki työssäkäyvät 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 4 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 5. Työaikana liikenteessä tilastokeskuksen työvoimatutkimus 1995, n=5150 päivittäin 24,5% viikoittain 18,8% kerran kuussa 9,5% 600 000 työasioissa liikenteessä päivittäin miehet, 35-54 v., kuljetus, kaivos – ja rakennusala, maa- ja metsätyö, kaupallinen työ 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 5 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 6. Työliikenteen riskitekijät Myynti- ja markkinointihenkilöstö (n=1102, 44%) Rakennustyöläiset (n=741, 30%) Vertailu työ- ja vapaa-ajan liikenteen riskit Työliikenteessä: kiire, työasiat mielessä, kännykän käyttö, väsymys Vapaa-aika: pysäköintipaikan löytäminen, heikko fyysinen kunto 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 6 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 7. Työaikana liikenteessä 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 7 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 8. AIM • The aim of this study is to describe two interventions, how companies can improve their personnel traffic safety during work hours. • These interventions were discussion group method and anticipatory driving. Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 8
  • 9. Discussion method • Kurt Lewin during II World War in USA showed that a decision made after group discussion changed attitudes more than a lecture • To get houseviwes to use internal organs of cows: • After discussion 1/3, after lecture 3% • In Sewing factory, a group discussion increased productivity by 12 %. Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 9
  • 10. Misumi's experiments at Japan 45 bus drivers involved in 2 or more collisions in two discussion sessions: the accident rate decreased by 80% Workers and foremen of the shipyard meet once a week: during 10 years accident rate fell to 3% of the original The accident rate of the cranemen of the shipyard decreased to the one tenth during 10 years. The most dangerous work task was to load steel pipes onto ships Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 10
  • 11. Study on Swedish telecom • • • • • • • 40,000 employees of whom 900 randomly five groups: Driver training: skid training and commentary driving Bonus: 6,000 SEK if no crash, each crash -200 SEK Campaign: five information meetings on current topics Discussion: three meetings with 8-15 drivers Control: drive as earlier The number of accidents decreased driver training,bonus and discussion groups • When accident costs calculated, the discussion group most effective Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 11
  • 12. METHODS • • • • • Electric company responsible for capital area All 172 electrician participated Three small group meetings with 7-14 drivers: 19 teams Meetings lasted 45-60 minutes Every teams selected one chair who was trained Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 12
  • 13. FLOW CHART OF DISCUSSION PROCES First discussion (60 min) - Free discussion about risks and problems in the work-related traffic Meeting of organizing committee - Classification of problems - Writing of summary Second discussion (45 min) - Discussion of suggested solutions to problems Third discussion (60 min) - Discussion and decision on behavior of team Meeting of organizing committee - Suggestions are classified: those to be solved by the teams and those to be solved by the company - Writing of summary Meeting of organizing committee - Decision on measures to be taken by the company Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 13
  • 14. RESULTS 1 First round: 183 problems, average 9.6/team Second round: 594 suggestions, 33/team Third round: 53 commitments, 2.8/team Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 14
  • 15. Results 2: Change on work-related traffic and occupational accidents • Before Discussion groups After Change • 1998-2000 2001-2002 2003-2005 % -----------------------------------------------------------------18 8 5 -72.2 73 74 84 +15.1 Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 15
  • 16. Second intervention • • • • • 179 employees participated one-day course Three hours lectures on anticipatory driving Four hours driving with their own cars The course carried out on the empty runway of airport One year later 61 drivers drove by heavy vehicles Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 16
  • 17. Experiment on runway of airport Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 17
  • 18. Methods • Central measure: audit of work-related traffic • An expert group of 6-10 employees and researchers • Assessment of 39 topic: old tyres of vehicles Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 18
  • 19. Results: audit • Table 1. Results of the audit processes • • • • • • Time In good Developement In bad condition required condition --------------------------------------------------------------2000 10 21 8 2002 22 15 2 2004 26 12 1 • Between two first audits: χ2 = 6.4, df = 1, p<0.05 Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 19
  • 20. Results: accidents • Change Before After • 1998-2000 2002-2004 • -------------------------------------------------------------• Occup.accid. 42 51 +21% • On roads 4 6 +50% Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 20
  • 21. Discussion • Discussion method used in Japan and Sweden also successful in a Finnish workplace • Group discussion decreased work-related traffic accidents • Group pressure maintain the change of driving behavior • Course of anticipatory driving was successful: the principles were spread to family members • The subjects were electricians: They are like general drivers with basic skills for driving licence Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 21
  • 22. Työliikennekokeilu Itellassa • -Kolmen eri menetelmän vertailu • -Tehtiin kolmella eri paikkakunnalla • -Kohteena postiautonkuljettajat (sanomalehdet+kirjeet) • Ensimmäinen menetelmä: keskusteluryhmä • Kolme keskustelukertaa Simo Salminen / 11.11.13 22
  • 23. 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 23 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 24. Other methods 2) Improved discussion method Between second and third round one-day course: Three trainers: influence of drivers on traffic, the crashes in the company and occupational safety 3) Anticipated driving Lectures three hours: anticipated driving, readiness to drive and conditions and dimensions of vans and Driving with a van four hours: braking, the effect of speed and load, driving on curve 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 24 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 25. The number of drivers Discussion group: 40 drivers + 3 supervisors Improved discussion group: 30 drivers + 3 supervisors Anticipated driving: 30 drivers + 2 supervisors 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 25 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 26. Table 1. Work-related crashes before and after intervention Group Before After Change% ------------------------------------------------------Discussion 25 105 +320 Improved discussion 12 4 -67 Anticipated driving 12 35 +192 ------------------------------------------------------Total 49 144 +194 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 26 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 27. Group Before After Change% ------------------------------------------------------Discussion 13.2 11.3 -14.4 Improved discussion 10.6 10.3 -2.8 Anticipated driving 11.6 12.7 +9.5 Table 2. Fuel consumption (litres/100 km) 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 27 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 28. DISCUSSION An improved discussion method with selected training superior: both crashes and use of gasoline Both discussion and improved discussion groups made 120 suggestions to improve driving. Certain person as responsible of the car. Strength: Workers participated in the decision process. Group pressure maintain the effect. Weakness: Company and its top management is not necessary as bind as employees 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 28 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 29. DISCUSSION Liikenne aiheuttaa puolet tapaturmaisista työkuolemista Työaikana sattuneet myös yritysten avainhenkilöihin Yritykset ja työterveyshuolto pystyvät vaikuttamaan Keskustelumenetelmä täydennettynä kohdistetulla koulutuksella tehokkain menetelmä 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 29 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi
  • 30. Kiitos! simo.salminen@ttl.fi 11.11.13 Esittäjän nimi 30 © Finnish Institute of Occupational Health – www.ttl.fi