Getting to Know Literacy Learners Cognitive Non Cognitive Assessment Assessment The DIBELS (Dynamic Elementary Reading Attitude Indicators of Basic Early Survey assess 1-6th grade Literacy Skills) measures assess the 5 Big Ideas in students’ attitudes towards early literacy identified by the reading at home and in school National Reading Panel: (Tompkins, 2010). phonemic awareness, Motivation to Read Profile alphabetic principle, accuracy Interview is a series of open and fluency with text, vocabulary, and ended questions about the comprehension (Center on types of books students like Teaching and Learning, best and where they get 2011). reading materials (Tompkins, 2010).
Assessment Results for Student 1 (Grade K ) *Below are benchmark goals for the grade level Kindergarten. Student 1 was administered the middle of the year assessment. Beginning of Year Middle of Year End of YearDIBELS Measure Months 1 - 3 Months 4 - 6 Months 7 - 10 Scores Status Scores Status Scores Status ISF 0-3 At Risk 0-9 Deficit Not administered during 4-7 Some Risk 10 - 24 Emerging this assessment period. 8 and above Low Risk 25 and above Established LNF 0-1 At Risk 0 - 14 At Risk 0 - 28 At Risk 2-7 Some Risk 15 - 26 Some Risk 29 - 39 Some Risk 8 and above Low Risk 27 and above Low Risk 40 and above Low Risk PSF 0-6 At Risk 0-9 Deficit Not administered during 7 - 17 Some Risk 10 - 34 Emerging this assessment period. 18 and above Low Risk 35 and above Established NWF 0-4 At Risk 0 - 14 At Risk Not administered during (NWF-CLS 5 - 12 Some Risk 15 - 24 Some Risk this assessment period. Score) 13 and above Low Risk 25 and above Low Risk WUF BENCHMARK GOALS FOR THIS MEASURE HAVE NOT BEEN ESTABLISHED. Tentatively, students in the lowest 20 percent of a school district using local norms should be considered at risk for poor language and reading outcomes, and those between the 20th percentile and 40th percentile should be considered at some risk. (Center on Teaching and Learning, 2011)
Student 1 Cognitive Assessment ResultsLetter Naming Fluency (LNF)-38; Initial Sound Fluency (ISF)-32; Phoneme Segmentation Fluency (PSF)-21; Nonsense Word Fluency (NWF)-23.*According to these scores student 1 is on her grade level at this point in the year.
Student 2 (Grade 4) *Below are benchmark goals for the fourth grade level. Student 2 was administered the middle of the year assessment Beginning of Year Middle of Year End of YearDIBELS Measure Months 1 - 3 Months 4 - 6 Months 7 - 10 Scores Status Scores Status Scores Status ORF 0 - 70 At Risk 0 - 82 At Risk 0 - 95 At Risk 71 - 92 Some Risk 83 - 104 Some Risk 96 - 117 Some Risk 93 and above Low Risk 105 and above Low Risk 118 and above Low Risk RTF BENCHMARK GOALS FOR THIS MEASURE HAVE NOT YET BEEN ESTABLISHED. Preliminary evidence indicates that for students to be on track with comprehension they should meet both of the following criteria: 1) meet the Oral Reading Fluency benchmark goal and 2) have a retell score of at least 25% of their Oral Reading Fluency score. Student 2 Cognitive Assessment Results Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)-46 *These results show that Student 2 is significantly at risk. (Center on Teaching and Learning, 2011)
Student 3 (Grade 5) *Below are benchmark goals for the fifth grade level. Student 3 was administered the middle of the year assessment Beginning of Year Middle of Year End of YearDIBELS Measure Months 1 - 3 Months 4 - 6 Months 7 - 10 Scores Status Scores Status Scores Status ORF 0 - 80 At Risk 0 - 93 At Risk 0 - 102 At Risk 81 - 103 Some Risk 94 - 114 Some Risk 103 - 123 Some Risk 104 and above Low Risk 115 and above Low Risk 124 and above Low Risk RTF BENCHMARK GOALS FOR THIS MEASURE HAVE NOT YET BEEN ESTABLISHED. Preliminary evidence indicates that for students to be on track with comprehension they should meet both of the following criteria: 1) meet the Oral Reading Fluency benchmark goal and 2) have a retell score of at least 25% of their Oral Reading Fluency score Student 3 Cognitive Assessment Results Oral Reading Fluency (ORF)-131 *These results show that Student 3 is on her grade level at this point in the year. (Center on Teaching and Learning, 2011)
Non Cognitive Assessment Results…Motivation is at the heart of many of the problems we face when teaching students to read (Gambrell, Palmer, Codling, & Mazzoni, 1996) Reading is an enjoyable Reading is a struggle and experience!!! is not enjoyable! Student 1 and 3 both Student does not enjoy reading, especially in front love to read!! of his peers.
Selecting Texts Literacy Considerations… Perspectives The following must be The interactive considered: the text’s perspective of literacy readability, the length of instruction reflects the the text, the structure of appropriate types and the text, its use of levels of difficulty to connective words, the size of its print, and meet literacy goals and whether or not it has objectives for students visual supports (Laureate (Framework for Education, Inc., 2009b). Literacy Instruction, 2010).
More Literacy Perspectives The critical perspective The response of literacy instruction perspective of literacy focuses on the instruction focuses on the selection of texts that selection of texts that connect to students’ provide opportunities identities and/or interests for students to judge, and that have the evaluate, and think potential to evoke an critically (Framework emotional or personal for Literacy Instruction, response (Framework for 2010). Literacy Instruction, 2010).
written by Dr. Jerry Ballardand illustrated by LynneMarie Davis.This is a nonfiction text thatcommunicates through semiotictext (Peterson, 2012a). Thismeans the book communicatesmore with pictures (LaureateEducation, Inc., 2009).
written by Karma Wilsonillustrated by JaneChapman.Bear Snores On is a picture book.Picture books have brief text,usually spread over 32 pages, inwhich text illustrations combine totell a story (Tompkins, 2010).
Written andillustrated byLauren StringerWinter is the Warmest is a fictionbook that celebrates the winterseason.
Literacy Lesson:InteractivePerspectiveDuring this lesson, the students enjoylistening to the story Bear Snores On.The students made predictions aboutthe story based on the cover of thebook. Using word webs and storymaps, allowed students to activatetheir schema and discuss facts thatthey are already familiar with.Assessments for this activity lessonincluded: questioning, monitoring, andwriting samples from the students.
Literacy Lesson: Critical and Response PerspectivesIn this lesson students were asked tocritically examine the text and describethe author’s reasoning for titling her bookthe Winter is the Warmest Season(Peterson, 2012b). During this activitystudents were allowed to discuss theirfeelings about winter and whether or not itwas the coldest or warmest season(Peterson, 2012b). This activity reflectedboth the critical and responseperspectives of literacy instructionbecause it gave the students opportunitiesto think critically and respond to a textfrom their own perspective. Assessmentsfor this lesson included: questioning,monitoring, and student-lead discussions .
Throughout this recent course, Ihave learned a variety ofstrategies and information that willhelp me to create a positiveliterate environment for mystudents. Each week, providedvaluable information designed toprovide students with the bestliteracy practices
ReferenceCenter on Teaching and Learning (2011). DIBELS data system. Retrieved January 14, 2012 from https://dibels.uoregon.edu/Framework for Literacy Instruction [Lecture notes]. (2010). Retrieved from http://sylvan.live.ecollege.com/ec/crs/default.learn?CourseID=6289881&Survey=1&47=8213 959&ClientNodeID=984650&coursenav=1&bhcp=1Gambrell, L. B., Palmer, B. M., Codling, R. M., & Mazzoni, S. A.. (1996). Assessing Motivation to Read. Reading Teacher, 49(7), 518-33.Laureate Education, Inc. (Executive Producer). (2009b). Analyzing and selecting texts [Webcast]. The beginning reader, PreK–3. Baltimore, MD: AuthorPeterson, T. (2012a). Understanding the literacy learner. Unpublished manuscript, Walden University.Peterson, T. (2012b). Critical and Response Perspectives. Unpublished manuscript, Walden University.Tompkins, G. E. (2010). Literacy for the 21st century: A balanced approach (5th ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon