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  • 1. The Cadastral Mapping of Palestine, 1858-1928Author(s): Dov Gavish and Ruth KarkReviewed work(s):Source: The Geographical Journal, Vol. 159, No. 1 (Mar., 1993), pp. 70-80Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute ofBritish Geographers)Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3451491 .Accessed: 20/03/2012 16:21Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspJSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Blackwell Publishing and The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to The Geographical Journal.http://www.jstor.org
  • 2. TheGeographical Vol. 159, No. 1, March1993,pp. 70-80 Journal, The cadastral mapping of Palestine, 1858-1928 DOV GAVISH AND RUTH KARK Department Geography, of The Hebrew Universityof Jerusalem91905, Israel This paper was accepted publicationin October for 1992 The development of the cadastral system and land mapping of Palestine is a domestic issue of land administration whose early development took place primarily in Europe. Twentieth-century Palestine saw the transition from land registration, without proper reference of location, to statutory maps which became indispensable for land settlement and registration. This paper considers the introduction of cadastral mapping in Palestine in the years 1858-1928, and discusses the relative contribution of the Ottomans (1858-1914), the British Mandate authorities (1920-1928) and Christian and Jewish settlers (1869-1928), to the establishment of modern Land Books based on statutory maps. The British administration opened up a new era in which cadastral plans satisfied the demand for quality mapping and an advanced system of land registration. However, by 1948, the Mandatory Government of Palestine had completed the land settlement of only about five million metric dunams, which representjust 20 per cent of the 26 300 square kilometres of Palestines total land area. This settled area is almost identical to the boundaries of the northern part of the State of Israel recognized by the United Nations in 1947. The fact that land settlement was not completed under the cadastral project, has remained ever since the focus of disputes over land ownership in areas of conflict between the Israeli Government, Jewish settlers and Palestinian Arabs. KEYWORDs: historyof cartography, Israel,Palestine, cadastral mapping,surveying. HE RESEARCHof Baigent and Kain During this same period, processes of Western- (1992) has shown that from the Renaissance ization and modernization began to gain mo- until the late nineteenth century the cad- mentum in the Ottoman Empire. From mid-centuryastral map was, in many areas, an established onwards these found expression in agrarian legis-adjunct to effective government monitoring and lation, among other spheres. The Ottomans soughtcontrol of land. They have identified a number of to make land laws more orderly and systematic inuses to which cadastral maps have been put by state order to enhance their legal control in land-relatedagencies, including evaluation and management of issues and to tighten the collection of land tithes.state land resources, land reclamation, land re- For this purpose, a series of laws reflecting con-distribution and enclosure, colonial settlement and siderable European influence were enacted, but noland taxation. Maps also served as symbols of state systematic cadastral survey was undertaken, despitecontrol over land and as tools of an enlightened the fact that one of their main objectives was togovernment. According to Baigent and Kain, increase exploitation of the territory. Among thesecadastral mapping constitutes an instrument of laws were the Ottoman Land Law of 1858, additionscontrol which both reflects and consolidates the and amendments to the Ottoman civil code in 1876power of those who commission it, whether econ- and the 1912-1913 laws.omic, social or political. This paper will attempt to analyse the changes The first half of the nineteenth century was that took place in surveying and mapping insomething of an age of cadastral surveys throughout Palestine, which culminated in the establishment ofthe whole of Europe (Kain and Prince, 1985). a modern cadastre based on statutory maps in theThese included the Townland Survey of Ireland years 1858-1928. This development transpiredand cadastral surveys in France, Austria and under two different political regimes: the multi-Bavaria. In the United States the Original Land ethnic Ottoman Empire, in which Palestine wasSurvey was conducted, and in England and Wales peripheral, although of increasing importance, anda large and detailed survey was carried out under which ruled during the nineteenth and earlythe Tithe Commutation of 1836. Act twentieth century; and the British Mandate, from0016-7398/93/0001-0070/$0.20/0 ? 1993 The Royal Geographical Society
  • 3. CADASTRAL MAPPING OF PALESTINE, 1858-1928 71the end of World War I until the establishment of of arable land was made compulsory by the Landthe state of Israel in 1948. Unlike the Ottomans, the Code, but much land remained unregistered, sinceBritish made an attempt to institute an enlightened the books were based on registration of deeds andand liberal rule, based on colonial reform and not on any preliminary systematic land survey.introduced a regular legal and economic base for There was no verification of the settlers title tothe improvement of local conditions. With these land. Moreover, since the registration documentsconcerns in mind, the Mandatory authorities consisted only of a vague verbal description of theattempted to formulate equitable legal guidelines boundaries of the property in question, unsupple-for land tax and land settlement, in order to provide mented by maps or plans, they did not reflect thea clear-cut legal basis for control of landowners and exact geographical location of the property.their titles to land. The authors knowledge concerning the carto- Someone inspecting a sample of Palestines early graphic activities of the Ottoman authorities inland survey maps and cadastral plans is bound to be Palestine is quite limited, following an exhaustiveconfused by the various individuals and bodies search in the Israel State Archives, the Survey ofinvolved in the making of these maps. The maps Israel and land offices. At first glance, it mightshared no common guidelines, lacked any uni- appear as if the Ottoman rulers simply did notformity with regard to cartographic method, legal bother to map Palestine, leaving this to zealousstatus, quality and appearance. Only through a French, British and German teams of surveyors andstudy of the cadastral history of Palestine can one explorers. However, persistent and protractedhope to dispel some of the confusion. searches in libraries and archives have, in fact, The history of cadastral surveying and mapping uncovered maps drawn by Ottoman officials.in Palestine is relatively short. The era of land Although it is still difficult to understand, at times,administration under a modern land law, did not the circumstances under which these cartographicbegin until 1858. In 1912-1913 the Ottoman products were created, a few large-scale Turkish authorities tabled a reformed law calling for a land maps were found and more such maps are cadastral survey, but the outbreak of World War I known to exist from well-documented lists of maps in the following year prevented its implementation which may have been part of a system of land in Palestine. The British introduced official cadastral inventory (Kark and Gerber, 1984). surveying on a national scale in 1921, but did not The subjects presented in the Turkish maps actually carry out effective wide-scale surveying belong to three major categories: jiftlik lands until 1928. Nevertheless, despite the absence of (Ottoman land held by the Sultan); major blocks of official cadastral surveying in Palestine during the state land earmarked for sale and purchase; and latter half of the nineteenth century and the early reclamation, improvement or engineering projects, part of the twentieth century, a continuous effort by such as swamp drainage and railway or building local initiators to carry out land surveys and construction - the last category falling largely be- maintain private, unauthorized land books yond the scope of this paper. The common throughout this period can be traced. These denominator of these maps is their individual persistent endeavours stemmed from the need to nature, detached from each other or any standard create an alternative system, given the absence of a reference system similar to a triangulation network, reliable system of land administration based on land and none were part of any cadastral system. surveying and land registration. Nevertheless, the maps ofjiftlik lands do offer a Between 1858 and 1928, three major initiators type of cadastral inventory. For example, 48 tracts played a key role in the development of cadastral of land held by the Sultan were recorded and documentation in Palestine: the Ottoman Govern- mapped at the beginning of this century, possibly as ment (1858-1914), the Christian and Jewish settlers part of an agricultural development project. Later (1869-1928) and the British authorities in the early on, after the Young Turks revolution in 1908, these stages of the Mandate period (1920-1928). lands became state domain and in 1910 the property maps were transferred from Palestine to Beirut byRegimesand settlers the Chief Clerk of State Lands. After the FirstThe Ottoman GovernmentIn 1858 the Ottoman World War, the British were able to trace a few ofGovernment brought about a major change in land these maps in Beirut and Damascus (Bennett, 1922).administration by consolidating various land laws Unfortunately, none of them is in the possession ofinto a Land Code, which was applied in Palestine as the authors, but there are several certified copies ofin most parts of the Empire. With the opening of these maps, produced later by the French and thethree Land Registry offices in Palestine, shortly British authorities.after the promulgation of the Land Code, the Lake Huleh Concession Map, for instance, is anOttoman Government started to develop the official authentic copy of one of the maps mentioned in thesystem of Land Books and Records. The registration Sultans list (Fig.1). A concession over Lake Huleh
  • 4. 72 CADASTRAL MAPPING OF PALESTINE, 1858-1928 4- . .~ I --i *? 1:?V A ? -?- -? r ?- - 1 41 -Ui g?4 . kCN1.11A , r C? .- - 1:15 1889, cerbfied 1922, (PRO, CO 733/96/41702) Fig. 1. LakeHulehConcession, 000 (reduced), copylands, in northern Israel, was granted by the Syria and Lebanon in 1922 - one year prior to theOttoman Government in 1911 to Arab landlords of demarcation of the boundary - at the request of theBeirut, in order for them to drain its swamps and Government of Palestine (Huleh Land Concessionsdevelop the valley lands. After World War I, the files, Public Record Office London, 1925).Huleh valley was the subject of territorial negotia- One example of the second category is a group oftions between the British and the French Mandatory maps of individual tracts that comprised part of agovernments of Palestine and Lebanon respectively. greater block of land on the road between HaifaAccording to an agreement they reached in 1923, Bay and Nazareth. These maps were probablyregarding the demarcation of the border, the valley drawn in conjunction with negotiations for thewas included within the territory of Palestine, purchase of unsettled land from Arab landownersthough the concession remained in the hands of by the Jews. The negotiations started in 1891 andArab landholders in Beirut, whose rights were were successfully concluded in October, 1920. Theguaranteed by the British High Commissioner. The maps, which had been prepared by a Districtoriginal map, which had been drawn in April 1889, engineer, were drawn as contour maps, based on aswas copied by the French Topographic Service of yet unknown reference points. In 1921, all the
  • 5. CADASTRAL MAPPING OF PALESTINE, 1858-1928 73 ..1?I...,,.I.I.?I,...I.1.-.?`,,-.,--- .,.,:?,I.-..I*.,,1,.I.I?. .. ..?I.I-,I-I?..-.........I .... I.I.I.I.?....I.. .. . I I.I.... . ? _? . - -_?...,:? ...., I. .1, ...,. .?.., ... - , ,; ,.,, I .. I I.I. - ,--I.I I. ....-... .. . , . - I - .., : . ? . . ?. . , ,:- ,- . ., . ,....,- I . ,.l -., . , . I I - . 1.. . I . ... 1,. . I . ... , . ., . "" -, 7., I. I . ? ,,7: . , I . * " -, -.. ,.,....?... , ... ... . . -.II . , ,.. I 1,,-,:r - .. I . ..:,: .VI .: .....,.I . . . . : . . .. . ? .,,.. .. . ,. .,.,-_" I -, I, ",. -." *I. . ." ?... I ..I-.. ... , ,,, . ?...1II . ,I. I1... !, . I I I I . .. II I . I I . - *- . " . I :, I".":.,-e..1; %,: ,....i I-.. .I - . ?.-., I.-.. ?I,_ - -. I I.,.*.... :.....? ?...,I -,1...- -.. I I I. ,. . I. I II.I.... ,. _ ? . . . ,- - - , , - , . *, ; _ . ,. 11 . . ... , . , - .," ," " .* ! ? ", .? .,?, t. - , ?, *I.. ,.? ? ," .1 f ..... . ., . . ,-, - . , , .. . 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". _1 , I , -, .. . ? %?-; ?;, -?. .;,- , ". . .. . - " , , . . ,- - , ? _x.l?prp :?0 4"-.%?Y"J*?_`-*;_NVI?_]"?? ,J?_ ,,f? * , " . A ." ,- z tvk?i . C ?. )M, fLi -vf?-,`%%, , " ?, " *;W ?- ?! ,-?! ork"Ti. ., - .t4. . . ;- -.r . v, :?- ,? ,. ,-. . ,?. . -, , I- " .* . C: .?- ,. ,- . :, 1, , . , i . ., .*- -, , . I .?; 1, j . , .- -,: , ", - 4 .4 - ?. - t;: ,4 .?- - - _:., .,? -.: -1 -, , .pf ? -, - ., ,?; , I : . 1. , I. . ,% -,I? , . . , ." _. - -, " *.-i . ,V , , r "" , r "it., " ,!y -3 V.-f ??,T;fv-.-_,; ;Cps , , ,?3 . %?r,4. - ,? "e, 1. ,_1 . :;.?.,.t ltif7 1_?. ?,; -:1. .?.,:- P%.- ? o- _- ;? .?W-t?. - ." ,*.-".:- . V....,.. .? ?, Fig. 2. Semmoune, 000 (reduced), 1:10 1902, Dressepar Lingenieur Vilvet du BeyrouthBekirSidki Source: Map Archives, Department of Geography, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem
  • 6. 74 CADASTRAL MAPPING OF PALESTINE, 1858-1928individual maps were redrawn and incorporated land registries in which were recorded all their landinto a key map by an eminent Jewish architect, in transactions. When the official Land Books ceasedorder to ease the transfer and registration of the to reflect the true situation with regard to realland in the Land Registry Office. In the late 1930s estate, these private, unofficial Land Books be-the maps were once again officially copied, this time came indispensable tools for land administrationby the British authorities. within the new settlements (Goadby and Doukhan, A further example, in this category, is the map of 1935). Moreover, independent land surveys werethe Ruins of Semmoune (Fig. 2). It was drawn in carried out by a few architects and surveyors - somecolour in 1902, at a scale of 1:10 000. The map of the latter trained and licensed and others not -shows the boundaries of the site and provides who helped fill the gap left by the authorities.information on the owners of its neighbouringlands, buildings, ruins, water sources, roads and The GermanTemplersThe German Templers, somepaths, land cover and cultivation. The area is given of them American citizens, were members of thein Turkish dunams (1 T.d.= 919.3 square metres pietist religious movement founded in Wurttem- = approximately a quarter of an acre). The title is berg, Germany, in the middle of the nineteenthin French, while the remainder of the text appears century, they arrived in Palestine in 1869 and leftbilingually, in French and Turkish. A copy of this the deepest imprint on Palestines landscape of allmap was prepared, in 1937, by a British surveyor the Christian groups striving to prepare the land forand was accepted as a certified copy by the Land Christs Second Coming (Ben-Artzi, 1990). TheyRegistry Office (Kark and Gerber, 1984). Recently started with the establishment of two urban colonies, the original map was located by the authors. in Haifa in 1869 and shortly thereafter in Jaffa. In Representative of the third category of land map, 1871 they set up the rural colony of Sarona, whichfrom the period in question, are village maps today is the centre of Tel Aviv and in 1873 theyincorporated into plans for engineering projects. settled in the vicinity ofJerusalem. About 30 years For example, the map of the Arab village of Sejara later - in 1902, 1906 and 1907 - they established (Sedjera) and the nearby Jewish settlement of three other rural colonies for their second genera- Ilanya was prepared, in 1908, as part of the plan for tion. a water conduit to run from a distant water source These German and German-American colonists to both the Arab village and the Jewish settlement. were innovative and skilled pioneers who introduced The heights levelling of the topographic cross section into Palestine advanced systems in many spheres, are given, relative to the lowest point in the area. land surveying being just one of them. Jacob Schumacher, a Templer architect, planned theirSettlersfrom abroad and the Ottomanland law The colony in Haifa and its land parcellation. A versionOttoman authorities imposed many administrative of the map he drew later aided the Americanand economic restrictions on land purchase, regis- Consul-General at Beirut in pressurizing the Otto-tration and transfer by foreign subjects. Until 1867 mans into officially registering this land (Kark, inforeigners could not legally possess immovable press). In 1885, his son Dr Gottlieb Schumacherproperty in the Ottoman Empire. From that year, was appointed, by the Ottoman Government, asthe Ottoman authorities, under pressure from Chief Engineer of the District of Acre. He also drewforeign powers, granted certain foreign citizens several maps, including parcellation maps of therights to acquire land and register it in their names, Templers colony in Haifa (Fig. 3). Theodor Sandel,with the exception of land in the Hejaz. These rights another skilled surveyor, planned the Saronawere dependent on the signing of separate agree- German Colony, and was later commissioned byments between the Ottomans and any interested the Jewish settlers to survey and plan Petah-Tiqva,government, and were subject to changing pre- which was to become the first Jewish settlement inconditions (Kark, 1984). Citizens who did not enjoy Palestine. By 1889, 11 European or American-the backing of such an agreement - such as Jews trained Templer land surveyors and engineers, wereresiding in Palestine for under five years, or, in taking part in land surveys in Palestine.certain periods, German and American Templers -were not entitled to possess or register land. The Jewish settlements(Moshavot)The wave of massTherefore, these settlers had to resort to subterfuge, immigration ofJews to Palestine began in 1882. Atsuch as registering land in the name of fictitious that time Jews were permitted to acquire real estateowners. and register it in the Land Books, but these rights With the absence of an official cadastral system, were, from that year onwards, subject to constantlythe Christian and Jewish settlers of European origin changing restrictions. Not only were Jews fromin Palestine understood that as an alternative they certain countries barred from registering land, butwould have to administer their land within their so were Jewish societies, organizations and financialown communities. Hence, they developed unofficial institutions who suffered from the absence of
  • 7. CADASTRAL MAPPING OF PALESTINE, 1858-1928 75 ANi ~4 w-~cCv?-g A -4o 900 t- ~a & 4o ~/.t K.t4, ~ V!M2 ..7 4A S ,LrrWWf3 %opp Rzas moo ~ nw~~ 017 lit -4, vftV * wtzrTO MUA~ *ostww~~ zU -Ao ~ ~ w?AjO> %3 zso Fig. 3. Haifa, landparcellation ownership and 1900,prepared Dr Gottlieb by Schumacher Source: ISA, Record Group 690, Box 681
  • 8. JON, 3 f - -Z - 1 9 , < _ pI -.44?e .,Por," , • t-m rl Fig. 4. Hadera,landparcellation ownership, and 1:10 000 (reduced) 1895,prepared thechemist Max Sh by Dr Source:Map Archives, Department of Geography, The Hebrew University, Jerusalem
  • 9. CADASTRAL MAPPING OF PALESTINE, 1858-1928 77LANDSETTLMENT1948 PreliminarySurvey ** * .. %- ,, ,,,H-. F~ield Investigation & Final Survey Settled * Ottoman cadastral maps Haa iberia X azareth % *an Nblus Te Aviv -Jaffa Jerusalem *Hebron Gaza BHebron DEAD SEA -Beersheba 010 20Km Fig. 5. For legend page 78 see
  • 10. 78 CADASTRAL MAPPING OF PALESTINE, 1858-1928juridicial persons in Muslim and Ottoman law. As objective of performing a cadastral survey, whilean example of the subterfuges employed by Jewish the Land Registry, which had ceased operationindividuals and bodies, the first contract for during the war and had been reopened to the publicacquisition of lands in Tel Aviv was signed, in 1909, in October 1920, was expected to deal with the legalin the name of a Jewish member of the Zionist aspects of land settlement.Executive in The Hague (Solel, 1990). Facilitating the operation of these two bodies was The Hebrew Land Books, that the Jewish the Transfer of Land Ordinance1920-1921, whichsettlements maintained around the turn of the made the recording of all land dispositions obliga-century, contained precise records of the true tory. Furthermore, following the advice of Britishownership of land, as well as its dimensions, legal experts from Sudan and Egypt, various minorstatus and the obligations imposed upon it. Also improvements in the handling of the Land Booksincluded were maps of each and every plot, on were adopted in 1920, such as granting thewhich were recorded the measurements of the plots registration officer the option of requesting plans tothemselves, along with the measurements and the accompany new registration (Goadby and Douk-names of the owners of adjoining plots. The han, 1935).surveyors and other technical workers employed by However, even though the registration officerboth the settlement bodies and the local authorities utilized his right to demand maps, he encounteredprepared large-scale maps that evidently formed difficulties from an unexpected direction: no lawthe basis for the registration of each communitys had yet been passed in Palestine laying downterritory (Gavish, in press) (Fig.4). standards of measurement and making the sur- Not until the British took over Palestine and were veying by authorized surveyors obligatory. Nor hadforced to contend with the issue of official land any standard linear or area measures been agreedsettlement and to conduct cadastral surveys, did the upon. True, the maps deposited with the LandJewish Land Books gain recognition as valuable and Registry were based on a mete and bound survey,reliable documents. Sir Ernest Dowson, the British and contained various other elements of modernexpert who had been brought to Palestine from maps: bearing, scale, a description of the boundariesEgypt to recommend some form of cadastral reform, of the land and their length, a measure of the areavigorously reprimanded the government for its they enclosed and the names of the neighbours onfailure to utilize these books, and saw to it that they bordering lands. However, the maps were skeletalwere incorporated into the Government Land and detached from a system of coordinates, from aRegistry: national triangulation network and even from oneThe thirdpieceof immediately permanently and usefulwork another. They were no more than sketches or plans,consist takingoverthe LandRegisters variousColonies, in of bearing no proportionate relationship to landfor the most partJewish, who have long complained with features or topographical vicissitudes.considerable justificationthat their own Land Registers The landowners who are, today, attempting tothoughreliable comprehensible legallyinvalid,while and are locate their lands in order to establish ownershipthe Governments Registersthough legally valid are un- find it extremely difficult to use these plans. It is notreliableand incomprehensible. only hindsight that has revealed the defective quality Dowson,1925:23 of these maps: their deficiency was apparent at the Under British Mandate The British occupation of time of their submission to the Land Registry. AsPalestine in the First World War brought to an end early as 1923, the Director of the Land Registrythe Ottoman rule over this country. On 1 July, admitted that he was unable, from the isolated 1920, after two years of military administration, a plans, to locate the piece of land that a registeredcivil administration took over, headed by the British transaction purported to concern (Dowson, 1923:High Commissioner. One of the major concerns of 10). A comparison between these maps and theirthe British authorities, even during the military pre-war predecessors, produced by the settlers,administration, was the issue of land management. makes it apparent that the early stages of the BritishThe change of government provided an historical Mandate saw a significant deterioration in theopportunity for modifying administrative pro- quality of cadastral mapping in Palestine (Gavishcedures, including the system of Land Registry and Shamir, forthcoming). (Gavish, 1986). Anxious to improve the system, thegovernment created from the very start the means Cadastralreformand mappingfor arranging land settlement in Palestine. Thus, As mentioned previously, the Survey of Palestinethe Survey of Palestine came into being with the and the Land Registry were supposed to carry outFig. 5. Landsettlement of prepared the information the UN Special 1948; basedon the Government PalestineMaps of Palestine for of Committee Enquiry, of Survey Palestine, of July, 1947 Gavish, D. 1991: 203. Source:
  • 11. CADASTRAL MAPPING OF PALESTINE, 1858-1928 79the cadastral survey and handle land settlement. This second phase, under the British administration,However, the hasty and forced cooperation between opened a new era in which cadastral plans satisfiedthese two bodies, which lacked coordination or joint the demand for quality mapping and an advancedlegal infrastructure for operation, led to an almost system of land registrationcomplete dissociation between them. Despite efforts However, at the termination of British Manda-made between 1921 and 1923, failure and in- tory rule in Palestine in 1948, the project ofexperience drove the Government of Palestine to cadastral survey and land settlement was far behindseek advice and assistance from British experts any forecasted schedule. From 1928 onward, owingelsewhere. In 1923 the Government approached to the deterioration in security conditions, projectsErnest Dowson, who was about to retire from his where personnel had to function in the openpost as head of the Survey of Egypt, for advice on landscape, were subjected to obstructions. Thehow to achieve a well-regulated, proper layout of disturbances caused by the Arab community inland settlement in Palestine. Dowson came to 1929, the Arab revolt of 1936 that lasted over threePalestine for a short visit that same year, and after years and the outbreak of World War II hinderedpresenting his report was appointed counsellor for the impetus and advancement of the projectthe Government in the matter of reforming the (Salmon, 1937; Loxton, 1988). During these years,entire system of land settlement and registration. the British authorities decided to work in safer From 1923 to 1928 Dowson exerted pressure on territories, such as the plains and valleys. Here thethe Government to introduce in Palestine the land Jewish settlers, appreciative of the benefit of thesettlement system based on the registration of title project in reinforcing legal ownership of theirto land. This system - named after Robert Richard settlements, welcomed the land surveyors andTorrens, who first proposed it in South Australia in settlement officers. 1857 - depends on a preliminary cadastral survey, Therefore, by 1948, the Mandatory Governmentas well as parcellation and mapping of the land. At of Palestine had completed the land settlement ofthat time over 50 governments worldwide modelled only about five million metric dunams, which their methods, in some respects, on the Torrens represent just 20 per cent of the 26 300 squaresystem (Kerr, 1927). kilometres of the total land area of Palestine (Fig.5) The Torrens system served as the guideline for (Gavish, 1991). This settled area is almost identicalthe 1928 Land Settlement Ordinance(Government of to the boundaries of the northern part of the StatePalestine, 1928), which launched the cadastral of Israel recognized by the United Nations in 1947.survey in Palestine practically from scratch in its Judea and Samaria, which were occupied by thenew, clearly-defined, juristic form (Government of Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan from 1948 untilPalestine, 1929). This survey started with the 1967, were not surveyed under the cadastral projectproduction of village maps with fiscal blocks to and, therefore, have remained ever since the focus offacilitate the taxation of rural property. These maps constant disputes over land ownership. The factthen served as a basis upon which registration that land settlement was not undertaken in Judeablocks were parcelled and surveyed. and Samaria under the Ottoman, British and Jordanian regimes, may have played a role not only1948, Termination a period of in the relatively undeveloped level of agriculture inTwentieth-century Palestine saw the transition from these regions, but also in current conflicts betweenland registration (without any proper locational the Israeli government, Jewish settlers and Pales-reference) to statutory maps which became in- tinian Arabs, which at times result from lack ofdispensable for land settlement and registration. clarity as to ownership. REFERENCESBaigent, E. and Kain, R. J. P. 1991 Cadastral maps in the Camp, I. Z. 1938 Settlement Officer, to Commissioner for service of the state. Abstractof the 14th International Lands and Surveys, 13 June. Conference on the History of Cartography, Uppsala and Dowson, E. M. 1923 Notes on Land-Tax, cadastral survey Stockholm. and settlement in Palestine, 7 December. PRO, COBen-Artzi, Yossi 1990 Traditional and modern rural settle- 733/60/59971. ment types in Eretz-Israel in the modern era. In Kark, R. 1925 Report on the land system in Palestine. Colony 5, (ed.) The landthatbecame Israel.New Haven and London: Records, PRO, CO 733/109/54812: 23. Yale University Press. Gavish, D. 1986 The cadastral and topographical mappingBennett, M. C. Department of Lands, 1922 Letter to Legal by the Survey of Palestine, 1920-1948: a cartographical- Secretary, 22 February , Israel State Archives [ISA], historical analysis. Ph.D. dissertation, The Hebrew Uni- Division 22, Box 3542, file 12. versity of Jerusalem. Hebrew with English abstract.
  • 12. 80 CADASTRAL MAPPING OF PALESTINE, 1858-1928 ,1991 Landandmap,theSurvey Palestine, of 1920-1948.In Kark, R. 1984 Changing patterns of landownership in Hebrew. Jerusalem: Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi. nineteenth-century Palestine: the European influence. J.Gavish, D. (in press) Original plan - the survey of Hadera Hist. Geog.10: 359-60. 1891-1895. 100th anniversry of Hadera. In Hebrew. Kark, R. (forthcoming) American consuls in the Holy Land,Gavish, D. and Shamir, S. (forthcoming) Locating land with 1832-1914. registered plans of the first decade of the British Mandate Kark, R and Gerber, H. 1984 Land Registry maps in period in Palestine. In Hebrew. Palestine during the Ottoman period. Cartogr. 21: 30-32. J.Goadby F. M. and Doukhan, M.J. 1935 The Land Law of Kerr, D. 1927 The principlesof the AustralianLands Titles Palestine.Tel-Aviv. (Torrens System).Adelaide: The Law Book Company.Government of Palestine, 1928 Land Settlement Ordinance Loxton, J. 1988 The Survey of Palestine 1937-1948: a 1928, 30 May. Official 212. Gazetteer Jerusalem. personal memoir. Taunton. , 1929 Survey Ordinance 1929, 16 May. Official Gazetteer Salmon, F.J., Commissioner for Lands and Surveys 1937a 235. Jerusalem. Letter to Chief Secretary, 10 July. ISA, Division 22, BoxHuleh Land Concession files, August 1925. London: Public 3549/1. Record Office [PRO], CO 733/96/39606 and 41702. 1937b Letter to Sulman, 29 December The settlement -5,of theKain, R. J. P. and Baigent, E. 1992 The cadastral mapin the plains in the so-called Jewish State is however a serviceof the state: a historyof property mapping.Chicago: matter of urgency. University of Chicago Press. Solel, A. 1990 Private Land Registers of the Jewish coloniesKain, R.J. P. and Prince, H. C. 1985 The tithe surveyof at the end of Ottoman rule. Cathedra 47-83. In Hebrew. 58: Englandand Wales.Cambridge: C.U.P.