Your SlideShare is downloading. ×



Published on

Published in: Technology, Business
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Total Views
On Slideshare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

No notes for slide


  • 1. Sacred, but Not Surveyed: Nineteenth-Century Surveys of PalestineAuthor(s): Haim GorenReviewed work(s):Source: Imago Mundi, Vol. 54 (2002), pp. 87-110Published by: Imago Mundi, Ltd.Stable URL: .Accessed: 20/03/2012 12:26Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Imago Mundi, Ltd. is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Imago Mundi.
  • 2. Sacred, But Not Surveyed: Nineteenth-Century Surveys of Palestine HAIM GORENABSTRACT:Nineteenth-century Palestine mapping projects based on systematic land surveying reached apeak with the Ordnance Survey of Western Palestine between 1871 and 1877, conducted on behalf of thePalestine Exploration Fund by officers of the British Royal Engineering Corps. Various other nineteenth-century proposals for an organized survey of the country-some of which bore partial results while otherswere never implemented-are also presented. The surveying of one region, Mesopotamia, during the 1830sand 1840s, forms the basis for the discussion of the reasons for the relative lateness of the topographicalsurvey. The sacredness of the region seems not to have been a sufficiently convincing motive forentrepreneurs to organize and finance such a survey. The main reason for the delay in mapping the countryas a whole was that it was not especially important, either strategically or geo-politically, for the Europeannations engaged in the international struggles in the Middle East until the last quarter of the nineteenthcentury.KEYWORDS: Palestine, Holy Land, Mesopotamia, geo-religion, cartography, routes to India, OrdnanceSurvey, Palestine Exploration Fund, Survey of Western Palestine, Francis Rauford Chesney, August Plarr,Ernest Renan, Edward Robinson, Carl Sandreczki, Felicien de Saulcy, John Washington, Charles W. Wilson.At the start of the nineteenth century, cartogra- of the entire country-from Dan to Beer Sheba-phers wanting to compile a map of Palestine and did not appear before the 1870s.2the surrounding countries were obliged to rely on An enduring element in the historical develop-maps created from a few widely scattered and ment of Palestine has been its religious importance.inaccurate geodetic measurements. The early maps Many centuries of European biblical scholarshipof Palestine, including those produced by Jean resulted in the accumulation of a wealth ofBaptiste Bourguignon dAnville (1697-1782) and Christian-inspired interest in the Holy Land. Thehis followers were unsatisfactory, mainly because area of biblical Palestine constituted a place wherethey had to use measurements that were too few, history and development were inspired and guidedsporadic and inaccurate (Fig. 1).1 Cartographers by its sacredness.Geo-religious perceptionwanting to compile maps of the country were inspired research of some regions, such as theobliged to rely mainly on historical sources andtravellers descriptions. As the century progressed, Dead Sea and the Jordan valley; certain sites, suchhowever, the volume of material based on rela- as Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth; and specifictively reliable and accurate measurement began to subjects, such as biblical wildlife and the inhabitantsincrease. Even so, a complete trigonometric survey of Palestine as descendants of the ancient residents . Dr Haim Goren, Tel-Hai Academic College, Upper Galilee 12210 Israel; The Leon Recanati Institute forMaritime Studies, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel. Tel. (972) 54 6938665; and (972)54 369196. Fax (972) 4 6935625. E-mail: <>. ? Imago Mundi, Vol. 54, 2002, 87-110. 87
  • 3. Fig. 1. Jean BaptisteBourguignondAnvillesmap of Palestine,dated 1767 but publishedabout 1771 in Jean Baptiste Bourguignon A dAnville, Complete of Ancient Body Geography (London,RobertSayer, 1771?). 37.5 X 42.0 cm. The inserted mapsshow (topleft)the Biblical tribal (below)the cityof Jerusalem the SecondTemple territories; in Period;and,on the right, PlacesLaiddown by Distancesgiven on a Scalereducedto a Third. EranLaorCartographic Collection, 36. (Reproduced No. with permissionfromThe JewishNationaland University Library, HebrewUniversity Jerusalem: 448.) The of Pal and guardians of their traditions, customs and way Kitchener (1850-1916)-by then Minister of War of life.3 and, in the 1870s through the illness of Claude It is usually assumed that the traditional Eur- Reignier Conder (1848-1910), in command of the opean interest in Palestine was both the catalyst for, final stages of the Palestine Exploration Funds and the major influence on, the organized scientific Ordnance Survey of Western Palestine-was telling study (including mapping) of the region in the the British Cabinet that he thought that Palestine modern period. My own view is that the reverse is was of little value, strategically or in any other way, the case, and that research based on systematic land and that the country had not even a single useful survey and the comprehensive use of trigonometric port.4 measurement was actually delayed for several Throughout the nineteenth century and into the decades by the fact that Palestine was deemed of early twentieth, the significance of Palestine rested insufficient political importance to justify large- solely on its religious tradition. Those who could scale investment of time or money. The detailed have mounted a large-scale scientific survey topographical mapping of western Palestine was ignored the region, although numerous European not a priority for England or any other European individuals, including members of small learned88 government. Even as late as 1915 Herbert Horatio associations, were willing to embark on projects of
  • 4. survey of France, but given the circumstances of a military campaign, the shortage of time and the impossibility of reaching parts of the country, the measurements that he and his team managed to make while briefly in Palestine were incomplete.6 In the summer of 1840, a number of English army officers, drawn from the engineering, infan- try, artillery and staff corps, were sent to Syria. They were part of the English army dispatched to Syria (a term generally used for the area covering also Palestine, Lebanon and parts of the region east of the Jordan) in an attempt to end Egyptian rule of Palestine and Syria and to reinstate the Ottoman regime. The expeditionary force also included Austrian troops.7 A small group of Royal Sappers and Miners under the command of LieutenantFig.2. Jacotinsmap of Galilee (1810). Detail from the Edward Aldrich landed in Beirut in mid-September, deCartetopographique IEgypte,Sheet 46: Acre, Nazareth,LeJourdain (Paris, Commission des monuments dEgypte to be joined over the next few weeks by officers1818). 1:100 000. 49.5 x 78.5 cm. EranLaorCartographic from the Royal Engineers, including Major RalphCollection, 46. (Reproduced No. with permissionfromThe Carr Alderson, Lieutenant John Frederick AnthonyJewish National and University Library, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 2? 53C 8677.) Symonds and Lieutenant Charles Francis Skyring. Together, they measured and mapped the fortifica-more limited scope. The aim in this paper is to tions of several coastal cities in the course of normalprovide an overview of these small-scale survey military surveying expeditions. In March 1841,attempts during the first half of the nineteenth they visited Jerusalem, which they surveyed for a draft map of the city on a scale of 1:4 800.8 Theircentury, which together laid the foundations for thefirst comprehensive survey in the 1870s by the map was in due course engraved by Joseph WilsonBritish. To support my argument that Palestine was Lowry and sold by James Wyld (1812-1887), withan area which attracted mapmakers but never to a the attribution copied from the original drawing of Aldrich and Symonds (Fig. 3).9degree sufficient to result in a trigonometric surveyof the whole country, the discussion will turn by The idea of going on to conduct a general survey of Palestine was raised in a letter from Symonds toway of contrast (and as a negative example) to the his father, Admiral Sir William Symonds (1782-quite different situation of neighbouring Mesopo-tamia, a region that was surveyed with considerable 1856), Surveyor of the Navy.1 With the supportinvestment of effort and resources despite having and assistance of the Foreign Secretary, Lordno religious significance. Palmerston, surveying began in May 1841. The survey area was divided into two. Lieutenant Symonds was responsible for Palestine in the Early Surveying Projects in Palestine south, and another group of officers-MajorThe first topographical measurements in Palestine Charles Rochfort Scott of the Royal Staff, Majorwere made by French army surveyors during Richard Wilbraham, of the Seventh Fusiliers, andNapoleons campaign in 1799. The atlas published Major Frederick Holt Robe, of the Eighty-seventhas a result of the trigonometric measurements and Fusiliers-oversaw the work in Syria to the north.surveys performed in Egypt and Palestine contains Before the survey could be completed, however,47 map sheets, drawn to a scale of 1:100 000, six of the military mission in Syria was terminated late inwhich cover Palestine, between northern Sinai and 1841, and by January 1842 both survey teams weresouthern Lebanon (Fig. 2).5 The officer in charge of on their way to duties elsewhere on the Britishthe French geographer-engineers in Cairo at the Empire.time of the invasion was Pierre Jacotin (1765- It was a number of years before all the field data,1827), who was also responsible for publication of drawings and journals compiled by the Englishthe atlas. He enjoyed an illustrious career as both a officers in Palestine and Syria reached the Board ofsurveyor and an administrator of the topographical Ordnance in London. Work on the map was then 89
  • 5. ~: ~ ~ :""~"~. "1 .. - I .. Fig. 3. Edward Aldrich and John F. A. Symonds, Plan of the town and environsof Jerusalem... from the original drawing of the surveymade in the monthof March1841 ... Engraved by Joseph Wilson Lowry, imprint James Wyld, and published in London in 1841. Scale: 400 feet to an inch. 79 X 90 cm. Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, No. 939. (Reproduced with permission from The Jewish National and University Library, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem: Jer 97.) coordinated by Rochfort Scott, who managed to metres). Together with its other deficiencies, the produce a three-sheet map, on a scale of 1:253 440, measurements and the map caused a good deal of from the uncompleted survey, which was published embarrassment and provoked harsh discussion in 1846 by John Arrowsmith (1790-1873), as a among Palestine scholars. Despite the error, the limited edition exclusive to the Foreign Office." American Edward Robinson, probably the leading The results of the survey were awaited with Palestine scholar at the time, was not really justified considerable enthusiasm by the leading Palestine in rejecting the entire survey out of hand. Even scholars of the period. The geographer Carl Ritter Charles W. Wilson, Royal Engineers (1836-1905), (1779-1859) from Berlin predicted that the pub- who undertook the first Ordnance Survey of lication of the Admiralty survey of Syria would Jerusalem in 1864-1865, participated in many revolutionize the existing state of knowledge, and would make it necessary to reconstruct the maps of other surveys of the Palestine Exploration Fund Palestine de novo.12 Unfortunately, Symondss and became one of its leading figures, remarked hypsometrical measurements led to an error in that the whole [triangulation] was in too fragmen- the reported altitude of the Sea of Galilee, which he tary a state for publication.13 But the fact remains, concluded was about 328 English feet (100 metres) that the Map of Syria was studied and used for90 below sea level instead of 612 Parisian feet (199 compiling many of the later maps of Palestine.4
  • 6. . sp, : I;i ,jK I ]fwt L5d r * I ;N ---I E - _-To4w-I.,6, _iFg~ VL-uh- s k~ II -- i "O ::,,^j %0", am, lAw *IIa . i - e -W=,>_SA~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ,I 4 ru I ( w&v"4wor MM& ss, 1 AAmv4,.a-o*y ?Srfs :: S 1<U* . :I I : * tV W4 ( wif I A ii " ij **^iaitJiw A o fl W.p X. -I i" s :rltr J; rqlY ?- i;eua * A.. fI - -* * ^ i J -4 : II . W. j(7 ,4. ;*41 tS 1 ; ::. : ir, - ,v,_ ? AV :.wt of~t .: . .. * l^ 0: -* I . r: :, cu?&1 116iu ^:, .... , at published for the Journalof the Royal GeographicalSociety by JohnFig. 4. Heinrich Berghaus, Partof ArabiaPetrxaand Palestine, 91Murray in London in 1839, showing the route taken by Edward Robinson and Eli Smith in 1838, in their travels through theunknown western part of the southern desert of Palestine (today the Negev), from Akaba to El Khulil (Hebron). 33 X 19 cm. (Reproduced with permission from the library of The German Protestant Institute of Archaeology, Jerusalem: H-6).
  • 7. Proposals for Large-Scale Surveying Palestine into writing. He did so in 1848, at the height of the debate on the relative altitude of the Edward Robinson surface of the Dead Sea. The fact that this body of Edward Robinson (1794-1863) set out in 1838 for water was at lower elevation than the Mediterra- Syria to perform his pioneering exploration, nean had been published for the first time in 1837, together with Eli Smith (1801-1857), a Presbyter- and in the following decade hypsometric measure- ian missionary stationed in Beirut. Their studies ments were made all along the Jordan valley.21 and the publication of Biblical Researches mark the These, however, failed to settle conclusively either beginning of the modern period of scientific the altitudes of the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea research and survey in Palestine.5 Robinson had or the gradient of the Jordan River, which flowed studied in Germany from 1826 to 1830, and that from one to the other. Two of the protagonists were country became his scientific base. On leaving Robinson in New York and Petermann in Berlin, Palestine on the completion of his explorations, who claimed that there was nothing unusual in the Robinson travelled to Berlin to write his book slope of the Jordan and added a comparison with under the aegis of Ritter. The famous geographer the main rivers in the United Kingdom.22 It was turned to Heinrich Berghaus (1797-1884), one of clear to Robinson that the answer could only be Berlins leading cartographers, for a map for achieved through organized, systematic measure- Robinsons book. Berghaus had already published ment. Accordingly, he called on the governments of a map of Palestine in 1835 and realized just how England, or France, or Prussia, to dispatch an little information about the country was available. expedition for this purpose and he hoped that the Many of the maps in the coming years were based Geographical Societies . . . will not let the matter mainly on his work (Figs 4 and 5).16 He started rest until it shall be fully accomplished.23 work on a map for Robinson but soon left the task to the young Heinrich Kiepert (1818-1899), who August Plarr thus embarked on what was to become a long-term When Petermann became editor of Mittheilungen, involvement in the mapping of Palestine (Fig. 6).7 he took advantage of the opportunity the new Early in 1839 Berghaus wrote to Captain John journal presented to promote geographical explora- Washington, Secretary of the Royal Geographical tion throughout the world. In 1858 he published a Society, saying that he was of the opinion that it call from August Plarr, a geographer and teacher would be a great loss for geography, were the from Heidelberg, who had just returned from a tour materials collected by Messrs. Robinson and Smith of Palestine and who had produced an article on the not to be used for the construction of a map on a geography of the Gilead, a mountainous region to large scale.18 the east of the Jordan.24 Plarr envisaged an Although there were further calls for an orderly international Christian campaign to conduct a survey of Palestine, no project reached fruition. detailed triangulation of Palestine: Various proposals were published, mainly in the two leading journals of explorative geography: the It would only be worthy of the Geography Institutein Gotha to call for a scientificinitiativethat will be of Journal of the Royal Geographical Societyof Londonand universalinterestto all Christianity. Yourjournal,the Mittheilungen aus JustusPerthesgeographischer Anstalt Mittheilungen, can publish a call to all Christian iiber wichtigeneue Erforschungen dem Gesammtge- aus governments to set up an international committee that will set itself the goal of conducting,with all the biete der Geographie.l9The proposals all reflected an scientific,artistic,and financialaid, not only a study, opinion that had already been expressed by the but also a complete triangulationand detailed mea- French scientist and traveller, Constantin-Francois surementof all regionsof Palestine.25 Chasseboeuf de Volney (1757-1820). Recognizing Plarrs proposal included an exact definition of the ineffectiveness of the haphazard collection of the area to be surveyed, from Aqaba Bay in the data by a lone traveller working for a short time south to the northern corner of the Lebanon valley wherever he happened to be, de Volney had called in the north, the Mediterranean Sea in the west and for interdisciplinary groups that were government longitude 55? from Ferro (equivalent to 37? from directed and financed and that would address Greenwich) in the east. This means he was specific issues.20 suggesting a survey that would encompass not Robinson seems to have been the first to put the only Palestine but also large parts of Transjordan,92 idea of organizing a team to carry out a survey of the part of Syria lying to the south and west of
  • 8. d i KARTE V BIO I YUU t,4,d OtI.U.NO. .,..- 0- r 7? |y"* I C - 0. I ir: "3iJpr --/__ rruu *r 1A _ABIA T..A i > u . t"^n*ut A*a xr late, x -a-tr*Allt im ,tWr*M O Ao i: f* . bobr$i .sA . - I ,m . - ??_- , I ,& ?r ,v _jltftW. r v * II#AAi . I, is . ,U" " Bil*r*e C . "-. -W, , | b ,* pl,rA :U ?t9 b c F 9bsa I" :? wur w X*t r*r# u*ur I ? :*" I Ikt1*Ck lu. rrbk kXllire imi + ** *. "n = = iis : ?)i .52dk ,uD nr -jlY -,5~url. t le tAP, Al-i tl* r ,^1 ,ral *u~uu rm.n rP "~ r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~: r -@--t a; . :-3.i..t1L 1 Lrir* ic ^ ,.,,..,........ ^ ?,?,.... ..? ,. . ,...? .,. . . . . : ... ...... ... f 1 .b *U,~~ ~~~~~4 i : tkMl* - s tIf i I ^ ^~~~~~~~~~~~ i r I , i" j i?jj: 1 wst j a fC E i -4 e1 ?1 k ir :: h~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~::: t Sx.. . m- 4;-..?A MIf |M ILNT 9A I -*it * n : Li pl4 1 --- z i/9 I I I : :::; ::S ; v.,; t : I .: a|2O.,P ._ 5 ............:- :i , -:j. .i ;:: I IFig. 5. Premier Leutnant Renner, Karte von Paldstina, nach Grimm,Berghausund andern guten Hiilfsmitteln.Published in Berlin bySimon Schropp in 1840. 1:900 000. 35 X 48 cm. Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, No. 661. (Reproduced with permission from The Jewish National and University Library, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem: Pal 678.) 93
  • 9. 1 rTM GXB nUW Nx GM .,I_ JErSAIEM, Tr-oa .X....r.,t _ e s_:.~~ _ A"~~~~~~" u Xa&XnefnuroentODUtSO2h0&WMITH : . ~~k 3,,ntaji, L ipet. f~ea~.~50N~FWtiOOO - " , 1% W i- :Y * ..: :-~-~-.V. ^^ t /" L~ i,~ r i,;+s.JL . 1.t )+$--f/*:1 ^^.S * ",:. * * t. A, Vr 4... .&m R~,MwnJ.k I S9 ji W4l Q Oa-iTflAr 0 I 7^ ni i ,. x Nt-f: I -V..I t i A ..f 16 jn P:"^f jD,; .i) %I I 0r I. V94
  • 10. Damascus, and almost the whole of Lebanon.26 joined by Washington, accompanied by threePlarr considered it beyond the power of a single friends, including the botanist (later the directornation to undertake such a project. Rather, an of Kew Gardens) Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-international delegation was required which would 1911). For the next six weeks, the group, providedinclude surveyors and researchers from Russia, with three chronometers, a theodolite, [and] sixEngland, France, Prussia and Austria, since it was barometers, would disembark to make surveyingonly by means of great combined efforts that trips to various places in Palestine, Syria andChristianity will come really to know the land [of Lebanon. On one such occasion, they visited andthe Holy Scriptures].27 fixed [the position of] the Cedars of Lebanon.30 Plarr was also conscious of the need to overcome The team finished work on the Palestinian coast invarious conflicts of interest among the different July 1861.3groups operating in the area if Ottoman opposition The survey resulted in numerous maps, some ofwas to be overcome. The lingua franca of such a them named after the various surveyors who, asdelegation, he advised, should be French, in which indicated in the captions on the maps, had workedthe surveyors from other countries could be under the direction of Commander A. L. Mansell.expected to be fluent. In an appendix to Plarrs The map of the Palestinian coast, entitled Ras en-proposal, Petermann-who was also making a Nakuirato El Arish, measuring 63 X 96 centimetresconsiderable contribution to the cartography of and drawn to a scale of 1:220 000, was publishedPalestine-expressed the hope that the powers for the first time in 1862. Another map, on the scalewould unite around a project of this type.28 of 1:45 400 and measuring 47 X 64 centimetres, portrayed the bay of Acre, the only natural John Washington anchorage along the Palestinian shore. A numberRear-Admiral John Washington (1800-1863), who of larger-scale maps were devoted to modern andhad been Secretary of the Royal Geographical historical coastal cities such as Tyre, Acre, Haifa,Society from 1836 to 1841, was appointed in Cesarea and Jaffa (Fig. 7).32 Both the maps and the1845 by Francis Beaufort, Hydrographer of the sailing instructions which Mansell had written inRoyal Navy, as the commissioner for inquiring into 1864 were still being used, with the necessarythe state of the rivers, shores, and harbours of the additions and corrections, until after the First WorldUnited Kingdom. When Washington replaced War.33Beaufort as Chief Hydrographer to the Admiralty Firsthand experience in Syria and Palestineten years later, he expanded the navys worldwide seems to have led Washington to give someprogramme of coastal surveys.29 One project he thought to the need for a systematic survey. I aminitiated was the mapping of the eastern shores of inclined to think that, being of a practical turn ofthe Mediterranean in 1856 and 1857 as part of the mind, he would have appreciated the difficulties ofactivity that followed the Crimean War and organizing and financing an international survey ofpreceded the digging of the Suez Canal, which such a large area and that he decided instead on astarted in April 1859. Under the leadership of more feasible course, by using the Royal Geogra-Commander Arthur Lukis Mansell (1815-1890), phical Society to disseminate his ideas. From 1855 itthe survey moved eastward along the coast of Egypt had become customary for the Presidents annualfrom the mouth of the Damieta. Mansell, then speech, enumerating the activities and achieve-commander of the H.M.S. Tartarus,measured the ments of the previous year (especially those relatingcoasts of Sinai and Egypt and the harbour of to exploration), to be published in the SocietysAlexandria. In 1858 his team went on to survey Proceedings.Since this included a note referring tothe Gulf of Iskenderun in southeastern Turkey, the admiralty surveys and reports, Washingtonbefore working their way southward along the was able to put his reservations in writing.34 He seteastern coast of the Mediterranean. out in the Proceedings lengthy list of subjects that a In 1860, with their new ship, H.M.S. Firefly,they warrant attention and research in Palestine andbegan to survey the coasts of Syria, Lebanon and, listed the geographical problems that requireeventually, Palestine. This project required a bigger accurate solution. He said nothing about anythan usual team with a large number of surveyors general survey, however. Washington was alsoand a scientist (usually from the field of natural trying to find a way of coordinating the researchhistory). Late in September 1860, Mansell was being carried out independently by many of our 95
  • 11. -11- I &ANO.4 t . ;1) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~F4A 444444 41 - J- 4 - AY o44e,X4t 44 4* $* 44 444 I 44 4 4 4 44 .4 e4 4W4 4.4 to~~~~~~ ~, 4 O4V ArWK44 4A AO 4~ ~~~~ N ~ ~ *j4A%~~~~~~r44 44 444444A 444 44 ~~~~~ 4r4J~~~~~~4 44 ~~ -~ 4444 /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A Fi. a of 44 the Mediterranea Se.SraCa fAr.Sree ess .A ul&F .CrsinRN ne h dietino Cm r A . asllRN Dtil nrae . C ake n n odn tth y pbise dirlyonIs June 186 une 9cm1rnLo h4upriino4AmrlWshntn.S,Hdorphr :540.6 Carogrphi Colecion, No. 363 (Rpoue 43 ihprmsinfo h eis h ainladUivriyLbay 4444444Hbre4Unverityof eruale 534 : Pl countrymen on their visits to the Holy Land. nature of the region in general and the specific Claiming that their work was worth so little only themes and sites he considered worth mapping in because of lack of guidance, he suggested that detail: the identification of sites of Biblical history; someone should direct the travellers "toone or two the examination of sites with reference to some special points in accordance with the part of the special object, as the deciding between two con- coast with which they decided to begin their flicting traditions; manners and customs of the journey. The travellers would also benefit, he said. current local population that may help elucidate from material assistance with a view to encouraging biblical history; natural production that may systematic research. illuminate Biblical descriptions; linguistic matters, Out of ten topics Washington listed in the traces of ancient names and as far as possible, Proceedings worthy of research in Palestine, the as correct and uniform orthography; careful draw- first two-the accurate determination of the posi- ings of building and copies of inscriptions; traces of tion of important cities, mountains, &c. and the volcanic or other remarkable geological phenom- production of exact topographical plans of places of ena; and the examination and comparison of the interest-leave no doubt as to his ultimate inten- tombs throughout Syria and Palestine. tion: the achievement of a topographical survey. To explain and clarify his goals, Washington This interpretation is supported by the other items went on to elaborate his proposals with several96 on Washingtons list, which reflect the unique examples suggesting ways of recording all material
  • 12. - -r- ,r- sLs. ,I .- . ,, , a A -- ! II *w-- - 9**rr~~~~~~~~? ie /,/ .4K/I. ..Oli, /1 jw _ 1 SECTIONOF TIK ROA) FROM BR5lT TO DA.ASCUS. i MAP Al ~ T;P .OF)T ---T /,-) ~ ~~~:----- ~ ~ ~ ~ CONSTRUCTED BY lat9$eK B i N L Let Datelt,: . -.-- "o--- -Chevalier of the Legion of Honour from isurveys in 1831 1852. from those made in 1841 his ow by Majors ROBE antd ROCIFORT SCOTT, Ieut.SYMODS and other officers of her Majestys Corps o Royal Engineers ; and from tlhe "Results of the Researches made by LYNCH, . OBINSON. WILSON. BUrRCKHARDHT. SEETZEN &c. 1858. GcOTILk:JUSTUSPEIRTIS. SC ,LE S. of -- Proption odrtw . I V. . I a l ? Krub wal.B , )P.I . I! I . . I I . -I I - -? - -S j - E_L . 0 0 &11 , A,*. m H- -. tw I i$I., -1 I .a . I -*-,W casr t n Or? i p U-. . . 0.T - - " Stdl . Too to Ak- "j. -. m- . I -E- r Ii It 39 . a s i a*# 4r !1 5 a Jl 3p I :eetioya I.Plate 4. Carel Willem [Charles William] Meredith van de Veldes Map of the Holy Land (1858). The map was based on a survey of 18411851 and 1852, and published in eight sections, each measuring 34 X 63 cm. Scale 1:315 000. (Reproduced with permission from T Library, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Pal 645.) See page 98.
  • 13. CAITF, GEOLO(GI d~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~W QUt IW s RORDS A Dlii LA ME1R"A MIORTEF 4 dressm& Ies sowis allipices (IC M"LE DUC1DELINES I~~~ma.~~~c~~/ r~~~~ulcancq~~~~~c WY wA &x,o prenzier da!m,- ctMmV e,, Lie nuwqu6 par Irby "teur ayant, RU, vbi nu?,rr?ra-%1 4x~~~~~~~~~~~~ .? ~ W. LOUIS LARTET32 de~~~~detx4in tatL~neAd,twt l, t~~~~~~~~~~~a7 c/ ng( J wt, Liu.rcurcedvwdc c W& x cml le pa dM, / A1lj 4 rr d~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ a1eeca 4WU,de LW C t rcwtenAM v4 c k v la ewz Ifo & /,di I Itam,pnda,we dwt,a.cou d le,xa n de-ao amer 4 Kod," i, xrww d hd,. nwinI. d 44~~~~; ci4ci a eewte dic mani eell alW du - i-.i-: dPlate 5. Louis Latert, Cartegeologiquedes bordsde la MerMorte.Dresseesous les auspicesde Mr le duc de Luynespar Mr LouisLartet,geologuede Igeologiquede la MerMortede la Palestineet de lldumee . . ., (Paris, Arthus Bertand, 1878), plate 2. Scale 1:300 000. 46 X 27 cm. (Photograph s
  • 14. relating to Palestine. He also described how little William Smith had started work on his diction-information was available, even in the late 1850s, ary in 1857 and when the last volume of hison the exact longitude, latitude and altitude of Dictionary of the Bible was published in 1863, itplaces. Figures for Jerusalem, he said, vary included a review of the newest discoveries inbetween 2200 and 2600 feet above the level of biblical geography.38 Among his collaborators onthe Mediterranean and those for Shechem (Nabu- the dictionary was George Grove (1820-1900),lus) from 1460 to 1860 feet. He concluded with a who is remembered to this day as editor of Grovescall for all interested parties to send him notes Dictionaryof Musicand Musicians.39Grove and Smithconcerning the questions or topics they wanted to had met through a mutual friend, Arthur Penrhynbe examined by those in the field. Stanley (1815-1881), Dean of Westminster, who The list of researchers cited by Washington as shared their interest in Palestinian research.40having done much for the geography of the Holy Groves deep interest in the study of Palestine andLand (among whom he included Ulrich Jasper his involvement in Smiths dictionary were likely toSeetzen, Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, Edward have been behind Groves decision to establish inRobinson, William Francis Lynch, Charles Roch- 1865 the Palestine Exploration Fund. Although thefort-Scott, John Frederick Anthony Symonds, John prospectus prepared by the sub-committee set up atLeech Porter, Charles William Meredith van de the Funds foundation meeting on 12 May 1865Velde, Stanley Lane-Poole, Cyril Graham, Arthur makes no mention of Washingtons list, it is scarcelyPenrhyn Stanley), suggests that he was hardly coincidental that the two are remarkably similar inaware of contemporary French and German writing their goals.41on the Holy Land.35 Yet we know Washington was Further Calls for a Survey of Palestinewell acquainted with August Petermann, who hadspent eight years in London before returning to The 1840s and 1850s were the years in whichGermany in 1855 and who had left behind him a trigonometric surveying was everywhere becomingreputation as a skilled cartographer and organizer the accepted basis for map making and for gainingof research expeditions. Petermann had written firsthand familiarity with the region in question.that the precise measurements which would These two decades saw the British, especially,supply a base to the mapping of Palestine had expand their surveying activity throughout thebeen achieved through Mansells survey, thanks to Empire. They also surveyed areas outside theirthe English Admiralty and, especially, thanks to the direct control, even outside their sphere of influ-highly scientific approach of the man who now ence, if they considered such areas to be of strategicheads the Admiralty measurements Captain importance. Despite its relative proximity to Suez,Washington.36 Palestine did not fall into either category; it did not Washingtons text contains a brief but perhaps constitute a factor that would attract either therevealing paragraph: How, too, is that admirable government in London or one of the imperialistwork the "Dictionary of the Bible" (the first volume trading societies to organize and invest in a survey.of which, ably edited by Dr. Smith, has recently Nor was the British government alone amongappeared) to be completed, unless we, as geogra- European governments in ignoring Palestine.phers, contribute our share towards its perfec- Even the French government, which sponsoredtion?37 We may assume that Washington included organized scientific delegations, carried out onlythe reference to William Smiths biblical dictionary, sporadic studies in Palestine. It was left to a fewwith its implicit reminder of the religious impor- individuals to survey the Holy Land. Some of these,tance of Palestine, as the only way of attracting who are mentioned below, continued advocatingresearchers and financiers to support studies of the the idea of the need for a well-organized, interna-country. Thus, on familiar terms with the main tional or national survey of Palestine.figures engaged in Palestinian research in the The Dutch naval officer, Charles William Mer-English capital and aware of the publication of edith van de Velde (1818-1898), had acquired hisSmiths dictionary and the favourable response it cartographical experience as head of the Dutcharoused, Washington would have hoped that Royal Hydrographers Office in Batavia from 1839heightened scientific and public interest in the to 1841. He made two visits to Palestine, once in thebiblical regions would also help him promote his early 1850s and again in the early 1860s, bothideas of organizing and focusing this research. prompted by his study of the Holy Scriptures, which 97
  • 15. Ir ?* .. fr 41 A* J41 late. Lieiat Dutch R. N r:a;ai: i a- atin.!18414: Wew 18 tit 1802, fram those. mia- i.!, t ox, f. a 1 ^ ^ . ^ ai l, a -; *a &iBo .- i ;is;:: ^*^**t w*l ts fi ??> . Use ,y LYN%. . : : i w:B0B.O i JChtAR SO.RTZEX I .e , S. . Ji, ?1t GiO4A S, fTR&JR 1858. -~ Te -; ~ ~ t:tittt-fttitSV0tt:;Xlt~ At0;--0, ~ ~ ~. X. I[ U.*W "-+" -:?,, .E s!:i;rSiterS i 0i :i.igi X iii -;,00WS,l "- *i . .:?-: % * ^ Fig. 8. Section 1 of Carel Willem [Charles William] Meredith van de Veldes Map of the Holy Land constructed . from his own . surveysin 1851 cL 1852, from thosemade in 1841 by MajorsRobeand RochfortScott,Lieut.Symondsand otherofficers Her Majestys of Corps RoyalEngineers; from the Resultsof the Researches of and madeby Lynch,Robinson,Wilson,Burckhardt, Seetzen The map was &ec. engraved by Eberhardt and Stichardt and published in Gotha by Justus Perthes in 1858. 1:315 000. 8 sections (sheets) (see Plate 4 for Section 5), each 34 x 63. Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, No. 778. (Reproduced with permission from The Jewish National and University Library,The Hebrew University of Jerusalem: Pal 645.) had made him deeply feel the want of a correct and tent assistants, to make what may be termed a sufficiently detailed map of the land to which they complete triangular survey; nor was I aware of any preeminently call our attention.42 He made use of individual who, thrown on his own resources, had all existing maps based on modern surveying of ever accomplished such a work.44 Palestine, added to them measurements taken with In France, Louis Felicien Joseph Caignart, Baron relatively primitive methods (such as estimating de Saulcy (1807-1880), also called upon his distances), and produced what is generally accepted government to organize a delegation to Palestine, to have been the best map of the Holy Land before mainly due to his interest in archaeological ruins. the Survey of Western Palestine was completed De Saulcy, an army officer and a keen numismatist more than twenty years later. Van de Veldes map and archaeologist, had toured and studied Palestine was published in English, German, Dutch and three times during the 1850s and 1860s.45 One of French. It comprises eight sections, or sheets, the participants in the delegation was the army drawn to a scale of 1:315 000 and including maps cartographer Captain Charles Gelis, who was of Jerusalem (1:10 000) and environs (1:250 000) responsible for the maps in de Saulcys book, (Fig. 8 and Plate 4).43 The opening comments in the including the one of the Dead Sea area (Fig. 9).46 memoir which accompanies the map are explicit: it The French government did initiate some survey- lay beyond my power to set off for Syria with the ing, mainly during the first half of the 1860s when98 necessary instruments, and, with the aid of compe- the French army intervened to save the Christian
  • 16. .ita2i8c I / | f,,: I 14w ~ w A? ,^: A * it -4 * 4,ia ?- das a -Q * f * j 4,,t* CarteiteIv en15 S,A1. C :- daprs la Carte inMitejevtien 1851. (CPARFELDESA1LC~j Anciailve do Eeole htechmique ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Q~~~~~~~~-Mi * - , I : iemare de rhintilt daencfre. ;! 1.~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ -PRfS t852.. * * * - . . .... .................. JFig. 9. The printed version of the map drawn by Baron de Saulcy in 1851: Esquissedu littoralde la MerMorteet de la Moabitide,dapres la Carteineditee,lev6een 1851, par Fel. De Saulcy. Published in Paris by the firm of Thierry Freres in 1852. Scale 0/ 0025m to 1000lm (= 1:400 000). 28.5 X 42.5 cm. (Private collection.) 99
  • 17. inhabitants of Lebanon from slaughter during a civil 1871, for example, after the unification of Ger- war, but only on a limited scale. The philosopher many, he wrote that the suggested society should and orientalist Joseph Ernest Renan (1823-1892) send two efficient researchers to Palestine, accom- was appointed by Napoleon III to lead an archae- panied by a first-class engineer and an auxiliary ological delegation to biblical Phoenicia and team, who would effectively perform a survey and Renans expedition surveyed the antiquities of measurement of the ruins and relics.53 He repeat- Lebanon from 1860 to 1861.47 Another product of edly criticized the inability of the Germans to unite the military intervention was the beautifully on scientific projects, and he observed the research executed Carte du Liban, drawn on a scale of and surveys conducted by the English with 1:200 000 by the same Captain Gelis (Fig. 10).48 unmasked jealousy. Two more surveys followed. In 1864 the The Mesopotamian Surveys archaeologist and numismatist, Honore Th6odoric Paul Joseph dAlbert, Duc de Luynes (1802-1867), From the point of view of the British Empire, led a delegation of scientists that set out to study the Mesopotamia-the area between the Tigris and Dead Sea region, mainly in the fields of natural Euphrates rivers-had a dual strategic importance. science and archaeology. The survey yielded, inter It constituted a buffer zone between India and alia, extensive cartographical material, mainly Russia, which was making no attempt to disguise its geological maps of the Dead Sea area (1:315 000) southern expansionist aspirations. The British also (Plate 5), Palestine and Syria including the Jordan saw the Euphrates as part of a possible route to valley (1:1 100 000), and the whole area between India and had repeatedly considered it in relation to Syria and Nubia (1:5 000 000).49 Then, in May solving one of the empires main problems; namely, 1870, the French government dispatched a delega- that of finding the shortest route to India. In the tion of surveyors on behalf of the French army context of the lack of governmental or any other headquarters to map central and western Galilee, major institutional interest in a survey of Palestine, which was accomplished in three months. Their a country of immense religious significance, the map, which measures 59 x 48 centimetres and is surveying of Mesopotamia by the British in the on a scale of 1:100 000, shows the western and 1830s constitutes a negative example, for no central parts of Galilee, from Zib (modern Achziv) significance was attached to it. in the north to Nazareth in the south and as far as India was the most important colony in the Safed in the east. It is unclear whether the French British Empire, and efficient transportation routes had intended from the outset only to complete the were essential. The events of the early 1830s-the 1862 military map of Lebanon, or whether they French control of Algeria, the occupation of had hoped to conduct a trigonometric measure- Palestine and Syria by the Egyptian ruler ment of the whole of Palestine.50 Muhammed Ali-together with the threat from One of the most prominent and consistent of Russia in the north and rebellion in India itself, had those who called for the organization of research in forced England to devote attention to a prompt Palestine was Carl Sandreczki (1809-1892), who solution of the problem. The need to mobilize had come to appreciate that modern research military troops at relatively high speed, to transmit projects in Palestine were far beyond the means shipments of post and goods, and to ensure of the single scholar. A native of Bavaria, Sand- organized and orderly sea connections, all made reczki had arrived in Palestine in 1851 as a the problem one of the utmost priority for the missionary in the service of the English Church policy makers in London during the first half of the Missionary Society and stayed in Jerusalem for nineteenth century.54 more than 30 years.51 He helped Charles W. Wilson England had two possibilities for a quicker to map Jerusalem in 1864-1865 by preparing a full passage to India, each with a relatively short list of the names of the citys streets and alleyways overland journey: one route through Egypt and both in Arabic and in English transliteration, adding the other through Mesopotamia. The persistent descriptions and explanations.52 As early as 1859, efforts of Francis Rawdon Chesney (1789-1872), he had suggested to Maximillian I, King of Bavaria, an Irish-born engineering officer who devoted his that a German scientific society for the study of life to promoting the northern route (which Palestine should be established. Sandreczki per- included using the Euphrates), led to surveying100 sisted with his idea, amplifying it over the years. In work in Mesopotamia. In 1831 Chesney embarked
  • 18. .... 137,t riw tIf - ... -..- _ i~~~~~ =137~~~ i . 1 - r -~~~~~~4 l .....II " i. 1 a4 Iso ,^ , ^ 40. ; - ^ . I 31W- CAIjTE DU LIBAI iw LES RECCINNAISSANCES LA BRIGADE DAPRES DE TOPO GRAPIIlQUE DU DE CORPS EXPEDITIONNARE EN 1860-1861 I I RESSEEAUDPOT DE IA GUERRE = .a..o. . ... - I ... -.. -11 drtat AaJor (,-I;. s A * t- par le t apitaautea U. ?lerLs U......... S - S LE S?,OUS LEi . MNISTERE S. ,, COMTE NDTON, DE .LiE ARiCHAL 2w I N.-W 1-1.... - 1. . .11 ... I-.-." I..,.";..-lll.--- I "...I I ^- - . II ; r 3r duFig. 10. Charles Geliss map of Lebanon: Carte du Liban dapres les Reconnaissances la Brigade Topographique Corps de
  • 19. on a risky expedition sailing along the Euphrates, was nominated to head a delegation of thirteen continuously measuring depths and collecting data. officers and several dozen men, which reached On his return to London, he became the greatest Antioch (Antakya) early in 1835. Despite tremen- advocate for the northern route. His persistence led dous difficulties, they transported two dismantled the government to finance an investigation into the steamboats, which had been brought from England feasibility of establishing a connection with India by by steamer, from Seleucia (Sueida, now Samandag, the use of steamboats on the Euphrates. Chesney at the mouth of the Orontes River, near Antioch) to Lt :P: A w TIGRIS ATOEDPPItA1-E Ae . ffe?l :soc :^? .~tvX4 - IWR<^5 RS . -, e--4 ew 2e?< d e1v, *4.S -d - ;it, : m .TeS yet tl d * iwStum ^6&mt.e ** 9 ::.i of *".b* ** t ni i n ; a ?B ^??,> A ?? A<Wi?-A s ^c .m 4X-jru^ Zi?.XIsZeA&eueJf*m<i s. * ?s k EBs i-X:i^^^::^^ j^?i?A Fig. 11. Plan of the Positionof the Tigrisand EuphratesSteamVessels the 21st of May 1836 (above) and TheLossof the FormerVessel on (below), in Francis Rawdon Chesney, Narrative of the Euphrates Expedition carried on by Order of the British Government102 During the Years 1835, 1836 and 1837 (London, Longmans, Green, and Co., 1868), facing 253 and 255 respectively.
  • 20. Birejik (now Birecik, southeastern Turkey) on the Effected between 1871 and 1877 by a teamEuphrates. The boats-named the Tigris and the consisting mainly of personnel from the RoyalEuphrates-were re-assembled, and Chesney and Engineers, the Survey was financially supported byhis group then set out to sail the entire length of the private enterprise with some help from the Britishriver, making observations and taking further depth government. It was the outcome of the urgent wishmeasurements. The project was interrupted when of members and subscribers to the Palestinethe Tigriswas sunk in a hurricane with the loss of Exploration Fund, Charles W. Wilson included, totwenty of the crew (Fig. 11). The survivors map the Holy Land. It came of an idealistic imperialcontinued their mission, however, and in the religious wish to possess the land for the Britishsummer of 1836 reached the mouth of the Empire and to symbolize the achievements of theEuphrates, thereby proving that the river was worlds greatest Protestant Christian Empire. But itindeed navigable.55 In early 1837, the delegation also came from an urgent practical need for Britainwas disbanded. to map the Jordan valley in order to protect both In England, meanwhile, support for the project Suez and India against France and Russia.58 Thedeclined for a number of reasons, but the autho- Survey resulted in, among other things, one largerities in India-the board of directors of the East map of western Palestine (26 sheets drawn to theIndia Company-decided that they wanted the scale of one inch to one mile or 1:63 360) (Fig. 12),Euphrates project to continue. They nominated a a three-volume memoir explaining the map, and anew commander, another the Irish-born lieute- further four volumes on the Survey in general butnant, Henry Blosse Lynch (1807-1873) of the concentrating in particular on the city of JerusalemIndian Royal Navy. Lynch had served as Chesneys and on the flora and fauna of the Holy Land.59deputy and as commander of the Tigris. He had One way of understanding the problems, logis-shown himself to be a talented linguist and skilled tical and other, inherent in setting up and carryingdiplomat on various excursions among the tribes of out an organized trigonometric survey of Palestinethe Persian Gulf region. He assumed command of in the nineteenth century is to compare the costs ofthe Euphrates and over the next two years, until the latter with those for the Mesopotamian project.1841, he and his men were busy completing the In 1834 Chesney had estimated that the cost of antrigonometric measurements. The Euphrates was expedition to the Euphrates would reach ?13,000.supported by three British-built iron steamships In the event it cost ?43,000, which came mainlythat had been transported around the Cape of Good from the British government and the East IndiaHope, re-assembled and launched in Basra. The Company, with some ?2,000 contributed by Ches-four-steamship fleet, flying the Union Jack, con- ney himself.60 During the first 25 years of itsducted systematic measurement and mapping of existence, the Palestine Exploration Fund spentthe Land of the Two Rivers. The entire project was ?51,000 on all its research projects in Palestine andformally completed in 1842.56 After that time, only Sinai (which works out at an average of just overone of the ships, under the command of Lieutenant ?2,000 a year). Exactly one-third of the FundsFelix Jones, carried on mapping the land between outlay, ?17,000, is recorded as having been spentthe two rivers. The English continued to measure on the Survey of Western Palestine. Taking intoand survey in Mesopotamia until 1863, when the consideration the length, problematic nature andIndian navy was dissolved. The new phase of complexity of the project, and in comparison withtrigonometric mapping (led again by Felix Jones), Chesneys expenses, the amount does not seem towhich began in the early 1850s, was related to the be out of the ordinary. However, it is unclearemergence of another geo-political scheme, the exactly what this sum represents. Was it the entireconstruction of a British-controlled railway through cost of the field survey, spread over more than sixthe Euphrates Valley.57 years? And from where did the funding for the map making and accompanying volumes come?61 The The Survey of Western Palestine Fund would never have had the financial means toAs we have seen, up to the last third of the conduct such a survey on its own.62 The amount ofnineteenth century all plans and projects for an money in its account never exceeded a feworganized modern survey of Palestine came to hundred pounds (sometimes it amounted to onlynothing. The objective was ultimately achieved a few dozen pounds) and was clearly always whollyonly through the Survey of Western Palestine. inadequate to support any well-equipped field 103
  • 21. Fig. 12. Detail from Sheet IV of the Survey of Western Palestine, showing part of Upper Eastern Galilee, from the Palestine Exploration Fund map. Surveyed and drawn under the Direction of Lieut. C. R. Conder R.E. Lieut. H.H. Kitchener R.E. May 1878. The twenty-six-sheet map was reproduced by photo-zincography at the Ordnance Survey Office, Southampton, from surveys104 conducted for the Committee of the Palestine Exploration Fund between 1872 and 1877, and published in London in 1880 at a scale of one inch to one mile. (Private collection.)
  • 22. expedition, however modest in size. Nor could the the different governmental bodies, particularly theFund have financed the preparation and publica- War Office, were involved in all stages of thetion of the maps and memoirs, still less the rental of Survey of Western Palestine. He shows how Wilsonthe necessary premises and equipment. was in practice serving as liaison between the The answer to these questions can be found in government and the Palestine Exploration FundsJohn James Moscrops book. Moscrop has made Executive Committee, of which he was a member.good use of the wealth of archival material held at Moscrop also demonstrates how the imminent warthe Funds London offices for his history of the between Russia and Turkey, which indeed eruptedPalestine Expedition Fund. The story of the Survey in 1876 after a long series of rebellions in theof Western Palestine also provides some of the Balkans, and British involvement in the politicalstrongest support for the argument presented in struggles between the European powers influencedthis article, that the religious factor did not promote the surveying and the rate at which the maps werethe execution of a complete survey of the whole compiled. He also describes how general publica-country. A letter written in May 1877 by Colonel tion of the maps and memoirs was held back untilHome, of the British War Office, contains the the War Office had finished with them for its ownexplicit statement that only military-strategic con- purposes. Finally, Moscrop re-examines the pay-siderations led to the completion of the Western ments made by the Fund to those involved in thePalestine Survey. Home wrote: There are perhaps survey. Revealingly, he finds that for most of theother reasons of a sentimental character that may relevant period there is no mention of anyperhaps be of some weight (in completing the payments for the salaries of the Royal Engineers.survey) but I propose to base any recommendation It has to be supposed that the money came from aon the enormous military value of a good map of quite different source-that from which the mensthe country to us.63 salaries had always come, namely the War Office in When the French began mapping Galilee in London.1870 (as described above), Charles W. Wilson waspromptly appointed to a senior position in the The Ordnance Survey of Western Palestine wasTopographical Department of the Intelligence never the priority of the London government or, forDepartment of the War Office in London. The that matter, of any other European government. UpBritish clearly did not intend to leave the mapping to the 1870s Palestine was important almost solelyof Palestine to the French. Even more to the point for its religious tradition. Interest in the country ofwas the geo-political situation in the Middle East, the Bible provided the excuse for small studies andwhere it had become obvious by the 1870s that expeditions of limited scope by individuals andanother war was pending between Russia and the institutions, without much, if any, governmentOttoman Empire. The new situation led to the involvement. Yet it was only the governments ofBritish governments recognition that the region the major European powers which could havebetween the Jordan River and the Mediterranean commanded and organized research on a larger andSea was indeed of strategic importance for Britain. more comprehensive scale.As Home observed in his letter: Apart from the Peaceful Crusade, a scheme If RussiaoccupiesTurkishArmeniashe will have the which originated in England and Germany in the two valleys of the Euphrates Tigrisat her disposal and 1840s for the peaceful occupation of the holy places and she will completely dominate the Gulf of Seu- of Palestine by Christians, the country was never an derumif indeed she does not occupyit. Syriaespecially object of imperialistic aspirations.65 Hence, there the Valley of the Jordan will become of great was no special need to invest efforts and means in importanceas offeringthe easiestroadfor an advance on the Suez Canal-under such circumstances is of it mapping it. Thus, the mapping of Palestine was the utmostimportance we shouldhave good maps that delayed until the emergence of a particular set of of the country.64 local and regional circumstances. Only then was theThe history of the Survey of Western Palestine Survey of Western Palestine by the Palestineindicates that the cartographical campaign would Exploration Fund successfully carried out in thenot have succeeded without the cooperation or- 1870s. The Eastern Survey, decided on by themore correctly-the support and cover that the Executive Committee of the Palestine ExplorationWar Office gave to the Palestine Exploration Fund. Fund in November 1880, operated from the Moscrop takes considerable pains to show how beginning in close cooperation with the War Office. 105
  • 23. But Conder, who headed the small working party, Palestine delegation in July 1872, and Kitchener joined in May 1874. The work was stopped in June 1875 owing to managed to measure only about 500 square miles an Arab attack near Safed, and the team returned to before abandoning the project for two reasons: the England. The final stage of mapping, from early 1877 until unfriendly attitude of the local governors, and the September of the same year, was carried out by Kitchener, while Conder remained in London to prepare the change of interest by the government, which publication of the collected material. See Eliahu Elath, became involved in the 1881-1882 events in Claude Reignier Conder (in the light of his letters to his Egypt and Sudan. The abandonment of the Eastern mother), Palestine Exploration Quarterly, Centenary Volume 97 (1965): 21-41 (hereafter PEQ). Survey does demonstrate, writes Moscrop, the 5. Pierre Jacotin, Carte topographiquede lEgypte et de close linkage between the War Office, the Intelli- plusieurspartiesdes pays limitrophesleveependant 1expedition gence Department, and the Fund and the fact that de lArmeefrancais (Paris, 1810). 6. On Jacotin, see Godlewska, Geography Unbound this survey like its predecessor, the Western Survey, (note 1), 77-78. For the survey, see Anne M. C. God- was not an independent survey run by the fund.66 lewska, The Napoleonic Survey of Egypt: a masterpiece of cartographic compilation and early nineteenth-century A versionof this paper was presentedto the 19th International fieldwork, Cartographica 25:1-2, Monograph38-39 (1988). on Conference the Historyof Cartography, Madrid, July 2001. On the mapping in Palestine, see Heinrich Berghaus, Revisedtext receivedJanuary 2002. Geographisches Memoir zur Erklirung und Erliiuterung der Karte von Syrien (Gotha, Justus Perthes, 1835), 1-4; Yehuda Karmon, An analysis of Jacotins map of NOTESAND REFERENCES Palestine, Israel ExplorationJournal 10:3 (1960): 155-73, 1. For example: Jean Baptiste Bourguignon dAnville, 244-53. On Napoleons voyage and campaigns in Pales- Palestine(London, Robert Sayer, 1771?). See also Anne M. tine, see Henry Laurens, LExpedition dtgypte (Paris, C. Godlewska, Geography Unbound: French Geographical Armand Colin, 1989), 1798-801. Science from Cassini to Humboldt (Chicago and London, 7. John Arthur Ransome Marriott, The Eastern Question: University of Chicago Press, 1999), 47-48. An HistoricalStudy in European Diplomacy[1917] (Oxford, 2. The biblical term was used for the first time in Judges The Clarendon Press, 1969), 237-45; Matthew Smith 20, 1. On the subject, see, for example, Gideon Biger, The Anderson, The Eastern Question 1774-1923: A Study in names and boundaries of Eretz-Israel (Palestine) as InternationalRelations (London, Melbourne and Toronto, reflections of stages in its history, in The Land That Became Macmillan; New York, St Martins Press, 1966), 100-6; Israel: Studies in HistoricalGeography,ed. Ruth Kark (New Arthur Breicha-Vauthier, Osterreich in der Levante: Haven and London, Yale University Press; Jerusalem, Geschichteund Geschichteneiner alten Freundschaft (Wien Magnes Press, 1989), 1-22. See also Hans Fischer, and Munchen, Herold, 1972), 20-25; Andrew Lambert, Geschichte der Kartographie von Palastina, Zeitschrift des "Within cannon shot of deep water": the Syrian DeutschenPaldstina Vereins62 (1939): 169-89, 63 (1940): campaign of 1840, in SeapowerAshore:200 Yearsof Royal 1-111; Isaac Schattner, The Map of Eretz-Israel and Its Navy Operations on Land, ed. Peter Hore (London, History (Jerusalem, Mosad Bialik, 1951) (in Hebrew); Chatham, 2000), 79-95; Caesar E. Farah, The Politics of Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, The first surveyed maps of Jerusa- Interventionismin Ottoman Lebanon, 1830-1861 (London, lem, Eretz-Israel: Archaeological, Historicaland Geographical Centre for Lebanese Studies; New York, L.B. Tauris; Studies 11 (1973): 64-74 (in Hebrew); Haim Goren, Go 2000), 30-51. View the Land: German Study of Palestine in the Nineteenth 8. Yolande Jones, British military surveys of Palestine Century (Jerusalem, Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1999) (in and Syria 1840-1841, The CartographicJournal 10:1 Hebrew). (1973): 29-41. The map of Jerusalem was published as a 3. Haim Goren, The chase after the Bible: individuals supplement to the second edition of George Williams, The and institutions-and the study of the Holy Land, in Holy City:Historical,Topographical AntiquarianNoticesof and Religion, Ideologyand GeographicalThought, ed. Ute War- Jerusalem (London, J. W. Parker, 1849), Appendix, 9-13. denga and Witold J. Wilczynski, WSP Kielce Studies in See also Ben-Arieh, The first surveyed maps of Jerusa- Geography 3 (Kielce, Wydawnictwo JENOSC, 1998), 103- lem (see note 2), 69-71. 15. On geopiety and geo-religion see John Kirkland 9. Edward Aldrich and John F. A. Symonds, Plan of the Wright, Notes on American geopiety, in Human Nature in town and environsof Jerusalem... from the original drawing Geography: Fourteen Papers 1925-1965, ed. John Kirkland of the surveymade in the month of March 1841 . . . (London, Wright (Cambridge, Mass., Harvard University Press, engraved by Joseph Wilson Lowry; imprint James Wyld, 1966), 250-88; Yi-Fu Tuan, Geopiety: a theme in mans 1841). See Eran Laor and Shoshana Klein, Maps of the Holy attachment to nature and to place, in Geographiesof the Land: Cartobibliography Printed Maps, 1475-1900 (New of Mind:Essaysin HistoricalGeosophy Honorof John Kirkland in York, Alan R. Liss; Amsterdam, Meridian, 1986), no. 939; Wright,ed. David Lowenthal and Martyn J. Bowden (New Ben-Arieh, The first surveyed maps of Jerusalem (see York, Oxford University Press, 1976), 11-39; Ruth Kark, note 2), 71-72. Sweden and the Holy Land: pietistic communal settle- 10. William R. OByrne, A Naval BiographicalDictionary; ment, Journal of HistoricalGeography22:1 (1996): 46-67 Comprising Life and Serviceof Every Living Officer Her the in (hereafter JHG). MajestysNavy ... [1849] (Polstead, Suffolk, J. B. Hayward 4. Herbert Henry Asquith, Lettersto Venetia Stanley, ed. & Son, 1990), 2: 1152; Sir William Symonds, The Michael and Eleanor Brock (Oxford and New York, Dictionaryof National Biography (London, Smith, Elder & Oxford University Press, 1982). 477-78. I am grateful to Co., 1921-1922), 19: 278-79 (hereafter DNB); Frederic Shimon Gibson who called my attention to this source. Boase, Modem English Biography (London, Frank Cass & Lieutenant (later Colonel) Claude Reignier Conder, Royal Co., 1965), vol. 3, 860. At the time, Admiral Sir Francis106 Engineers, became the head of the Survey of Western Beaufort served as Chief Hydrographer of the British
  • 24. Navy, in charge of the measuring and mapping projects 9 (1839): 308-10). See also Wilson, Recent surveys in(Llewellyn Styles Dawson, Memoirsof Hydrography, Includ- Sinai and Palestine (note 13), 212. who have Serveding Brief Biographiesof the Principal Officers 19. The Mittheilungen,edited by the cartographer Augustin H.M. Naval SurveyingServicebetween the Years 1750 and Petermann (1822-1878), began publication in 1855 at the1885 [1885] (London, Cornmarket Press, 1969) vol. 1, 1- Perthes publishing house in Gotha (Goren, Go View the15; Baruch Rosen, Survey of the coast of Palestine by the Land (see note 2), 89-93).Royal Navy, Cathedra64 (July 1992): 59-78, esp. 64 (in 20. Godlewska, GeographyUnbound (see note 1), 199-Hebrew). 203, esp. 202. 11. Charles Rochfort Scott, Map of Syria, constructed from 21. On the Dead Sea and some positions in Syria, JRGSthe surveysand sketchesof the undermentioned officersin that 7 (1837): 456. See also Barbara Kreiger, Living Waters:country in 1840, 1841, by Major C. RochfortScott, R. Staff- Myth, History, and Politics of The Dea Sea (New York,Corps,under whosegeneral directionthe work was undertaken, Continuum, 1988), 60-94; Haim Goren, How low is theMajor F. H. Robe, 87th Fusiliers and R. Wilbraham, 7th lowest point on earth? The story of determining the levelFusiliers,and Lieut. J. F. A. Symonds,R. Engineers(London, of the Dead Sea (in press).John Arrowsmith, 1846). See Jones, British military 22. The Royal Geographical Society reported the debatesurveys of Palestine (note 8), 38-39. Rochfort Scott in its journal: Robinson, Depression of the Dead Sea andretired on 1864 and became, until 1869, governor of of the Jordan valley (see note 13), 87; Edward Robinson,Guernsey. Depression of the Dead Sea and the Jordan valley, 12. Carl Ritter, The Comparative Geography Palestineand of Bibliotheca sacra 5 (1848): 397-409. See also Kreiger, Livingthe SinaiticPeninsula [1866], translated by William L. Gage Waters(note 21), 60-75; Goren, Go Viewthe Land (note 2),(New York, Greenwood Press, 1968), 2: 85. 91. 13. Edward Robinson, Depression of the Dead Sea and 23. Robinson, Depression of the Dead Sea and of theof the Jordan valley, Journal of the Royal Geographical Jordan valley (see note 13), 87; August Petermann, OnSociety 18:2 (1848): 84-87 (hereafter JRGS); Williams, the fall of the Jordan, and of the principal rivers in theSupplement (see note 8) 128-130; Charles William United Kingdom, JRGS 18 (1848): 89-104; AugustWilson, Recent surveys in Sinai and Palestine, JRGS 43 Petermann, Die projektirte Kanalisirung des Isthmus(1873): 213. See also Charles M. Watson, TheLifeof Major- von Sues. Nebst Andeutungen iiber die Hohen Verhalt-General Sir Charles William Wilson, Royal Engineer ... nisse der angrenzenden Regionen, besonders Palastina,(London, John Murray, 1909). Mittheilungenaus Justus Perthesgeographischer Anstalt iber 14. Charles William Meredith van de Velde, Memoir to wichtige neue Erforschungenaus dem GesammtgebietederAccompany Map of the Holy Land (Gotha, Justus Perthes, the Geographie1 (1855): 371-75 (hereafter PM).1858), 5-6; Jones, British military surveys of Palestine 24. Dr P.-r [August Plarr], Zur Geographie von Palas-(see note 8), 38-39. tina, Magazinfir die Literaturdes Auslandes 1857, nos. 65, 15. Edward Robinson, Biblical Researches in Palestine, 74. See Reinhold Rohricht, BibliothecaGeographica Palaes-Mount Sinai and Arabia Petraea in 1838 (3 vols., London, tinae: ChronologischesVerzeichnis der von 333 bis 1878J. Murray, 1841; Boston, Crocker and Brewster, 1841); verfasstenLiteratur iber das Heilige Land, mit dem Versuchidem., Paldstina und die siidlich angrenzenden Liinder: einer Kartographie[Berlin, 1890], ed. David H. K. AmiranTagebucheiner Reise im Jahre 1838 in Bezug auf die biblische (Jerusalem, The Universitas Booksellers, 1963), 487. NoGeographie unternommen(3 vols, Halle, Weisenhaus, 1841). biographical details are available for Plarr.See also Henry Boynton Smith and Rosewell D. Hitchcock, 25. Es ware der Geographischen Anstalt zu GothaThe Life, Writingsand Character Edward Robinson [1863] of wiirdig, ein wissenschaftliches Unternehmen hervorzur-(New York, Arno Press, 1977); Frederick Jones Bliss, The ufen, das fur die ganze Christenheit von universellemDevelopmentof Palestine Exploration (New York, Charles Interesse sein wiirde. Ihr Organ, die "Mittheilungen",Scribners Sons, 1907), 184-223; Yehoshua Ben-Arieh, konnte einen Aufruf an alle christlichen Regierungen zurThe Rediscovery the Holy Land in the Nineteenth Century of Bildung einer internationalen Kommission erlassen,(Jerusalem, The Magnes Press and Israel Exploration welche den Zweck hatte, mit alien wissenschaftlichen,Society; Detroit, Wayne State University Press, 1979), 85- artistischen und pekuniaren Hulfsmitteln nicht nur eine93. Erforschung, sondern eine vollstandige Triangulation und 16. Heinrich Berghaus, Karte von Syrien, den Manen Detail-Aufnahme des ganzen Gebietes von PalastinaJacotins und Burckhardt gewidmet, in Berghaus, Geo- (Aufruf zu einer grossen Vermessung Palastinas, PM 4graphischesMemoir (see note 6); Heinrich Berghaus and (1858): 342).Friedrich von Stiilpnagel, Paldstina nach den zuverldssigsten 26. Ferro (Hierro) is the easternmost of the Canaryalten und neuen Quellen, mit Text von Karl von Raumer Islands, where in 1634 the 0? meridian was established. (Gotha, Justus Perthes, 1844). The meridian lies 18 degrees to the west of Greenwich. 17. Goren, Go View the Land (see note 2), 80-89; Haim The given longitude passes east of Damascus.Goren, Carl Ritters contributions to Holy Land research, 27. . . . nur durch vereinte kraftige Anstregungen diein Textand Image:Social Construction RegionalKnowledge, of Christenheit dazu gelangen wird, das Land, ... ined. Anne Buttimer, Stanley D. Brunn and Ute Wardenga, Wirklichkeit ganz zu kennen (Aufruf zu einer grossenBeitrdgezur RegionalenGeographie49 (Leipzig, Institut fur Vermessung Palastinas (see note 25), 342).Landerkunde, 1999), 28-37; Haim Goren, Heinrich 28. For Petermanns contribution to the cartography ofKiepert in the Holy Land, spring 1870: sketches from an Palestine, see Goren, Go View the Land (note 2), 89-95.exploration-tour of an historical cartographer, in Antike 29. Dawson, Memoirsof Hydrography (see note 10), 2: 93- Welten Neue Regionen: Heinrich Kiepert 1818-1899, ed. 111. See also Andrew Lambert, The Admiralty, theLothar Zogner, Staatsbibliothek zu Berlin, PreuBischer "Trent" crisis of 1861 and the strategy of imperialKulturbesitz, Ausstellungskataloge, Neue Folge 33 (Berlin, defence, in Les marines francaise et britannique face auxKiepert KG, 1999), 45-61. Atats-Unisde la guerre dIndependence la guerre de Secession a 18. Berghauss letter was published in the Societys (1766-1865) (VIIes Journees franco-britanniques dhistoirejournal (Extract from a letter of Professor Berghaus, JRGS de la Marine, Vincenne, Service historique de la Marine, 107
  • 25. 1999), 305-23, esp. 310-13. On the Hydrographic Office for example, vol. 2, 694-96 (Palestine Literature), and the of the Navy and its activity see Roger Morris, 200 years of words of the editor (vol. 1, Appendix, p. x): Mr. George Admiralty charts and surveys, MarinersMirror82 (1996): Grove of Sydenham, besides contributing the articles to 420-35. For a list of the heads of the office see John which his initial is attached, has rendered the Editor Christopher Sainty, ed., Admiralty Officials 1660-1870, important assistance in writing the majority of the articles in Office-Holders ModernBritain, 4 (London, Athlone Press on the more obscure names in the first volume, in the for University of London, 1975), 77, 156. correction of the proofs, and in the revision of the whole 30. Roderick Impey Murchinson, Address to the Royal book. Concerning Groves Victorian nature, his deep Geographical Society of London, JRGS 31 (1861): interest in various fields, and his connection with biblical cxxxviii-cxli; Dawson, Memoirs of Hydrography(see note studies and Palestine, see Vivian D. Lipman, The origins 10), 108; Rosen, Survey of a the coast of Palestine (see of the Palestine Exploration Fund, PEQ 120 (1988): 45- note 10), 67; Badr el-Hage, The first scientific mission in 54, esp. 46. See also Charles Larcom Graves, The Life and 1860 to the Cedars of Mount Lebanon, Archaeology& Letters of Sir George Grove (London and New York, Historyin Lebanon, 12 (2000): 69-81. On Hooker see Lucile Macmillan, 1903); Percy Marshall Young, George Grove H. Brockway, Scienceand ColonialExpansion:The Roleof the 1820-1900 (London, Macmillan, 1980). British Royal Botanic Gardens (New York and elsewhere, 40. Arthur Penrhyn Stanley, Sinai and Palestine in Academic Press, c.1979), 84-99. Connexionwith Their History (London, J. Murray, 1856). 31. Rosen, Survey of the coast of Palestine (see note See also Ben-Arieh, The Rediscovery the Holy Land (note of 10). See also Titus Tobler, Neuere wissenschaftliche 15), 153-54. Reisen des Marine-Officiers Mansell und des Herzogs 41. For the aims of the Palestine Exploration Fund, see von Luynes nach Palastina, Das Ausland 38 (1865): 322- Charles Moore Watson, Palestine Exploration Fund: Fifty 24; Wilson, Recent surveys in Sinai and Palestine (note YearsWorkin the Holy Land, a Record and a Summary1865- 13), 216; Dawson, Memoirs of Hydrography(note 10), 2: 1915 (London, The Committee of the Palestine Explora- 101-11. tion Fund, 1915), 65-80, esp. 22-28. Watson does not 32. Mediterranean. Coastof Syria. Sheet 3. Ras en-Nakara to mention Washington, although he discusses the back- El Arish. Surveyedby The Officers H.M. Ship Fireflyunder the of ground to the establishment of the Fund at length, and the directionof Commr.A. L. Mansell, R.N. in 1862 (London, prospectus mentions the measurement of the coast of Admiralty, 1864-1865); MediterraneanSea. Syria. Bay of Palestine (ibid., 11-16, 26). See also Lipman, The origins Acre. Surveyedby Messrs. ThomasA. Hull & F. B. Christian, of the Palestine Exploration Fund (note 39); Haim Goren, R.N. under the direction of Commr. A. L. Mansell, R.N. Scientific organizations as agents of change: the Palestine (London, J. & C. Walker, 1863). For a list of Mansells Exploration Fund, the Deutsche Verein zur Erforschung maps, see R6hricht, Bibliotheca Geographica Palaestinae Paldstinas and nineteenth-century Palestine, JHG 27:2 (note 24), 652-53; Rosen, Survey of the coast of (2001): 153-65, esp. 154-56. Examination of some of the Palestine (note 10), 77-78. contemporary studies reveals no mention of Washington: 33. Arthur Lukis Mansell, Coast survey of Palestine, Ben Arieh, The Rediscovery the Holy Land (see note 15); of NauticalMagazine,October 1862, 505-8; idem., A survey- Neil Asher Silberman, Digging for God and Country: ing trip through the Holy Land, Nautical Magazine, Exploration,Archeology,and the Secret Strugglefor the Holy January 1863, 36-40. See also Rosen, Survey of the Land 1799-1917 (New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1982), 113- coast of Palestine (note 10), 74-76. 23; Naomi Shepherd, The Zealous Intruders:The Western 34. Washingtons text was published in Earl de Grey and Rediscovery Palestine(London, Collins, 1987); John James of Ripon, Admiralty surveys, Proceedings of the Royal Moscrop, Measuring Jerusalem: The Palestine Exploration Geographical Society of London 4 (1859-1860): 150-52. Fund and BritishInterests the HolyLand (London and New in Washington distributed a slightly different version of his York, Leicester University Press, 2000). text as a circular; dated 1 May 1860, it now had a short 42. Van de Velde, Memoirto Accompany Map of the Holy the preface discussing the results of the coastal survey. The Land (see note 14), 1. See also Johannes Godefridus circular was sent to Petermann, who had it translated and Frederiks, Biographischwoordenboekder Noord- en Zuidne- published: [A. Petermann], Die neuen Englischen Auf- derlandscheletterkunde(Amsterdam, L. J. Veen, 1888), 39; nahmen in Syrien u. Palastine; Aufforderung an die Ben-Arieh, The Rediscovery the Holy Land (see note 15), of Freunde der Geographie des Hell. Landes, PM 6 (1860): 130-31. 480-81. 43. Map of the Holy Land constructed C. W. M. van de by 35. For example, Washington failed to cite Ritters list of Velde ... from his own surveys in 1851 & 1852; from those elevations in Palestine, which is much more accurate than made in 1841 by Majors Robe and Rochfort Scott, Lieut. Washingtons. Carl Ritter, Vergleichende Erdkundeder Sinai- Symonds and other officersof Her Majestys Corps of Royal Halbinsel, von Palistina und Syrien, 2, part 1 (Berlin: G. and Engineers; from the resultsof the Researches made by Lynch, Reimer, 1850), 477-78, and a correction on page xx of the Robinson, Wilson, Burckhardt, Seetzen etc. (Gotha, Justus list of Printers errors and essential improvements. On Perthes, 1858). See also Rohricht, BibliothecaGeographica pages 478-79 Ritter continues with details of relative Palaestinae (note 24 above), 616; Ben-Arieh, The Redis- levels above the area. coveryof the Holy Land (see note 15), 147. 36. Dank der Englischen Admiralitat und Dank beson- 44. Van de Velde, Memoirto Accompany Map of the Holy the ders dem hohen wissenschaftlichen Standpunkte des Land (see note 14), 1. See also Wilson, Recent surveys in jetzigen Chefs der Admiralitats-Aufnahmen, Captain Sinai and Palestine (note 13), 214. Washington (Petermann, Die neuen Englischen Aufnah- 45. Shepherd, The Zealous Intruders (see note 41), 198. men in Syrien (see note 34), 480). See also lve Gran-Aymerich, Naissance de larcheologie 37. Ripon, Admiralty surveys (see note 34), 150. modeme 1798-1945 (Paris, CNRS editions, 1998), 190-92. 38. William Smith, ed., A Dictionaryof the Bible, Compris- 46. Esquisse du littoral de la Mer Morte et de la Moabitide ing Its Antiquities,Biography,Geography and Natural History, dapres la Carteinedite, levee en 1851, par Fel. De Saulcy . . . 3 vols. (London, J. Murray, 1860-1863). (Paris, Thiery Freres, 1852). See Louis-Felicien Joseph108 39. For Groves contribution to Smiths dictionary, see, Caignart de Saulcy, Carnetsde Voyageen Orient1845-1869,
  • 26. ed. Fernande Bassan (Paris, Presses Universitaires de 55. On Francis Rawdon Chesney, see DNB, 4 (1917),France, 1855), 212 (n. 234). 195-98. Chesneys books are TheExpedition the Surveyof for 47. Ernest Renan, Mission de Phenicie, texte (Paris, the Rivers Euphrates and Tigris, Carriedon by Order of theImprimerie imperiale, 1871). See also Gran-Aymerich, British Government, in the Years 1835, 1836, and 1837,Naissance de larcheologie moderne (note 45), 193-94; Precededby Geographical and HistoricalNoticesof the RegionsWilson, Recent surveys in Sinai and Palestine (note SituatedBetweenthe RiversNile and Indus, 4 vols. (London,13), 215-16. Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1850); and 48. Cartedu Liban dapres les Reconnaissances la Brigade de Narrative of the EuphratesExpeditionCarriedon by Orderof duTopographique Corps Expeditionnaire Syrieen 1860-1861 de the British Government during the Years1835, 1836 and 1837(Paris, Lemercier, 1862). See also Ernest Renan, Missionde (London, Longmans, Green, and Co., 1868). See alsoPhenicie (note 47); Gran-Aymerich, Naissancede larcheolo- Elath, Britains Routesto India (note 54), 49-97; 149-80.gie moderne(note 45), 193-94; Wilson, Recent surveys in 56. Elath, Britains Routesto India (see note 54); HalfordSinai and Palestine (note 13), 215-16; Farah (see note 9), Lancaster Hoskins, BritishRoutesto India (London, Octagon647-674. Books, 1966). For Henry Blosse Lynch, see DNB, 12 49. Honore Theodoric Paul Joseph dAlbert, duc de (1909), 333-34; Chesney, Narrative of the EuphratesLuynes, Voyagedexplorationa la Mer Morte, a Petra et sur Expedition(note 55), 547-48. For the reports see Chesney,la rive gauche du Jourdain, ed. Charles Jean Melchior de Narrative of the Euphrates Expedition (note 55); HenryVogue, 3 vols. and Atlas (Paris, A. Bertrand, 1871-1876); Blosse Lynch, Memoirs, in three parts of the RiverLouis Lartet, Explorationgeologique de la Mer Morte, de la Euphrates, Transactions the Bombay GeographicalSociety ofPalestineet de lIdumee (Paris, A. Bertand, 1878). The maps 6 (1841-1844), 169-86. For a partial list of the maps, seeare Cartegeologiquedes bords de la Mer Morte,dressee sous A Catalogueof Manuscriptand Printed Reports,Field Books,les auspices de Mr. Le Duc de Luynes par Louis Lartet (in Memoirs,Maps, etc., of The Indian Surveys, depositedin TheLartets book); Cartegeologiquedu basin de la MerMorteet des Map Room of the India Office(London, W. H. Allen et al.,regionsde la Syrie,de la Palestineet de lArabiePetree,dressee 1878), 489-98. Articles, papers and maps (usually onsous les auspices de Mr. Le Duc de Luynes par Louis larger scale) were published in the JRGS, particularly inLartet, and Esquisse geologiquegenerale de la Syrie,des Arabie volumes 4 (1834) to 11 (1841), and later the works ofPetr&e de IEgypte, et dressee sous les auspices de Mr. Le Duc Felix Jones and Luynes par Louis Lartet (in de Luynes book). See also 57. Elath, Britains Routesto India (see note 54), 98-135;Gran-Aymerich, Naissance de larcheologie moderne (note Hoskins, British Routes to India (see note 56), 180-82;45), 285. Chesney, Narrative (note 55), 547-48. On Felix Jones, see 50. Leves en Galilde,faisant suite a la Carte du Liban de Dawson, Memoirsof Hydrography(note 10), 1: 88-90.lEtat-MajorFrancais, Execut6sen 1870 par M.M. Mieulet et 58. Moscrop, MeasuringJerusalem (see note 41), 123.Derrien, CapitainesdEtat-Major,1:100 000. See also Wil- 59. Claude Reignier Conder and Horatio Herbert Kitch-son, Recent surveys in Sinai and Palestine (note 13), 217; ener, Map of Western Palestine in 26 sheets from surveysDov Gavish, French cartography of the Holy Land in the conducted the committeeof the Palestine ExplorationFund fornineteenth century, PEQ 126 (1994): 24-31; Moscrop, ... 1872-1877 (London, Palestine Exploration Fund,MeasuringJerusalem(note 41), 85. 1880). 51. Goren, Go View the Land (see note 2), 255-59. 60. Hoskins, British Routesto India (see note 56), 177. 52. Sandreczkis manuscript is presented as a facsimile 61. Walter Besant, The general work of the Society, inphotograph at the end of the 1980 edition of Wilsons The Cityand the Land:A Courseof SevenLectures the Work onbook: Charles William Wilson, Ordnance Surveyof Jerusalem of the Society,ed. Palestine Exploration Fund (London and(London, H.M. Stationery Office, G. E. Eyre and W. New York, A. P. Watt, 1892), 105; Ben-Arieh, TheSpottiswoode, printers, 1865; facsimile ed. Jerusalem, Rediscovery the Holy Land (see note 15), 191; Moscrop, ofAriel, 1980). MeasuringJerusalem(see note 41). 53. Carl Sandreczki, Warrens Ausgrabungen in Jerusa- 62. Moscrop, MeasuringJerusalem(see note 41), 95-125.lem, PM 14 (1868): 293-94; idem, Briefe aus Palastina, 63. Colonel Home of the British War Office to its ChiefDas Ausland 44 (1871): 810; idem, Wozu uns Deutscher Secretary, 19.5.1877, cited by Moscrop, MeasuringJerusa-der "Palestine Exploration Fund" ermahnt, Das Ausland lem (see note 41), 119 (according to Palestine Exploration47 (1874): 114-15. Fund Archives, London, Letter Book entry, 29). 54. Eliahu Elath, BritainsRoutesto India: BritishProjects in 64. Ibid.1834-1872 for linking the Mediterranean with the Persian Gulf 65. Alexander Scholch, Europa und Palastina 1838-by SteamNavigationon the Euphratesand by EuphratesValley 1917, in Die Paldstina-Frage 1917-1948: historischeRailway (Jerusalem, The Magnes Press, 1971) (in Urspriingeund internationaleDimensioneneines Nationalkon-Hebrew), 25-42; Marriott, Eastern Question (see note 7), flikts, ed. Helmut Mejcher and Alexander Scholch (Pader-223-26; Jacob Coleman Hurewitz, Diplomacyin the Near born, Schoningh, 1981), 30-34.and Middle East; A DocumentaryRecord:1535-1914 (New 66. Moscrop, MeasuringJerusalem(see note 41), 129-36,York, Octagon Books, 1972), 106. ref. on 135. 109
  • 27. mais non cartographiee: levestopographiques la Palestineau XIXe siecle Terresacree, les de Au XIXe siacle, les projets de cartographie de la Palestine a partir de leves topographiques densemble ont atteint leur apogee avec lOrdnance Survey de la Palestine occidentale, realis6 entre 1871 et 1877 par des officiers du corps royal des ingenieurs de larmee britannique sur lordre du Fonds dExploration de la Palestine. Nous presentons aussi divers autres projets de leves topographiques du pays au XIXe siecle- certains furent en partie executes, dautres ne furent pas meme commences. Le cas de la Mesopotamie, cartographiee au cours des annees 1830 et 1840, est analyse pour comprendre les causes du retard relatif de ces leves topographiques. Le caractere sacre de la terre palestinienne ne semble pas avoir suffi pour convaincre les entrepreneurs dorganiser et de financer de tels leves. Cependant, le retard du projet de cartographie densemble du territoire sexplique avant tout par son faible interet, tant strategique que geopolitique, avant le dernier quart du XIXe siecle, pour les pays europeens rivalisant au Proche-Orient. Heilig aber nicht kartiert:Landesvermessungen Paldstina im 19. Jahrhundert von Die Kartierungsprojekte des 19. Jahrhunderts in Palastina, die auf einer systematischen Landvermessung basierten, erreichten mit dem Ordnance Survey of Western Palastine zwischen 1871 und 1877, der im Auftrag vom Palestine Exploration Fund durch Offiziere des British Royal Engineering Corps durchgefuhrt wurde, einen Hohepunkt. Dariiber hinaus werden verschiedene andere Vorschldge fur organisiert durchgefiihrte Vermessungen des Landes, von denen einige Teilergebnisse lieferten, wahrend andere noch nicht einmal begonnen wurden, vorgestellt. Anhand der Vermessung Mesopotamiens in den 1830er und den 1840er Jahren werden die Griinde fiir die erst relativ spat stattfindende topographische Vermessung diskutiert. Dass das Gebiet heilig war, scheint fur mogliche Unternehmer kein ausreichend iiberzeugendes Motiv gewesen zu sein, die Vermessung zu organisieren und zu finanzieren. Die Hauptursache fur die verspatete Kartierung des Landes lag in seiner geringen geopolitischen und strategischen Bedeutung fur die Europaer. Das anderte sich erst im letzten Viertel des 19. Jahrhunderts, als sich die Europaischen Staaten in internationale Auseinandersetzungen im Mittleren Osten verwickelt sahen. Tierrasagrada pero no cartografiada. levantamientos Los topogrdficos Palestina en el siglo XIX de En el siglo XIX, los proyectos para hacer mapas de Palestina a partir de levantamientos topograficos de conjunto, alcanzaron su apogeo con la Ordnance Survey de Palestina occidental y fueron realizados entre 1871 y 1877 por oficiales del real cuerpo de ingenieros del ejercito britanico por cuenta de los Fondos de Exploraci6n de Palestina. Se exponen en el articulo otros proyectos de levantamientos topograficos del pais en el siglo XIX, algunos parcialmente realizados y otros que ni siquiera se iniciaron. El caso de Mesopotamia, cartografiada en los afios de 1830 y 1840, es analizado para comprender las causas del relativo retraso de estos levantamientos. El caracter sagrado Palestina no parece haber influido en los organizadores para poner en marcha y financiar los trabajos. El retraso en iniciar un plan de levantamientos del territorio, se explica por el escaso interes estrategico y geopolftico que tenian los paises europeos involucrados en el Proximo Oriente antes del ultimo cuarto del siglo XIX.110