Sacred, but Not Surveyed: Nineteenth-Century Surveys of PalestineAuthor(s): Haim GorenReviewed work(s):Source: Imago Mundi...
Sacred, But Not Surveyed: Nineteenth-Century Surveys                         of Palestine                                 ...
Fig. 1. Jean BaptisteBourguignondAnvillesmap of Palestine,dated 1767 but publishedabout 1771 in Jean Baptiste     Bourguig...
survey of France, but given the circumstances of a                                                          military campa...
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Proposals for Large-Scale Surveying                Palestine into writing. He did so in 1848, at the                      ...
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Damascus, and almost the whole of Lebanon.26            joined by Washington, accompanied by threePlarr considered it beyo...
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relating to Palestine. He also described how little        William Smith had started work on his diction-information was a...
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  1. 1. Sacred, but Not Surveyed: Nineteenth-Century Surveys of PalestineAuthor(s): Haim GorenReviewed work(s):Source: Imago Mundi, Vol. 54 (2002), pp. 87-110Published by: Imago Mundi, Ltd.Stable URL: .Accessed: 20/03/2012 12:26Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at . is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact Imago Mundi, Ltd. is collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Imago Mundi.
  2. 2. Sacred, But Not Surveyed: Nineteenth-Century Surveys of Palestine HAIM GORENABSTRACT:Nineteenth-century Palestine mapping projects based on systematic land surveying reached apeak with the Ordnance Survey of Western Palestine between 1871 and 1877, conducted on behalf of thePalestine Exploration Fund by officers of the British Royal Engineering Corps. Various other nineteenth-century proposals for an organized survey of the country-some of which bore partial results while otherswere never implemented-are also presented. The surveying of one region, Mesopotamia, during the 1830sand 1840s, forms the basis for the discussion of the reasons for the relative lateness of the topographicalsurvey. The sacredness of the region seems not to have been a sufficiently convincing motive forentrepreneurs to organize and finance such a survey. The main reason for the delay in mapping the countryas a whole was that it was not especially important, either strategically or geo-politically, for the Europeannations engaged in the international struggles in the Middle East until the last quarter of the nineteenthcentury.KEYWORDS: Palestine, Holy Land, Mesopotamia, geo-religion, cartography, routes to India, OrdnanceSurvey, Palestine Exploration Fund, Survey of Western Palestine, Francis Rauford Chesney, August Plarr,Ernest Renan, Edward Robinson, Carl Sandreczki, Felicien de Saulcy, John Washington, Charles W. Wilson.At the start of the nineteenth century, cartogra- of the entire country-from Dan to Beer Sheba-phers wanting to compile a map of Palestine and did not appear before the 1870s.2the surrounding countries were obliged to rely on An enduring element in the historical develop-maps created from a few widely scattered and ment of Palestine has been its religious importance.inaccurate geodetic measurements. The early maps Many centuries of European biblical scholarshipof Palestine, including those produced by Jean resulted in the accumulation of a wealth ofBaptiste Bourguignon dAnville (1697-1782) and Christian-inspired interest in the Holy Land. Thehis followers were unsatisfactory, mainly because area of biblical Palestine constituted a place wherethey had to use measurements that were too few, history and development were inspired and guidedsporadic and inaccurate (Fig. 1).1 Cartographers by its sacredness.Geo-religious perceptionwanting to compile maps of the country were inspired research of some regions, such as theobliged to rely mainly on historical sources andtravellers descriptions. As the century progressed, Dead Sea and the Jordan valley; certain sites, suchhowever, the volume of material based on rela- as Jerusalem, Bethlehem and Nazareth; and specifictively reliable and accurate measurement began to subjects, such as biblical wildlife and the inhabitantsincrease. Even so, a complete trigonometric survey of Palestine as descendants of the ancient residents . Dr Haim Goren, Tel-Hai Academic College, Upper Galilee 12210 Israel; The Leon Recanati Institute forMaritime Studies, University of Haifa, Mount Carmel, Haifa 31905, Israel. Tel. (972) 54 6938665; and (972)54 369196. Fax (972) 4 6935625. E-mail: <>. ? Imago Mundi, Vol. 54, 2002, 87-110. 87
  3. 3. Fig. 1. Jean BaptisteBourguignondAnvillesmap of Palestine,dated 1767 but publishedabout 1771 in Jean Baptiste Bourguignon A dAnville, Complete of Ancient Body Geography (London,RobertSayer, 1771?). 37.5 X 42.0 cm. The inserted mapsshow (topleft)the Biblical tribal (below)the cityof Jerusalem the SecondTemple territories; in Period;and,on the right, PlacesLaiddown by Distancesgiven on a Scalereducedto a Third. EranLaorCartographic Collection, 36. (Reproduced No. with permissionfromThe JewishNationaland University Library, HebrewUniversity Jerusalem: 448.) The of Pal and guardians of their traditions, customs and way Kitchener (1850-1916)-by then Minister of War of life.3 and, in the 1870s through the illness of Claude It is usually assumed that the traditional Eur- Reignier Conder (1848-1910), in command of the opean interest in Palestine was both the catalyst for, final stages of the Palestine Exploration Funds and the major influence on, the organized scientific Ordnance Survey of Western Palestine-was telling study (including mapping) of the region in the the British Cabinet that he thought that Palestine modern period. My own view is that the reverse is was of little value, strategically or in any other way, the case, and that research based on systematic land and that the country had not even a single useful survey and the comprehensive use of trigonometric port.4 measurement was actually delayed for several Throughout the nineteenth century and into the decades by the fact that Palestine was deemed of early twentieth, the significance of Palestine rested insufficient political importance to justify large- solely on its religious tradition. Those who could scale investment of time or money. The detailed have mounted a large-scale scientific survey topographical mapping of western Palestine was ignored the region, although numerous European not a priority for England or any other European individuals, including members of small learned88 government. Even as late as 1915 Herbert Horatio associations, were willing to embark on projects of
  4. 4. survey of France, but given the circumstances of a military campaign, the shortage of time and the impossibility of reaching parts of the country, the measurements that he and his team managed to make while briefly in Palestine were incomplete.6 In the summer of 1840, a number of English army officers, drawn from the engineering, infan- try, artillery and staff corps, were sent to Syria. They were part of the English army dispatched to Syria (a term generally used for the area covering also Palestine, Lebanon and parts of the region east of the Jordan) in an attempt to end Egyptian rule of Palestine and Syria and to reinstate the Ottoman regime. The expeditionary force also included Austrian troops.7 A small group of Royal Sappers and Miners under the command of LieutenantFig.2. Jacotinsmap of Galilee (1810). Detail from the Edward Aldrich landed in Beirut in mid-September, deCartetopographique IEgypte,Sheet 46: Acre, Nazareth,LeJourdain (Paris, Commission des monuments dEgypte to be joined over the next few weeks by officers1818). 1:100 000. 49.5 x 78.5 cm. EranLaorCartographic from the Royal Engineers, including Major RalphCollection, 46. (Reproduced No. with permissionfromThe Carr Alderson, Lieutenant John Frederick AnthonyJewish National and University Library, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem: 2? 53C 8677.) Symonds and Lieutenant Charles Francis Skyring. Together, they measured and mapped the fortifica-more limited scope. The aim in this paper is to tions of several coastal cities in the course of normalprovide an overview of these small-scale survey military surveying expeditions. In March 1841,attempts during the first half of the nineteenth they visited Jerusalem, which they surveyed for a draft map of the city on a scale of 1:4 800.8 Theircentury, which together laid the foundations for thefirst comprehensive survey in the 1870s by the map was in due course engraved by Joseph WilsonBritish. To support my argument that Palestine was Lowry and sold by James Wyld (1812-1887), withan area which attracted mapmakers but never to a the attribution copied from the original drawing of Aldrich and Symonds (Fig. 3).9degree sufficient to result in a trigonometric surveyof the whole country, the discussion will turn by The idea of going on to conduct a general survey of Palestine was raised in a letter from Symonds toway of contrast (and as a negative example) to the his father, Admiral Sir William Symonds (1782-quite different situation of neighbouring Mesopo-tamia, a region that was surveyed with considerable 1856), Surveyor of the Navy.1 With the supportinvestment of effort and resources despite having and assistance of the Foreign Secretary, Lordno religious significance. Palmerston, surveying began in May 1841. The survey area was divided into two. Lieutenant Symonds was responsible for Palestine in the Early Surveying Projects in Palestine south, and another group of officers-MajorThe first topographical measurements in Palestine Charles Rochfort Scott of the Royal Staff, Majorwere made by French army surveyors during Richard Wilbraham, of the Seventh Fusiliers, andNapoleons campaign in 1799. The atlas published Major Frederick Holt Robe, of the Eighty-seventhas a result of the trigonometric measurements and Fusiliers-oversaw the work in Syria to the north.surveys performed in Egypt and Palestine contains Before the survey could be completed, however,47 map sheets, drawn to a scale of 1:100 000, six of the military mission in Syria was terminated late inwhich cover Palestine, between northern Sinai and 1841, and by January 1842 both survey teams weresouthern Lebanon (Fig. 2).5 The officer in charge of on their way to duties elsewhere on the Britishthe French geographer-engineers in Cairo at the Empire.time of the invasion was Pierre Jacotin (1765- It was a number of years before all the field data,1827), who was also responsible for publication of drawings and journals compiled by the Englishthe atlas. He enjoyed an illustrious career as both a officers in Palestine and Syria reached the Board ofsurveyor and an administrator of the topographical Ordnance in London. Work on the map was then 89
  5. 5. ~: ~ ~ :""~"~. "1 .. - I .. Fig. 3. Edward Aldrich and John F. A. Symonds, Plan of the town and environsof Jerusalem... from the original drawing of the surveymade in the monthof March1841 ... Engraved by Joseph Wilson Lowry, imprint James Wyld, and published in London in 1841. Scale: 400 feet to an inch. 79 X 90 cm. Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, No. 939. (Reproduced with permission from The Jewish National and University Library, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem: Jer 97.) coordinated by Rochfort Scott, who managed to metres). Together with its other deficiencies, the produce a three-sheet map, on a scale of 1:253 440, measurements and the map caused a good deal of from the uncompleted survey, which was published embarrassment and provoked harsh discussion in 1846 by John Arrowsmith (1790-1873), as a among Palestine scholars. Despite the error, the limited edition exclusive to the Foreign Office." American Edward Robinson, probably the leading The results of the survey were awaited with Palestine scholar at the time, was not really justified considerable enthusiasm by the leading Palestine in rejecting the entire survey out of hand. Even scholars of the period. The geographer Carl Ritter Charles W. Wilson, Royal Engineers (1836-1905), (1779-1859) from Berlin predicted that the pub- who undertook the first Ordnance Survey of lication of the Admiralty survey of Syria would Jerusalem in 1864-1865, participated in many revolutionize the existing state of knowledge, and would make it necessary to reconstruct the maps of other surveys of the Palestine Exploration Fund Palestine de novo.12 Unfortunately, Symondss and became one of its leading figures, remarked hypsometrical measurements led to an error in that the whole [triangulation] was in too fragmen- the reported altitude of the Sea of Galilee, which he tary a state for publication.13 But the fact remains, concluded was about 328 English feet (100 metres) that the Map of Syria was studied and used for90 below sea level instead of 612 Parisian feet (199 compiling many of the later maps of Palestine.4
  6. 6. . sp, : I;i ,jK I ]fwt L5d r * I ;N ---I E - _-To4w-I.,6, _iFg~ VL-uh- s k~ II -- i "O ::,,^j %0", am, lAw *IIa . i - e -W=,>_SA~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ,I 4 ru I ( w&v"4wor MM& ss, 1 AAmv4,.a-o*y ?Srfs :: S 1<U* . :I I : * tV W4 ( wif I A ii " ij **^iaitJiw A o fl W.p X. -I i" s :rltr J; rqlY ?- i;eua * A.. fI - -* * ^ i J -4 : II . W. j(7 ,4. ;*41 tS 1 ; ::. : ir, - ,v,_ ? AV :.wt of~t .: . .. * l^ 0: -* I . r: :, cu?&1 116iu ^:, .... , at published for the Journalof the Royal GeographicalSociety by JohnFig. 4. Heinrich Berghaus, Partof ArabiaPetrxaand Palestine, 91Murray in London in 1839, showing the route taken by Edward Robinson and Eli Smith in 1838, in their travels through theunknown western part of the southern desert of Palestine (today the Negev), from Akaba to El Khulil (Hebron). 33 X 19 cm. (Reproduced with permission from the library of The German Protestant Institute of Archaeology, Jerusalem: H-6).
  7. 7. Proposals for Large-Scale Surveying Palestine into writing. He did so in 1848, at the height of the debate on the relative altitude of the Edward Robinson surface of the Dead Sea. The fact that this body of Edward Robinson (1794-1863) set out in 1838 for water was at lower elevation than the Mediterra- Syria to perform his pioneering exploration, nean had been published for the first time in 1837, together with Eli Smith (1801-1857), a Presbyter- and in the following decade hypsometric measure- ian missionary stationed in Beirut. Their studies ments were made all along the Jordan valley.21 and the publication of Biblical Researches mark the These, however, failed to settle conclusively either beginning of the modern period of scientific the altitudes of the Sea of Galilee and the Dead Sea research and survey in Palestine.5 Robinson had or the gradient of the Jordan River, which flowed studied in Germany from 1826 to 1830, and that from one to the other. Two of the protagonists were country became his scientific base. On leaving Robinson in New York and Petermann in Berlin, Palestine on the completion of his explorations, who claimed that there was nothing unusual in the Robinson travelled to Berlin to write his book slope of the Jordan and added a comparison with under the aegis of Ritter. The famous geographer the main rivers in the United Kingdom.22 It was turned to Heinrich Berghaus (1797-1884), one of clear to Robinson that the answer could only be Berlins leading cartographers, for a map for achieved through organized, systematic measure- Robinsons book. Berghaus had already published ment. Accordingly, he called on the governments of a map of Palestine in 1835 and realized just how England, or France, or Prussia, to dispatch an little information about the country was available. expedition for this purpose and he hoped that the Many of the maps in the coming years were based Geographical Societies . . . will not let the matter mainly on his work (Figs 4 and 5).16 He started rest until it shall be fully accomplished.23 work on a map for Robinson but soon left the task to the young Heinrich Kiepert (1818-1899), who August Plarr thus embarked on what was to become a long-term When Petermann became editor of Mittheilungen, involvement in the mapping of Palestine (Fig. 6).7 he took advantage of the opportunity the new Early in 1839 Berghaus wrote to Captain John journal presented to promote geographical explora- Washington, Secretary of the Royal Geographical tion throughout the world. In 1858 he published a Society, saying that he was of the opinion that it call from August Plarr, a geographer and teacher would be a great loss for geography, were the from Heidelberg, who had just returned from a tour materials collected by Messrs. Robinson and Smith of Palestine and who had produced an article on the not to be used for the construction of a map on a geography of the Gilead, a mountainous region to large scale.18 the east of the Jordan.24 Plarr envisaged an Although there were further calls for an orderly international Christian campaign to conduct a survey of Palestine, no project reached fruition. detailed triangulation of Palestine: Various proposals were published, mainly in the two leading journals of explorative geography: the It would only be worthy of the Geography Institutein Gotha to call for a scientificinitiativethat will be of Journal of the Royal Geographical Societyof Londonand universalinterestto all Christianity. Yourjournal,the Mittheilungen aus JustusPerthesgeographischer Anstalt Mittheilungen, can publish a call to all Christian iiber wichtigeneue Erforschungen dem Gesammtge- aus governments to set up an international committee that will set itself the goal of conducting,with all the biete der Geographie.l9The proposals all reflected an scientific,artistic,and financialaid, not only a study, opinion that had already been expressed by the but also a complete triangulationand detailed mea- French scientist and traveller, Constantin-Francois surementof all regionsof Palestine.25 Chasseboeuf de Volney (1757-1820). Recognizing Plarrs proposal included an exact definition of the ineffectiveness of the haphazard collection of the area to be surveyed, from Aqaba Bay in the data by a lone traveller working for a short time south to the northern corner of the Lebanon valley wherever he happened to be, de Volney had called in the north, the Mediterranean Sea in the west and for interdisciplinary groups that were government longitude 55? from Ferro (equivalent to 37? from directed and financed and that would address Greenwich) in the east. This means he was specific issues.20 suggesting a survey that would encompass not Robinson seems to have been the first to put the only Palestine but also large parts of Transjordan,92 idea of organizing a team to carry out a survey of the part of Syria lying to the south and west of
  8. 8. d i KARTE V BIO I YUU t,4,d OtI.U.NO. .,..- 0- r 7? |y"* I C - 0. I ir: "3iJpr --/__ rruu *r 1A _ABIA T..A i > u . t"^n*ut A*a xr late, x -a-tr*Allt im ,tWr*M O Ao i: f* . bobr$i .sA . - I ,m . - ??_- , I ,& ?r ,v _jltftW. r v * II#AAi . I, is . ,U" " Bil*r*e C . "-. -W, , | b ,* pl,rA :U ?t9 b c F 9bsa I" :? wur w X*t r*r# u*ur I ? :*" I Ikt1*Ck lu. rrbk kXllire imi + ** *. "n = = iis : ?)i .52dk ,uD nr -jlY -,5~url. t le tAP, Al-i tl* r ,^1 ,ral *u~uu rm.n rP "~ r~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~: r -@--t a; . :-3.i..t1L 1 Lrir* ic ^ ,.,,..,........ ^ ?,?,.... ..? ,. . ,...? .,. . . . . : ... ...... ... f 1 .b *U,~~ ~~~~~4 i : tkMl* - s tIf i I ^ ^~~~~~~~~~~~ i r I , i" j i?jj: 1 wst j a fC E i -4 e1 ?1 k ir :: h~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~::: t Sx.. . m- 4;-..?A MIf |M ILNT 9A I -*it * n : Li pl4 1 --- z i/9 I I I : :::; ::S ; v.,; t : I .: a|2O.,P ._ 5 ............:- :i , -:j. .i ;:: I IFig. 5. Premier Leutnant Renner, Karte von Paldstina, nach Grimm,Berghausund andern guten Hiilfsmitteln.Published in Berlin bySimon Schropp in 1840. 1:900 000. 35 X 48 cm. Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, No. 661. (Reproduced with permission from The Jewish National and University Library, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem: Pal 678.) 93
  9. 9. 1 rTM GXB nUW Nx GM .,I_ JErSAIEM, Tr-oa .X....r.,t _ e s_:.~~ _ A"~~~~~~" u Xa&XnefnuroentODUtSO2h0&WMITH : . ~~k 3,,ntaji, L ipet. f~ea~.~50N~FWtiOOO - " , 1% W i- :Y * ..: :-~-~-.V. ^^ t /" L~ i,~ r i,;+s.JL . 1.t )+$--f/*:1 ^^.S * ",:. * * t. A, Vr 4... .&m R~,MwnJ.k I S9 ji W4l Q Oa-iTflAr 0 I 7^ ni i ,. x Nt-f: I -V..I t i A ..f 16 jn P:"^f jD,; .i) %I I 0r I. V94
  10. 10. Damascus, and almost the whole of Lebanon.26 joined by Washington, accompanied by threePlarr considered it beyond the power of a single friends, including the botanist (later the directornation to undertake such a project. Rather, an of Kew Gardens) Joseph Dalton Hooker (1817-international delegation was required which would 1911). For the next six weeks, the group, providedinclude surveyors and researchers from Russia, with three chronometers, a theodolite, [and] sixEngland, France, Prussia and Austria, since it was barometers, would disembark to make surveyingonly by means of great combined efforts that trips to various places in Palestine, Syria andChristianity will come really to know the land [of Lebanon. On one such occasion, they visited andthe Holy Scriptures].27 fixed [the position of] the Cedars of Lebanon.30 Plarr was also conscious of the need to overcome The team finished work on the Palestinian coast invarious conflicts of interest among the different July 1861.3groups operating in the area if Ottoman opposition The survey resulted in numerous maps, some ofwas to be overcome. The lingua franca of such a them named after the various surveyors who, asdelegation, he advised, should be French, in which indicated in the captions on the maps, had workedthe surveyors from other countries could be under the direction of Commander A. L. Mansell.expected to be fluent. In an appendix to Plarrs The map of the Palestinian coast, entitled Ras en-proposal, Petermann-who was also making a Nakuirato El Arish, measuring 63 X 96 centimetresconsiderable contribution to the cartography of and drawn to a scale of 1:220 000, was publishedPalestine-expressed the hope that the powers for the first time in 1862. Another map, on the scalewould unite around a project of this type.28 of 1:45 400 and measuring 47 X 64 centimetres, portrayed the bay of Acre, the only natural John Washington anchorage along the Palestinian shore. A numberRear-Admiral John Washington (1800-1863), who of larger-scale maps were devoted to modern andhad been Secretary of the Royal Geographical historical coastal cities such as Tyre, Acre, Haifa,Society from 1836 to 1841, was appointed in Cesarea and Jaffa (Fig. 7).32 Both the maps and the1845 by Francis Beaufort, Hydrographer of the sailing instructions which Mansell had written inRoyal Navy, as the commissioner for inquiring into 1864 were still being used, with the necessarythe state of the rivers, shores, and harbours of the additions and corrections, until after the First WorldUnited Kingdom. When Washington replaced War.33Beaufort as Chief Hydrographer to the Admiralty Firsthand experience in Syria and Palestineten years later, he expanded the navys worldwide seems to have led Washington to give someprogramme of coastal surveys.29 One project he thought to the need for a systematic survey. I aminitiated was the mapping of the eastern shores of inclined to think that, being of a practical turn ofthe Mediterranean in 1856 and 1857 as part of the mind, he would have appreciated the difficulties ofactivity that followed the Crimean War and organizing and financing an international survey ofpreceded the digging of the Suez Canal, which such a large area and that he decided instead on astarted in April 1859. Under the leadership of more feasible course, by using the Royal Geogra-Commander Arthur Lukis Mansell (1815-1890), phical Society to disseminate his ideas. From 1855 itthe survey moved eastward along the coast of Egypt had become customary for the Presidents annualfrom the mouth of the Damieta. Mansell, then speech, enumerating the activities and achieve-commander of the H.M.S. Tartarus,measured the ments of the previous year (especially those relatingcoasts of Sinai and Egypt and the harbour of to exploration), to be published in the SocietysAlexandria. In 1858 his team went on to survey Proceedings.Since this included a note referring tothe Gulf of Iskenderun in southeastern Turkey, the admiralty surveys and reports, Washingtonbefore working their way southward along the was able to put his reservations in writing.34 He seteastern coast of the Mediterranean. out in the Proceedings lengthy list of subjects that a In 1860, with their new ship, H.M.S. Firefly,they warrant attention and research in Palestine andbegan to survey the coasts of Syria, Lebanon and, listed the geographical problems that requireeventually, Palestine. This project required a bigger accurate solution. He said nothing about anythan usual team with a large number of surveyors general survey, however. Washington was alsoand a scientist (usually from the field of natural trying to find a way of coordinating the researchhistory). Late in September 1860, Mansell was being carried out independently by many of our 95
  11. 11. -11- I &ANO.4 t . ;1) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~F4A 444444 41 - J- 4 - AY o44e,X4t 44 4* $* 44 444 I 44 4 4 4 44 .4 e4 4W4 4.4 to~~~~~~ ~, 4 O4V ArWK44 4A AO 4~ ~~~~ N ~ ~ *j4A%~~~~~~r44 44 444444A 444 44 ~~~~~ 4r4J~~~~~~4 44 ~~ -~ 4444 /~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~A Fi. a of 44 the Mediterranea Se.SraCa fAr.Sree ess .A ul&F .CrsinRN ne h dietino Cm r A . asllRN Dtil nrae . C ake n n odn tth y pbise dirlyonIs June 186 une 9cm1rnLo h4upriino4AmrlWshntn.S,Hdorphr :540.6 Carogrphi Colecion, No. 363 (Rpoue 43 ihprmsinfo h eis h ainladUivriyLbay 4444444Hbre4Unverityof eruale 534 : Pl countrymen on their visits to the Holy Land. nature of the region in general and the specific Claiming that their work was worth so little only themes and sites he considered worth mapping in because of lack of guidance, he suggested that detail: the identification of sites of Biblical history; someone should direct the travellers "toone or two the examination of sites with reference to some special points in accordance with the part of the special object, as the deciding between two con- coast with which they decided to begin their flicting traditions; manners and customs of the journey. The travellers would also benefit, he said. current local population that may help elucidate from material assistance with a view to encouraging biblical history; natural production that may systematic research. illuminate Biblical descriptions; linguistic matters, Out of ten topics Washington listed in the traces of ancient names and as far as possible, Proceedings worthy of research in Palestine, the as correct and uniform orthography; careful draw- first two-the accurate determination of the posi- ings of building and copies of inscriptions; traces of tion of important cities, mountains, &c. and the volcanic or other remarkable geological phenom- production of exact topographical plans of places of ena; and the examination and comparison of the interest-leave no doubt as to his ultimate inten- tombs throughout Syria and Palestine. tion: the achievement of a topographical survey. To explain and clarify his goals, Washington This interpretation is supported by the other items went on to elaborate his proposals with several96 on Washingtons list, which reflect the unique examples suggesting ways of recording all material
  12. 12. - -r- ,r- sLs. ,I .- . ,, , a A -- ! II *w-- - 9**rr~~~~~~~~? ie /,/ .4K/I. ..Oli, /1 jw _ 1 SECTIONOF TIK ROA) FROM BR5lT TO DA.ASCUS. i MAP Al ~ T;P .OF)T ---T /,-) ~ ~~~:----- ~ ~ ~ ~ CONSTRUCTED BY lat9$eK B i N L Let Datelt,: . -.-- "o--- -Chevalier of the Legion of Honour from isurveys in 1831 1852. from those made in 1841 his ow by Majors ROBE antd ROCIFORT SCOTT, Ieut.SYMODS and other officers of her Majestys Corps o Royal Engineers ; and from tlhe "Results of the Researches made by LYNCH, . OBINSON. WILSON. BUrRCKHARDHT. SEETZEN &c. 1858. GcOTILk:JUSTUSPEIRTIS. SC ,LE S. of -- Proption odrtw . I V. . I a l ? Krub wal.B , )P.I . I! I . . I I . -I I - -? - -S j - E_L . 0 0 &11 , A,*. m H- -. tw I i$I., -1 I .a . I -*-,W casr t n Or? i p U-. . . 0.T - - " Stdl . Too to Ak- "j. -. m- . I -E- r Ii It 39 . a s i a*# 4r !1 5 a Jl 3p I :eetioya I.Plate 4. Carel Willem [Charles William] Meredith van de Veldes Map of the Holy Land (1858). The map was based on a survey of 18411851 and 1852, and published in eight sections, each measuring 34 X 63 cm. Scale 1:315 000. (Reproduced with permission from T Library, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem. Pal 645.) See page 98.
  13. 13. CAITF, GEOLO(GI d~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~W QUt IW s RORDS A Dlii LA ME1R"A MIORTEF 4 dressm& Ies sowis allipices (IC M"LE DUC1DELINES I~~~ma.~~~c~~/ r~~~~ulcancq~~~~~c WY wA &x,o prenzier da!m,- ctMmV e,, Lie nuwqu6 par Irby "teur ayant, RU, vbi nu?,rr?ra-%1 4x~~~~~~~~~~~~ .? ~ W. LOUIS LARTET32 de~~~~detx4in tatL~neAd,twt l, t~~~~~~~~~~~a7 c/ ng( J wt, Liu.rcurcedvwdc c W& x cml le pa dM, / A1lj 4 rr d~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ a1eeca 4WU,de LW C t rcwtenAM v4 c k v la ewz Ifo & /,di I Itam,pnda,we dwt,a.cou d le,xa n de-ao amer 4 Kod," i, xrww d hd,. nwinI. d 44~~~~; ci4ci a eewte dic mani eell alW du - i-.i-: dPlate 5. Louis Latert, Cartegeologiquedes bordsde la MerMorte.Dresseesous les auspicesde Mr le duc de Luynespar Mr LouisLartet,geologuede Igeologiquede la MerMortede la Palestineet de lldumee . . ., (Paris, Arthus Bertand, 1878), plate 2. Scale 1:300 000. 46 X 27 cm. (Photograph s
  14. 14. relating to Palestine. He also described how little William Smith had started work on his diction-information was available, even in the late 1850s, ary in 1857 and when the last volume of hison the exact longitude, latitude and altitude of Dictionary of the Bible was published in 1863, itplaces. Figures for Jerusalem, he said, vary included a review of the newest discoveries inbetween 2200 and 2600 feet above the level of biblical geography.38 Among his collaborators onthe Mediterranean and those for Shechem (Nabu- the dictionary was George Grove (1820-1900),lus) from 1460 to 1860 feet. He concluded with a who is remembered to this day as editor of Grovescall for all interested parties to send him notes Dictionaryof Musicand Musicians.39Grove and Smithconcerning the questions or topics they wanted to had met through a mutual friend, Arthur Penrhynbe examined by those in the field. Stanley (1815-1881), Dean of Westminster, who The list of researchers cited by Washington as shared their interest in Palestinian research.40having done much for the geography of the Holy Groves deep interest in the study of Palestine andLand (among whom he included Ulrich Jasper his involvement in Smiths dictionary were likely toSeetzen, Johann Ludwig Burckhardt, Edward have been behind Groves decision to establish inRobinson, William Francis Lynch, Charles Roch- 1865 the Palestine Exploration Fund. Although thefort-Scott, John Frederick Anthony Symonds, John prospectus prepared by the sub-committee set up atLeech Porter, Charles William Meredith van de the Funds foundation meeting on 12 May 1865Velde, Stanley Lane-Poole, Cyril Graham, Arthur makes no mention of Washingtons list, it is scarcelyPenrhyn Stanley), suggests that he was hardly coincidental that the two are remarkably similar inaware of contemporary French and German writing their goals.41on the Holy Land.35 Yet we know Washington was Further Calls for a Survey of Palestinewell acquainted with August Petermann, who hadspent eight years in London before returning to The 1840s and 1850s were the years in whichGermany in 1855 and who had left behind him a trigonometric surveying was everywhere becomingreputation as a skilled cartographer and organizer the accepted basis for map making and for gainingof research expeditions. Petermann had written firsthand familiarity with the region in question.that the precise measurements which would These two decades saw the British, especially,supply a base to the mapping of Palestine had expand their surveying activity throughout thebeen achieved through Mansells survey, thanks to Empire. They also surveyed areas outside theirthe English Admiralty and, especially, thanks to the direct control, even outside their sphere of influ-highly scientific approach of the man who now ence, if they considered such areas to be of strategicheads the Admiralty measurements Captain importance. Despite its relative proximity to Suez,Washington.36 Palestine did not fall into either category; it did not Washingtons text contains a brief but perhaps constitute a factor that would attract either therevealing paragraph: How, too, is that admirable government in London or one of the imperialistwork the "Dictionary of the Bible" (the first volume trading societies to organize and invest in a survey.of which, ably edited by Dr. Smith, has recently Nor was the British government alone amongappeared) to be completed, unless we, as geogra- European governments in ignoring Palestine.phers, contribute our share towards its perfec- Even the French government, which sponsoredtion?37 We may assume that Washington included organized scientific delegations, carried out onlythe reference to William Smiths biblical dictionary, sporadic studies in Palestine. It was left to a fewwith its implicit reminder of the religious impor- individuals to survey the Holy Land. Some of these,tance of Palestine, as the only way of attracting who are mentioned below, continued advocatingresearchers and financiers to support studies of the the idea of the need for a well-organized, interna-country. Thus, on familiar terms with the main tional or national survey of Palestine.figures engaged in Palestinian research in the The Dutch naval officer, Charles William Mer-English capital and aware of the publication of edith van de Velde (1818-1898), had acquired hisSmiths dictionary and the favourable response it cartographical experience as head of the Dutcharoused, Washington would have hoped that Royal Hydrographers Office in Batavia from 1839heightened scientific and public interest in the to 1841. He made two visits to Palestine, once in thebiblical regions would also help him promote his early 1850s and again in the early 1860s, bothideas of organizing and focusing this research. prompted by his study of the Holy Scriptures, which 97
  15. 15. Ir ?* .. fr 41 A* J41 late. Lieiat Dutch R. N r:a;ai: i a- atin.!18414: Wew 18 tit 1802, fram those. mia- i.!, t ox, f. a 1 ^ ^ . ^ ai l, a -; *a &iBo .- i ;is;:: ^*^**t w*l ts fi ??> . Use ,y LYN%. . : : i w:B0B.O i JChtAR SO.RTZEX I .e , S. . Ji, ?1t GiO4A S, fTR&JR 1858. -~ Te -; ~ ~ t:tittt-fttitSV0tt:;Xlt~ At0;--0, ~ ~ ~. X. I[ U.*W "-+" -:?,, .E s!:i;rSiterS i 0i :i.igi X iii -;,00WS,l "- *i . .:?-: % * ^ Fig. 8. Section 1 of Carel Willem [Charles William] Meredith van de Veldes Map of the Holy Land constructed . from his own . surveysin 1851 cL 1852, from thosemade in 1841 by MajorsRobeand RochfortScott,Lieut.Symondsand otherofficers Her Majestys of Corps RoyalEngineers; from the Resultsof the Researches of and madeby Lynch,Robinson,Wilson,Burckhardt, Seetzen The map was &ec. engraved by Eberhardt and Stichardt and published in Gotha by Justus Perthes in 1858. 1:315 000. 8 sections (sheets) (see Plate 4 for Section 5), each 34 x 63. Eran Laor Cartographic Collection, No. 778. (Reproduced with permission from The Jewish National and University Library,The Hebrew University of Jerusalem: Pal 645.) had made him deeply feel the want of a correct and tent assistants, to make what may be termed a sufficiently detailed map of the land to which they complete triangular survey; nor was I aware of any preeminently call our attention.42 He made use of individual who, thrown on his own resources, had all existing maps based on modern surveying of ever accomplished such a work.44 Palestine, added to them measurements taken with In France, Louis Felicien Joseph Caignart, Baron relatively primitive methods (such as estimating de Saulcy (1807-1880), also called upon his distances), and produced what is generally accepted government to organize a delegation to Palestine, to have been the best map of the Holy Land before mainly due to his interest in archaeological ruins. the Survey of Western Palestine was completed De Saulcy, an army officer and a keen numismatist more than twenty years later. Van de Veldes map and archaeologist, had toured and studied Palestine was published in English, German, Dutch and three times during the 1850s and 1860s.45 One of French. It comprises eight sections, or sheets, the participants in the delegation was the army drawn to a scale of 1:315 000 and including maps cartographer Captain Charles Gelis, who was of Jerusalem (1:10 000) and environs (1:250 000) responsible for the maps in de Saulcys book, (Fig. 8 and Plate 4).43 The opening comments in the including the one of the Dead Sea area (Fig. 9).46 memoir which accompanies the map are explicit: it The French government did initiate some survey- lay beyond my power to set off for Syria with the ing, mainly during the first half of the 1860s when98 necessary instruments, and, with the aid of compe- the French army intervened to save the Christian