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  • 1. Extracts from a Journal of Travels in Palestine &c., in 1838; Undertaken for the Illustrationof Biblical GeographyAuthor(s): Edward Robinson, Martin Dampies, E. SmithReviewed work(s):Source: Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 9 (1839), pp. 295-310Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute ofBritish Geographers)Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1797725 .Accessed: 20/03/2012 15:08Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspJSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Blackwell Publishing and The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London.http://www.jstor.org
  • 2. ( 09S )XII._ EAC{raC&s a .Jo7eralfl1 trat,clS from Of ilt Pale.stine &(., in 1838; xwdert.t?en {hDfO7 [11t.(.SF1atos7, Wib7i((.1 of GeafJrclly. ?y tlle ll^X.E. ROBINSVS the Res. E. SA1ITTI. antl DraBrn up by the RPY.EDVARD ROBINSON, I).D., PIvfessor of rhenlogyin Nelv York. I. :FRoztAkabahto Jerusalem,throughthe Mltestern Deseit. It hael lbeenour intentionto go cTirectly fromAkaballto Wti(li 3VIusa alongthe greatvalleyE1 Aral}ah;lout circumstances in- (luceclus to changeour plan; and xve (leterminedto lceepour good TowoirGi guieles, take the roadacrossthe Great;Vestern and l)esert in the directionof GazaandHebron, -arouteas yet un-trodelen moderntravellers. Besidesour five ToYvara by Arabsunderthe direction Tuweileb,^sho travelled of ha(l +^rith Ruppell, Laborde, LordLin(lsay, tooktwo Arales the AmrAn, and we of atribe livinsr arounelAl<abah to the S.E. of thatplace, as the anclIo^ wele not acquainte(l the routewe proposed follow. ara with toWe left Alvabah in the afternoon April 5th, 1838,and,re- late ofcrcessint, lain of Wadi Arabah,began to ascenalthe *vestetn thelnountains the grea.tHajj route. We soonencampe(lfor the l)ynit,ht;andfromthis point+vehad sevenlong daysjourney svithcawmels Hebron. Tlle ascentsoonbecomessteep alld diicult. toThe wayis almostliterallystrewedwith the bonesof camels,anelskirtedlvith the gravesof pilgrims; a11 testifying the difficulty toof the pass. On reaching, summit, SOOn out uponthe the we camegreatplateau the Desert,probably c)f from12()0to 1SC)O above feetthe sea, and follnfl ourselveshigher than the mountain-peaks shich ve had seen fronz below, andthroughsvhiclle ha.l justascen(led. Not far fromthe top of the pass,we left the Hajjroute; and,turningoW a direetion in aboutN.N.W. we launcheelforthagaininto ;the greatanelterriblewilderness." For the firsttwo daysthe generalcharacter this desertwas ofsinzilar thatbetween(Cairo Suez,-a vastunbounded to an{l -lain,a hardgravellysoil, irregular ridges of limestonehills in vflriousdirections, mirage,and especially Wa(lisor +vatercourses. the theOur Aral)sgaveto this part of the l)esert the llame Et-TSh, theI?esert Wandering.The Waclisare here frequent:atfirstthey ofall rall N.W. into the main watercourse of this part of the Desert,VVa(li Jerafeh; ^shich, having its head far to the south,rllnsin aN.E. course to join the ltalley 1 Arabah nearly opposite toMount Hor. We crossedWa(lf Jerafeh about the mi(ldle oftlle second day, and were struck with the traces of the large-c)lume watervEich appalentlyflowsthrough in the winter of itseasoll. On the morning the thirdday we reacheel ^rater- of theshed of the I)esert; afterxvhich the Wadis run in a westelly alllirectioll into the great watercoursewhich drains the snore
  • 3. 296 Qc Dr. ROBINSONS Travels Patestine, in [1838.westernpart of the Desert, and flows down to the sea near E1nAraish. Almostfromthe time we enteredupon this vast plain,ws hadbeforeus as a landmark,a high conical mountain,apparentlyisolated,alon^, western base of which we were to pass. It thebears the name ArGifen-Nakah; and a lower ridge extendsfromit eastward. For nearly three days this mountainof theDesert was beforeus. As we approached on the thirdday the itcountry became undulatingand unes7enSand the hills morefre-quent. I estimated heightof Jebel Araifalsovethe plainat theabout500 feet; it is composed whollyo?limestone,covered withpel)blesof flint and has no traces of volcanicaction. It formsthe south-western corner or bulwarkof the mountainous regionwhich extends hence to the northward;antl from it a ridgestretcheseast, terminatingin a bluS called Makrah,near E1Arabahand oppositeMountHor, as we saw, on a subsequentjourney,fromthe passof Nemellah. The generalelevation the greatplateaucontinues of nearlythesame,except where traversedljy the Wadls; and the gradualascentto the water-shed not perceptible, is and can only be dis-coxtered the courseof the streams the valleys. by in To the S.S.Ww Jebel Araif is a mountain of called Ikhrim, lying l;)etween route and Wadi Arxiish, our and fartherto the north sawthemountains andEl-Helal. Afterpassing we YelekJebel Araif,our courseturned moretowardsthe N.N.E., an(lthe character the Desert vvas of changed. On our rightwasnowa mourltainous district, composedof irregularlimestolleridges,runnint in directions arld occu)y-ing whole region *7arious thequiteto Wadi Arabah;as we had aftervvards opportunity an ofobserving. This mountainous districtis penetratedby noneofthe roadswhichlead frotnthe v-icinity the Re(l Sea to Gazaor ofJel usalem:but these roadsall fall into the one we weretravellingbeforereachingJebalAraif;ornot far frojnthatmountain. Allthese circumstances to showthatour route csould no otller go bethanthe ancient Roman roadfromAilah to Hebronand Jeru-salem;whichalso, like the present roa(l,couldnot well havebeenanything morethana caravan routefor beastsof bur(len. The road passes along the westernside of this mountainousdistrict,crossingmany broad WAdiswhich flow dowll from itsvestsvard, elevatedridges of table-land with betweentllem. VVema(le frequentand minuteinquiryafterthe names of placesorstations which are known to have existed anciently upon thisRomanroad. Of the more southern ones, Rosa and Sypsaria,we could frld no trace. Early on the fourth day we crossedabroadWadi called El-Lisan marking perhaps site of ancient theT>yssa; we coulddiscover traceof ruins. In the forenoon 13ut no
  • 4. 1838.] Arciif-en-Nclkah Khulasah B*r Seba. 297of the fifth (laywe divergeda little to the left, to visitruinswhichhad lJeen described us underthe namesAnJehandAbdeh,and towhichare doubtlesstho remains ancientEboda. They consist ofof the rralls of a large C>reek church,and an extensive fortress,l?othsituatedupona long hill or ridgeoverlooking wide plain. aConnected withthe fortress cisternsand deep wells walledup arewith uncommonly good masonry. On the southside of the hillanallelow are the ruins of houses, surroun(led tracesof es- bytenslv-e anclerlt cultlvatlon. We vere nowcrossinga moresandyportionof the Desert; andin the afternoon the sameday we had our first specimenof the ofsimoomor southern winelof the Desert. It came over us withviolencelike the glow of :wn oven,filling the air with fineFarticlesof dllst and sand,so as to 013scure the sun an(l renderit difficultto see objectsonly a few ro(ls distant. We eneampedin VadlRulleibeh wherewe had neYerheard ruins; butn ascendirlg of onthe hill on our left, we diseovered remains a city not much the ofless than 2 miles in circuit. The houseshad been mostlybuiltof hewrlstone; there +vereseveral pulblicbuildingsancl manycisterns; but the whle is nosv thrownto,ether in unutterableconfusion,as if the city had been suddenlyoverthrown some bytlemenclous earthqualie. Wllat ancient city this can havel)een,I hcave yet been able to learn. The Aralic namesuggeststhe notRellolsoth Scripture, name of one of Isaacssvells(Gen. of theSXVi. 00) bllt the othercircumstances not correspond. do VVellOW approache(l more fertile region. Towarflsnoonof at]le Sixth daywe leached Khulasah, the site of ancientElusa. Itwas a city of at least 2 miles in circuit. The fountlations ofbuil(lings everywhere be traced;andseveral are to largeunshapenpiles of stollesseem to markthe sites of public edifices. :Erag-ments of coluluns are occasionallyseerl, but no cisterns. A ululics-ell, still in use, seemsto havesuppliexl city. the After crossinganotherelevatecl plateau, the characterof thesurf.a.ce was againchangeel. We came uponan operlundulatingcountry all aroundwereswellinghllls,covered or(linary * in seasonsWitil el8SS and rich pasturage;but now arid antl parched withdrought. We novv came to Wadl Sebl; antlon the N. si(le ofits Matercoursewe ha(l the gratifieation diseoverin*, rlril of (A loth) the site of ancient Beersheba, thc celebratel b(?rder-city of P;llestirlestill bearingin Aral)iethe nameof Bir Seba. Nearthe watareourse two eireularwells of fine watern are morethan40 feet dLeep.They are surroun(lefl with (lrinking-troughsofstone for the use of camels and floeks, sueh as weredollbtlessused of olclfor the flc)eksand herdswhieh thersfed orl the ad-jaeent hills. Aseendingthe highergrounflN. of the wells,wefoundthese low hills strewedwith the ruinsof former habitations,
  • 5. 298 Dr. ROBlNSONS Travels Palestine, in NfC. [ 1838.the foundations ^shich distinctly be traced. These ruins of are toextendovew spacehalf a mile lont,by a quarter a mile hroa(l. a ofHere then is the spotwhere Abraham Isaacanfl.Jacob an(l oftenlive(l! I4ere Samuel maelehis sons judges and from henceElijallwandered into the southern out I)esert,and sat llownunderthe Rethem,or shrubof l;)room, as our Arabssat do+rn just underit everydayand everynight! Overthese swellinghills the flocksof the ?atriarchs roredby thousan(ls; we now foundonly a fewcamels,asses,andgoats. From Eir Seltal to Hebron we tras-elled122 hours, hereequivalentto about 30 miles. The general course was N.E.by E. After 12 hour we came out ul?ona wide open plain,coveredwith grass, lzut now parchedwith (lrought. Fielelsofxvheat barleywere seen all around;andlefore llSwerehills, andthe beginningof the mountains Judah. At Dhoherlaeh, of thefirst Syrianillage, the hills aroundwere coveredwith mintledflocks of sheep and goats,and herdsof neat cattle,horses,asses,and camels,in the true patriarchal style of ancientdays. At thisp]ace our good Towara left us; we took other camels and pro-ceededto Hebron. Here the pool over which Davidhungupthe assassins Ishbosheth remains,and fixes the site of the of stillancient city. The cave of Macphelahcannot well has-ebeenwithinthe city; an(ltherefore presentmosquecannotcoverits thesite. We coul(lnot but noticethe fertility of the neighbourin^,valleys,full of corn-fields and s-ineyards yiel(lingthe largest andfinestclustersof all Palestine;and likewisethe rich pasturage ofthe hills, overwhich were scatterednumerousflocks anelherels.w et to a carelessobserver the countrycan only appear steril andforbi(lding; the limestone for rockseverywhere comeout uron thcsurface, are strevvn it to SUCh degree,that a morestony and over aor rockyrebionis veryrarelyto be seen. We tookthe directroadto Jerusalem. It is lai(l with stonesin manyplaces,andis doutlessthe ancientroad,whichpatliarchsand kings of old haveoftentrod; but it is only a pathforbeasts; no wheels haveeverpassedthere. Tlle distance Jerusalelnis to about21 miles,on a course between N.Al-.E. and N.E. by N. We hurriedonward, reachedthe Holy City at sunset,April and 14th,just before the closing of the gates con eveningbefore the EasterSunday. II. JERUSALEM. journeyfo Palestinew-as completetl Our now and ourresearches and tlavels in Palestine were to begin. In respectto these we adopte(lfor our futureguidance two fol- the lowingprinciples) 1. To directour researches viz., chieflyto those parts of the countrswhich formertravellershad rlelre-r visite(l;and 2. To obtain information, far as possible, not frolnthe aslegends of lnonks and other foreigners,but directly from the
  • 6. itceanonly loave lJelonged tlle bridgehich, accorclil-lg to to 1838.] f:Iebron-Jerusalem . 299 natixeAralJs the lanel. We remained of weeksin Jerusalem; and afterX7ards at firstmorethanthree. madel ointfromwhichto set off on excursions that city the centralcountry. In the meantime we diligently differentto parts of thethe city, andeven here sa+s- hear(lof cxplore(leverypart (f or ses-eral things w-hich us toat leastwTere new. On enterinbJerusalemI lvas r,repared,of manytravellers, find the houses fiom the descril7tions to miserable, streetsflthy, thean(lthe populajion squaliel; in all these respectsI vsras butably (lisappointed. The houses are l)etter ae,ree-cleaner, than those of Alexandria,Smyrna,or built, ancl the strcetsThe hills andvalleyswhich markedthe Collstalltilaople.aneientcity are still alistinctly different qualtersof the visil)le.paeum l}e tracedfromits heaelnearThe valley of the Tyro- mayat the pool of Siloain. The hills of the ;aSa gate to its foot Zion,WIoriah, yet distinctand marked. The Akra, Bezetha, an(l ale latter,ontlleancient Temple,is nowoccupledby themosqueofwhichstoo(ltlleextensive colirtor areaaround Omarand it. One of the earliestolJjects our attention ofarea, reference its antiquityarl(l in was naturallythis to connexionTemple. It is an elevatedplateauc)rterrace, with the allcientof a parallelogram, nearlyin the form supported an(l ^X-ithin by massivewalls builtupfromthe valleysor lower grourdon allva11 about60 feet high. The uppel sides. The southern iswalls olJviously modernorigin;but it part of these external is ofceive the lowerportions, the mostis not less easy to pel- that foldate. These are composed parta of an earlier are generallyof verylarge stones,manyoftllem 20 feet or morein lerlgthby 5 or 6 feet thick,reculiar manncr. At tlse first siew of these walls, Ihewnin asuacledl these lover portionshacl that blt pel-rlemple, ls-ereto be referreel alld l)elongeelto the ancient back atllero(l, not to the daysof NTehemi.lh least to the time of if oriction afternarllsstrengthene(l ourSolomon. This con- xYas byS.v.corner in the westernwall, the discow-ering, tlle nearof immexlse an remains,or ratherthe fc)ot, archn springingout fromthe lvall in tlle cQirectiontOwards MountZion, acrossthe of thetraces this archare toodistinct (lefinite Tyropeuln. The of 07alley antl to lJemistalien; tIndJosehus, fromthis part of the Temple-area ledZiorl; )roving incontestably thus to the Xystuson the antiquityof that portionoftlle fromwhichit springs. 7all We then examinedthe remarkable tower in Yaffagate, which,even to the unpractise(lthe citatlelnearthemarksantiquity. Someformer of eye, bearsstrongthis the Hipicus of Hero(l; travellers as havealreatly an(l we fountl regar(ledassenttllis conclusion. So far as we coulel every lOeasotl to to (liscover, lower the
  • 7. 300 Ro ts Qc. Dr. n I N S ON S Trave in Palestine, S38. [1 atpart the tower is whollysoli(l, as (lescril)e(lby Josephus; ofleast there is no knownor visibleentrance it, eitherfromabove toor below. 30() The presentwalls of the moderncity were built aboutRe-years as appearsfromnumerous ago, Arabic inscriptions.maills the forlner wall, whichprobably of existed in the time ofthecrusades, are still a-isible the outsi(le, N.W. of the YaSi on of thegate;also on the N. side of the city, and in the interior tracesN.W.corner. Of the ancient wall aroun(llMountZion,may le seen for somedistance the scarpe(l yet in rocksbelow theS.07V. brow of Zion. On the high ground N. of the N.W.corner the city we discovere(l of evi(lenttracesof what musthave in tllisbeenthe thirdor exteriorwall describedl)y Josephus stoodquarter, erectedafter the time of Christ. ISeremust have to tracethetowerPsephinos; and fromthis point we were able distancethe foundation the sameancient of wall fora considerablefurther a N.E. direction. in Of the second of J()sephus, wall +hich at the timeof the Cruci-fisionvTas exterior the wall of the city on this si(le,we could findnolemairling traces,unlessit be two squareancienttowerswhichve eliscovered connected with the wall insideof the Damascusgate, one on each side of the gate. These towers are built oflart,estonesprecisely like thosementioned above as belongingt<)the ancientTemple walls. They have been much injuredin ancient,lluildingthe modernwall of the city, but are evidentlyan(lapparently older than Hippicus; they were, mostprobably, thisthe guard-housesof an ancient gate upon this spot; and thiscouXlwell onlyhavebelon^,ed the sai(l to secondwall. If as tohypothesisbe eorreet,it will go far to deeidethe question thenthe site of the ehurchof the Holy Sepulchre,which must eity.hclvefallen within this w-all,and so within the aneient Akra, IncleedS churehstandsupon the veryritlt,eof the hill have the mustwl:ich,aceording Josephus,and to every to probability, theforlned part of the lower eity, and beell enelosed within secolo(l wall. Anotherobjectof our attention the supplyof wateralmost was in an(l around the eity. At the present(layJerusalem supplied on is wholly by rain-water, preservedin eisternscut in the rock which houses the stand. Allnost eery house has one or more very cisterns; that in which we residedhad no less than foursame lar<ge ones. The ancientcity was probablysur)plied the in be any nlalinel. Indeed,witha little attention,there can never from wantof water within the walls. The aqueduet whiehcomes to the Solomonspools beyond Bethlehem brings water only reser- mosque XOInar.Outside of of tlle eity,besidesthe ancient yoirs,thereare wells in ^arious plaees,somewith waterandsome
  • 8. 1838.] Jerusalem_Siloam. 301without. The brook lQidron, the valleyof Jehosaphat, in flowsonly whenthe rain-water (lescends into it fromthe adjacent hills.Fountains runningwaterexistonly in this valley; an(lof these ofthereare three, viz.:-1. the fountain the Virgin or of Siloam, ofjust southof the site of the Temple; 2. the pool of Siloam7 justwithinthe entrallce the Tyropoeum;3. the well of Nehemiall, ofor of Jol), oppositethe entranceof the valleyof Hinnom. Thislast is a deep well of livirlgwater,whichin the rainyseasorl over-flows: it isabeyon(l(loubt,the En Rogel of Scripture. The poolof Silcalnis whollyartificial, receives watersfromthe foun- and itstain of the Virginrthrougha subterraneous channelcut throut,hthe solid rock. We cra+vlefl through this channeland tneasuredit. The fountain the Virginis also evidently artificial of an exca-vation in the rock; but wrhence rateI is (lerivetlis a mys- the tery. It has a swe?etish, slightlybrackishtaste; an(l flows irre- gularly,or only at irregular intervals. We wrere witnesses this of irregular flow; andweretol(l by the womenwho camefor water that sometimes,(luring summer, it ceases to flow for several weeks; wrhen, a sudden,the watercomesgushingout againin on abundance. Ancient writershave spokenof a fountainof living vvater as existing under the Temple; though their assertionshave, in gener.al,obtainedlittle credit. Soon after our arrivalin Jeru- salem,we were told of a similar fountainun(lerthe mosque of Omar, tlle watersof which were used to supplya bath in the vicinity of the mosque. We went to the bath, an(l foundtwo men Elrawing water froIna deep well. They told us that tile water fl()svsinto the well froln a passage cut il] the rock, and lea(lin>un(lerthe mosque,whereis a chamber a livingfoun- an(l tain. In summer,when the water is so low as not to flosvout intothe well, they go (lowrl bringit out by hanal. The taste and of the wateris preciselylike thatof the fountain the Virt,inin of the valley helow. Ve madeall our preparations descen(l to into the svellanalexaminethe fountain, were hindere(l the time, but at analwere unableafterwards resulnethe investigation. Is, per- to halls,the waterof this fountain broughtdown by a subterraneous channelfrom some higherpoint? Is therea connesionbetween this fountain underthe mosqueandthatin the vallevbelow; ancl is the irregul.lr flow of the latterin someway(lependenton this circumstance? These questionsmay, not improbably, somc at futuretime, be answered the affirlrlative. in When we arrive(lat Jerusalemwar was ragiDgin the north betweenthe Druses and the forcesof the Pasha; an(l,as if we wereto havea specimenof all the evils of the Orientalworld,in a few daysafterour arrival plaguelaroke the out; at first doult- fully, then decided]y,th(>ugh miklly. Other travellersleft the
  • 9. voe Dr. RonznsoNs TscGvelsPelestine, tn &c. [1848. city immediately and some+ho wereon theirwaythitherturned > leack. We continueel ins-estigations (lur withoutinterruption;alld a kind Provielence preserveel fromthe danger. us III. FROAX Jelausalem Gazw Hebror arldWadl Nlvisa t-o On returningto Jertlsalell frorllan ?xcursion eight elays of to Engeddi and the Dead Seas *ve found the pla,>ue slonsTly but constantly increasing antlit was rumoured i that the Gity lvas soonto he shut up. VVe thelsefore remainedbut a sirlglellay, in orderto makepreptlratlons ouI longerj}urneyto WadiNlusc. bls NVeset oS, l!/IayJ7th,on llorsesand mules; and,orl lEIay 19th, the city was shut upsanel none sufferedto go outyWitilOUt first performlug quarantine ses-en a of d<ays. Our excursion occupie(l in all :3 (lays. Ve madeat first a slight detour,in orderto pass 7ay Beit Jalll, a Christian village,half an laourNT?V BethleEleln; then Of andcontinuedS.W. across tlle mountains the dilect ancient roa(l tokom 3erusalem Eleutheropolis Gaza throvaghregion as to and ayet unxtisited moderntraxrellers.At a distanceon our right bywas the (leepvalleyof Turpentirle called by monksandtravel- (solers), or, as the Arabs nameit in this part, Wadi Surar,whichr;Tns a $. W. directlcxnS it opens out into the great plsn in 1lntillJetweell mountains the Mediterranean. On our left was the alldanother sirnilarralley, WadiSunnet. The regionis full of ruineelsiJtesand ruinetl desertel axlclsoine partially villagesy some inha-titecl; whieh are still foundsexreral amoIlg aneientnames. On )v1rright,beyvndVVatll Surar,we eouldsee the hill and ruinedtillage Soha,whiell it hils pleased the monks to assumeas theane;ent NIc)din, burial-plaeeof the Maeeabees againstthe theEXplESS testimolly of EuseSius and Jerome. We cameat nightt>)Beit Netif a largevillage on a higll part of the ridge betweenthe two valleysabovementioned. The nest daywasclesoted a visit to Beit Jibrftl,the aneient toBet)?abrisof Greek alld Ronan wlitelts, whichandits fortress ofsre haelheald muchfiom the Arabs and to a searchfor the site 7of anciel1tEleutheropolis. Froln the elevated spot where welodgedtthe sheikhof the villat, poinfedout to us severalplacesstill bearing,in Aral)ic, naules colrespondingto tllcir ancientHe7orew appellationsand eelebrater1 Scripture the scerlesof in asSamsonts exploitsanalhistory:SUCh xvere Zorah, Timnath,Sokho,and others. Fourplaceswsiere pointedout,respecting also whielEuselius and Jerome have specifiedtheir distances Som Eleu-theropolis, viz., Zolah and Bethshemesh, towards Nicoalis; an(lJarmahand Solsho} the wtlyto Jerusalemv Folloring out the onspecifieddistances along tlle ancientroad,we came directlyuponBeit Jibrfrlwhielllies among hills betweenthe mountairls and
  • 10. 18 }8.] Beit Jibrzt- G/cl.raHebro12. sosthe plain. I-Iereale the remainsof a large Romanfortressofimmense strength,whichlvas built up a^,ain the time of theincrusacles:alorlnrl are the tracesof an extensivecity. it We had receive(lthe imlzression we lnust look for Eleu- thattheropolisfurther west upon the plain; antl accordingly turnedoubcoursethat wayto Safiyell, a conspieuous villate, lying on anisolateelllill. ISere, however,we could {inelno trace of anyancientsite. We then }roceeded to Gaza; whence, after tsrl) I>a-s, retulne(lby a different we route,searchino eliligently the forsites of ancientLachish,Gath, alldlevther cities,but fintlin<, none exceptEglon, on a mountlstrewed^^;ith stones,still calleelAjlcin. Again arriveelat Beit Jibrin, we visitetl several very singtllarartificialcClverns the vicinity. fEuseliusan(l Jerome lalelltioll inalso Jeelnaan(l :Nazibas leing distantfrom lileuthelopolis,olle 6 and the othel 7 miles, oll the way to Hebron. These namen still exist; and, takingthe Hebron route,we found Je(lnato bejust 6 miles from Beit Jibrin. N azil) lies yet a little furtheron anotherparallel roa(l. This circurnstance seems to decide tEle i(lentityof Beit Jilarin witll Eleutheropolis. The former the was ancient :ame; the latter xYaS osed by the Romans.anc:l iml has heen since forgotten, in so manyother instances. It is also as lemarkablethat those ancientwritersxvhospeak of Eleuthero- polis do not mentionBetogabris; while thoseho speak of the latter are silent as to the fortner. Elejoicing this result,xre in pursued otlr way to Hclaroll; antl, aftcr a steep an(l toilsome (scellt on a rielge13etween (leep valleys,we rested for a tirne two at TaSilh,the 13ethTaplauall Ju(lcah; of antl arrivedtatISebron in alvut 6 hoursfIom Beit Jibrin. I4ere, elismissing Xlule- our teers, we engaged camels for W;icliMusti from the sheikll of thc Jehcilin, a Bedal.ri tribe itlhabitingthe territorvS.E. of liiebron. Ve haellongbeivreforme(lthe )lan to procee(l vatli Muscitol}y *vayof the south en(l of the Dead Sea, and so soutllwal(ls (R OX1t vadi Al tlbah, the hope of being able to solvethe pend- ining question, whetilerthe Jordancoul(leverhaveflowecltllrouChthis valley to the Gulf of Akabah. Here, too, s-e hatl hopefl .lgain to haYe been tlle first; lJut were anticipateel the by Countele Bertou,^shoprecetletl 11ythreeol four weeks, an(l usw-llom had seen at Jerusalemafter his return. After leing weeletained daysat I4ebronn set ofE, to we WIay 24th, anel,l assint,in sightof ancientZipilon the left, andXJutta (ancientJutta) onthe right,and nearthe ruinscxf(ScarIllel Alaon,we continuezl andacrossan undulatin^, llesertin a S.E. eiirection, came,towarcls clndthe close c)f the secontl elays journey, to the broxX- the steep of(lesceni; lea(lingtlo^in the Dea(l Ssea. Tllis elescent in a11 to is notless than loOO feel;; but here, anal to tlie south,it is dia-i(leal farintv twc)pA1tS 014 oFsets of neally etual heitht: bettleexlthese
  • 11. 304 Dr. ROBIN Tratels Palesttne, SONS in Qc. [18.38.lies a terrace or plain nearly three hours broad, the surface ofwhich is covered with low ridges and conical hills of soft cha]kylimestone, xerging into marl. At the foot of the second descentis a small deserted Turkish fort, in the narrow Wadi Zuweireh(not Zoar), which leads out to the sea in about half an hour. Wereached the shore not far from the northern end of Usdum, a low,long mountain ridge, running here from N.N.W. to S.S.E., an(lgiving the same direction to the shore of the sea. This ridge,Usdum, is, in general, not far from 150 feet high, an(l continuesto run in this direction for two hours to the southern extremityof the sea, where it trends to tlle S.S.W. for an hour more, andthen terminates. The striking peculiarity of this mountain is,that the whole body of it is a mass of solid rock-salt; coveredover, indeed, with layers of soft limestone and marl, or the like,tllrough which the salt often breaks out, and appears on the sidesin precipices, 40 to 50 feet high, and several hundred feet long.Often also it is broken of in large an(l small pieces, +hich arestrewed like stones along the shore, or fallen doxvnas dCbliS. The south end of the sea is very shallow, and the shore conti-nues quite flat for some distance further south; so that there aretraces of its being overflowed by the sea for two or three luilessouth of the water-line, as we saw it. The western si(le of thissouthern valley, or ?;hor, is wholly naked of vegetation; but onthe easternside, where streams come down Som the easternmoun-tains, there is a lusuriant vegetation an(l some tillage. We conti-nued on the western si(le, along the base of Usdu?l. crossingseveral purling rills of transparentwater, flowing from the moun-tain towardsthe sea, but salt as the saltest brine. Before us, aswe advanced southwardsn appeared a line of cliSs, 50 to 150 feethigh, stretching across the whole broa(l valley, and apparent]ybarring a11further progress. These cliSs are mentionetl by Irbyand AlIangles, who supposed them to be s,and-hills. Bte a)-proached their western end in 2i hours from the south end of tllesea. They proved to l)e of marl, and run off from this point in ageneral course S.S.E. across the valley. All along their base arefountains of brackish water oozing out, an(l forming a tract ofmarshy land towards the north. Our route now lay along thebase of these cliSs; and, after resting for a time at a fine gushingfount2lin, came, in two hours, to the mouth of Wadi Jib, a deep wevalley coming down from thc south through the cliSs, and showingthe latter to be only an oSset between the lower plain which wehad just crosse(l, and the higher level of the same great valleyfurther south. The name E1 Ghor is applied to the w-alley be-tween the Dead Sea and this oSset; further south the wllole ofthe broa(l valley is calleel E1 Arabah, quite to 7Akabah. Theseapparent cliSs are not improbably the Akrabbim of Scripture.lahe Widi 3ib begins far to the south of Mount Hor) beyond
  • 12. ] 838.] El Ghor-Wade Jlb-MountHor Petra. oosvti(ll Gharandel,an(l flons (lown in a wintlingcoursethroughthe mi(lstof El Arabah,draining .all its watersnorthward of tothe T)eadSea. NVhere enteredWaellJ1b, at its northern we sicle,it is half a mile broa(l,withprecipitous banksof chalky earth ormarl, 100 to 150 feet high; and exhibitingtracesof an immenscolume of waterin the rainyseason,flowingnorthwarlls. It mayl)e recollecte that the xvaters Wa(li Jersifeh, tlle western (l of in(lesert,wllich(lrainstlle S.E. )art of that (lesert,faln the south- to+srar(l Akal:ah,alsoflownorthwards ElArabah, antlso, of of intocvourse, throughW;ixli J1b. Herlce,insteadof the Jor(lanflowingsouthwarzls the Gulf of AkalJah, fin(l the watclsof the to wreelesertfurthersouth than Altabah flowing northwar(ls tlle illtO I)ead Se. The natureof the countryshows,+^7ithout measure- ment,that the surfaceof the DeaelSea must be lower than tl-1atof the Re(l Sea or the Me(literranean. We continue(lour course up the Wa(li Jlb southwarcls for severalhours, its banlis l)ecoming gra(lually lower,an(lat length perluitting to emergefromit. We werenow not far fromthe us eastern mountains,nearly opposite the broad Wa(li Ghuveir, while before us was Mount ISor,lising like a cone irreFularly truncate(l. We turne(l into these mountainsat some (listance northof MountHor, in ortlertvo approach Wa(li NIusafromthe east,throughits celebrate(lanciententrance. A long an(lsteep ascent the passof Nemellah brouglltus out upon the plateaus of the porphyry formation; abovewhich are still the hills of scln(l- stone amongwhich Petra as situated. The entranceto tllis ancient city, through the long ch(aslll cleft in the san(lstone or rock,is trulymagnificent,an(l not less splendidandsurprisingly beautifulis the vie+v the Khazinah, temple hen in tl1e of or oppositerock,as the traveller emergesfromthe western estremity of the passage. Then followlong rangesof tombs llewnin the rockysides of the valleyn with ornamental faqalles, a style of irl striking though flori(l architecture. What we sought in VVadi Musa was more the generalimpressionof the whole; since the detailshavebeen correctly given by the pencil of Labor(le. We examine(l rhether anyof these excasations particularly were per- haps intendellas dwellingsfor the living; but coulflsee no marks of such (lesign nothingbut habitations the dead,or temples of for the gods. There lvas,in(:leed, neeel of their being thus no used; for the numerousfoun(lations dvellings show that a of largecity of housesbuilt of stoneonce stoo(lin the valley. We had nearlycomplete(l observations, werepreparing our arld soonto set ofT our returnby wayof MountHor, whenthe old on sheikhof WA(liMusGi, Abu Zeitun, who cause(lso lnuch (lifE- culty to Mr. Bankes and his companions 1817, came (lown ill uponus witllthirtyarme(l men,deman(ling tril)uteof a thousand a piastres forthe pri+-il(?,e visiting his territory. We declined of
  • 13. 306 Dr. ROBINSONS Travels Palestine, in Qc. [1838.paymentof eourse; but, after iong and repeatedaltereation, itGaRne to this result,that, ulllesswe paid this full sum, he woul(lnot suSer us to visit Mount Hor. VVeattempted, nevertheless,to set of in this direbtion, own she;ilihleading the forward oureflmel; lout the hostile party elosed around,an(l sror(ls were Irawn and lJrandished; which, however, among these A1alJs,lneansnothingmore thanto malve flourish. As it was in vain afol us to use foree agairAst large a party,*ve deeide(lto set ofF soon our returnhy the w-(ywe eame. This took tlle old man lJysurprise,an(l thssartecl plans. Messengers his soonfollowe(:l us,saying ss-emight returnfor tlle half; antl, at last, for nothing.We replied, that he hal driven us fro3:ll Wadi S1i:isa, ar(l xvesllouSlnot retuln,but should reporthis eonductat Cairo. The01(1 manthen camehilrtself, get ourgood-vill, he saiel, to as whicll+1YaS wolth more to him than money. WVe thoughtit better tokeep oll our way; anclsufferecl furtherinterruption. It was norobably the fear of the PashSof Eg1; alonethat withheldthese uiscreantsfrom plun(leringus outrigLlt, we afterwards and re-ceived complimentsfromthe Arabs in an(l aroun(lLIebronfolthe bol(lnessan(l ad(lress *s-ith whichwe had extricatetl ourselvesfromthe old sileihhspower. T)escellding ass of N emellah,we struck the across El-Arabahin a W.N.W. direction, trasellin^, greaterpart of tlle night theIn the lmorning reachedWadi Jib, here quite on the western wesi(le of El-Arabah, an(l stopped for a time at the fountainE1VeilJi. Otherfountains occurat intervals alont the valleyat thefot of the western hills, both rlorth and south of E1 Weibi.Froin here a path strikesup the westernmoulltain the (lirec-intionof LIebroll, whichis usedljythe soutllern Arabs. Our guidestook a more northern- road, leatlingup a very steep pass calledSuftih, overa broadsurface shelvintrockextending of nearlyfromthe lJottc)m the top, an elevation l000 or 1200 feet. This is to oflarolJaluly hill Zephath,afterwards the ISormah, wherethe Israel-ites attemptetl ellterPalestine,but were drivenback,and were toalso attackecl the kingof Arad; Num. xiv. 40, seq.,sxi. 1, seq, ly3ucltes i. 17. Solue miles N.X.W. of this pass is a corlieal hillstill lbearillg name of rIel Ara(l, plobably the site of the thea:neXent to^^n. All these eireumstanees me to place the sit? leatlOfWadesh the ,reat valleybelow,neal tlle fountainE1 Weibi in01 one of the neighbouring s)rirlgs. Here it w-ould nearthe lJe13order liclom,olzposite a broacl of to passage leadingup throughthe easteln mountains, antl ill full sight of Mount Hor. Thatthe Israelifesmust has-e apploacheel P;wlestinethrough Waeli theAral)ah, a necessary is conclusioIl the mountainous frolm eharaeterof the diStliCt the wsJest this valley, thlougllwhieh no roael on ofhaseverpassed. But no traceof tlle nauleKaelesh to be founcl, isne;therin the valleyl;elownor on the talule land above.
  • 14. 1838w] SufAh-KadesAi-Bethhoron-A*alon. 307 Our furtherway to Hebronled us by the sites of Ararah,the Aroerof Judah; and Melh, whereis a fine well and the tracesof a town,notimprobably ancientAloladah the or Malatha. Nearer to fIelaronwe passedSelnuah,perhapsthe Hebrew Sema; and Yuttah, the ancientSutta, the probablebirthplaceof John the Baptist,and still a town of some importance. At Hebron we remained day and a half, being obliged to send for horses to a Jerusalem. We left Hebron againon the ?th of June, taking now a S.W. course by the large village Diirah,the Adora of Josephus;anddescending mountain E1 Burj,a ruirled the to castle of whichwehad heard much, but where we found nothing of antiquity. Hence we bent our coursenorthward amongthe hills; and pass- ng again throughJe(lna,resteelfor a time at Terkumieh,the.Tricomias formerages, leavingBeit Jibrinon our left. We oflodged a second time at Beit Neitif; and the next morningde-scending N.N.W., we cameto the site of the ancientin tlle openingof Wa(li Surarinto the }Lulain. Bethshemesh Here are evidenttraces of a large city. From this point we turned our courseN.W. into the plain,in searchof the ancientand long-lostEkron.After travellingin this direction four hours,we cameto the forlargevillate Akir, an Arabicnamecorresponding the Hebremr toEkron. The situation corresponds tothe accounts Eusebius also ofandJerome. Nothingof antiquity remairls; perhapslecausc theancienthouses,like the modernhovels,werebuilt, not of stone.,but of earth. From Ekron to Ramlell is two hours: here we lodged; andthe next alayproceededto Jerusalem l)y the camel-roacl, whiclalsois the axlcientJewishand Romanway, over Ludd (Lydda),Gimzo,Lowerand Upper Bethhoron (nowBeit-Utr), and Jib orGibeon. The pass betweenthe two villages of Bethhoron a issteep and rugge(l ascent of some 1500 feet, up the point of aridgebetween deep valleys. It is the ancientroad which theRomanarmiesascended,and has in several places steps cut intherock The presentshorter less practicable and route betweerlHamlehand Jerusalem apears not to hanze been in use in thetimeof the Romans. Looking down from Uppe} Bethlloron, abr<)ad valleyis seen irlthe S.W. issuing fromthe mountainsandhillsinto the plain; while on the ridge that skirts its S.W. sidesis seen a village calle(lYalonf the Aralic formfor the HebrewAjalon. Here then is proloably s)ot whereJoshuain pursuit theofthe five kings,havingarrived Upper Bethhoron, at lookedbacktoward Gibeon,an(l down upon the valley lefore him, and ut-tered comman(l: Sun, stan(lthou still on Gileon; and thou, the (;Moon in the valleyo? AJalorl" ! We foundJerusalemstill shut up oll account of the plague VOL. IX.
  • 15. 308 Dr. ROBINSONS tn Palestine, Tratels Qc. [ 1838.andtherefore pitched tentin theolive-grove of the citys our northbefore Damascus the gate. $ * * 8 In other excursionsfromJerusalem,and on our subsequentjourneynorthward Beirutswe nsited the villages and sites of toAnothoth, Gibeah,Micmash,and Bethel,all N.E. and N. of theHoly CityX still bearingin Arabicthe names Anatah,Jeba and MukhmAs, Beit-in. The extensiveruinsof the latterplace, and Bethel, lie 45 minutes N.E. of Bireh, just on the rightof theNablus road. Farther north we turned aside to Jiftlah, theGophna of Josephus; and also to Seilum, the site of ancientShiloh, which Josephus also writesSilun. (zkow.) Along thewesternshoreof the Lake of Tiberias,we mademinuteand per-severinginquiriesafterthe ancientnamesGapernaum, Bethsaida,and Chorazin;but no trace of them remainsamong tlle Arabpopulation.If formertravellers heard have thesenames, must ithaveheenfrom monks Nazareth their dependents. the of or On the vay from$afet to Tyre,nearlytwo hoursN.W. ofSafet,we passed thecrater anextinct near of volcano; which wasprobal)ly central-point the greatearthquake Jan. 1st, the of of1837,by which Safetandthe adjacentvillageswYere destroyed. Extractfro7n Letter Professor a of BERGHAUS. Potsdamn iIpril30, ] 8Ss9.SIR, In accordance former with communications Professor fromE. Robinson, NewYork,he willtransmit youthisdayone of toof the maps, which the fruits the travels himself his are of of andcompanion, Rev. E. Smith, Arabia};etrzea, theHoly the in andLand. I cannot permit opportunitypass without the to by accom-panying sketch this witha fewwords. In the courseof my life I havehadin myhands many docu-ments reference geographical, especially in to and cartographicalobjects, from and themhaveacquired conviction among the that,all orientaltravellers thetimeof Niebuhr, prizeis due since theto the late lamented iECurokhardt,far as it respects minute soattention, to things even apparently indifirent, also accuracy andin themeasurement bearings angles, in the specifica- of and andtionof timeforthe determination distances. This conviction ofI has-e expressedpubliclyand unreservedly,perhaps, other inwords, the Memoirs in accompanying mapsof Asia. my Thisw-iew,however, mustnowessentially I modify, having aftercarefullyexamined Journals Messrs. the of Robinscyn Smith andduring theirtravels the peninsula Mount in of Sinai, through thegreat(lesertEt-Tihs and in Palestine. The obserarations ofthese two travellers so full and comprehensive, notes are their
  • 16. BERGHAUS NewMapofPalestine. SO9 PrOfeSSOr onauponthe formand the featuresof the country exact and defi- sonite, that the geographer in a situation,on the basis of these isspecifications, construct special map of the territory, to a whichmayperhapsleavelittle moreto be desired. In support of these views,I may refer to the accompanyingsketch-mapof the route of the travellers fromAkabahthroughthe desert Et-Tih to Hebron, which I have constructed,andwhich we, ProfessorRobinsonand myself, would commendtothe favourable noticeof the Royal GLeographical Society ProfessorRobinsonhas placed his journals at my disposal,and, on my recommendation, prepared has from theman abstractin a tabularform, particularly adaptedto serve as a foundationfor the construction the route-maps. of You will be able to appreciatethe impatiencewith which Ientereduponthe construction these maps,if you will havethe ofgoodnesstc)call to mirldthat I publisheda few years ago a mapof Sylria, whichwas so fortunateas to meet the approbatiorl ofyourSociety.[Journat, vii. ). 183.] My attention morc vol. wasespecially drawn to the tourfromSAkabah Hebron, lJecause tothe traxTellers here passed througha real terraincoynita havewhichis nowfor the first time represented a map. The ori- onginalsketchof this routeis threetimes largerthan the copyhere-with forwarde(l you. X wouldalso mentionthat severalpoints, tothe positionof whichwas determinedby Messrs.Rc)binson anelSmith, are not inserted,becausethey fall without the margirl ofthe copy. These points are Jebel Ikhrim, Jebel Yelek, and Jebel el-EXelal, lying westward the route,and adaptetlto all ofdeterminethe course of the Wadi el-Araish, and its distance fromthe line of travel. In my map of SyriaI have assumedHebron to be in long. 35? 12 25" E. from Greenwich,accordingto the Azimuth o? Jerusalem,supplieciby Seetzenss veryrough map. (Syristn Me-moir, 34.) But I find this Azimuthto be erroneous, p. sinee theitinerary Messrs.Robinson Smithgivesthe long. of Hebron of and at 34? 57 13" E., a diSerence morethana quarter a degree of of Yet I wouldremarkn even this positioncan only be regarded that as a first approximation the true longitudeof Elebron,inas- to muchas the subsequent routesof the travellers affiord means theof corroborating determinatiQu the from toth 3erusalem and Ramleh,and, aboveall, fromGaza,whichlies nearlyon the same parallelwith Hebron,or El-Khulilv The most inaccurate partof my map of Syria is the topogra- phical delineation Judex becauseno traYeller of withinmy reach had then examined portionof the Holy Landwith the same this attention whichBurckhardt bestowell the country of the had on E. Jordan,and aroundMount Lebanon. It is thereforeeminently Y 2
  • 17. 310 BERGHAUS a NewMap Palestine. Professor on ofcredit&le the partof Messrs. on Robinson Smith, respect and inte}:13iblical geography, theyhavevisitedandinvestigated that theterritc)y Judeain all directionsthislandof the earliest all of ofhistory the nations Christian for cxf civilization.In thiszay tlleyllavebecome fliscoverersthefieldof topography history. real in and Theirexaminationextends the wholecountry over between theshores the Mediterranean the DeadSea,fromthe parallel of an(lof aboutNablus to the southend of tlle AsphalticLale, andfromth(?se points,on the one hand southwards far as to w adl Miisa, asanl on the othernorthwards far as to Safed,Saide,andBeiit. asX On tlle WIount Olives,Professor of Robinson determined thclengthof a baseof 142o72 yards,by meansof whichn the andapplication theirverynumerous of bearings, havebeenalule I toconstruct calculate rletof triangles, and a extending to Taii- N.beh, E. to the Dead Sea, S. (as yet) as far as to the FrankMountain, which mayproleably altleto carry as fal and we be onas to theregioll Raluleh Gaza, perhaps to Hel)ron, of and and alsoCarmel, Ain Jiddi. I finel distance and the between Mol1rtt theof Olivesan(lthe N.W. corner the DeadSeato be 29()93 of 5yaralsd 44 34 geographical or miles. At ASin J;(l(litheymea-sureda second basc,in orderto determine lareadth the the ofDeadSea. This I find to be 139531 yar(ls, 7 86 geogra- orphical nziles. I havealreaelyconstructeel a ?ortionf the itineraries Ju(leaR inon a scale threetimes,and in solrle parts times, six lar*,er thanthatof the accompanying sketchmap. Tllis was necessarys inorder exhibit full all the details. to in I am of opinion it wouldbe a greatlossfor geographvy, thatwerethematerials collected MessrsRobinson ,Smith by and notto be usedfortheconstruction a lnapon a largescale. Their of30urney, undelstaken forthe interests Bilolical solely of geogIapha,wouldbe deprived its finestfruits,and the manyhardships oftheymusthaveendureel havebeel1 a measure will ill supelfluous,shoulel resultsof their measuremersts observations the anal bepublished in the formof a journal;foz this can neverpro- onl)7duce the livelyimpression is felt in looliing a goodand that ataccurate map,ar;dthis greatdesideratumhope sholtlyto take Iln hantl. Ix1conclusion, would I remark, to the accompaLnying as route-map fromAkabah Hebrons tlle direction the Wadis to that ofbetweenBirsheta Hebron perhaps and may requiresomeslightcorrection, whenall the itineraries the travellers Of shall l1tavebeenfullyconstructed. I hawre honour be, 8cc. the to HEINRICH BERGICAUS3 For.Hoxl. Mem. G.S. f)fIJondon. P?.TvCatatnWEbs7zington,Secrefary. R.N,
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