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    • Recent Surveys in Sinai and PalestineAuthor(s): C. W. WilsonReviewed work(s):Source: Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London, Vol. 43 (1873), pp. 206-240Published by: Blackwell Publishing on behalf of The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute ofBritish Geographers)Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/1798627 .Accessed: 20/03/2012 15:56Your use of the JSTOR archive indicates your acceptance of the Terms & Conditions of Use, available at .http://www.jstor.org/page/info/about/policies/terms.jspJSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range ofcontent in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new formsof scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org. Blackwell Publishing and The Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers) are collaborating with JSTOR to digitize, preserve and extend access to Journal of the Royal Geographical Society of London.http://www.jstor.org
    • 206 WILSONS Surueys Sinai andPalestine. Becent in Now the questionmaybe asked: Cfxiborl,o this toil of allanalysis research and devoted a docume:xltunimportant to so insizeandof suchlimited contents The facts mayanswerfor ?themselves. 1. If the realities whichllave been hele laid barehad beendetected timednring lastthreecenturies a quarterS ally the andso that the site of the lost East Colony Greenland been of hadproved demonstration to instead beinga matterof opinion,* ofthe liings of Denmark would havebeenspared necessity the ofsending a greatnumber unsuccessful out of expeditions: and 2. A nuinber learneddisquisitions some of the mosk of byillustrious literaZi in Europewouldhave been re:ndered superfluous. 3. The Zenodocument nowsllown be the latest in exist- is toence as faras we know,givingdetailsrespecting important thelost East Colony Greenland, of which has been so ansiouslysought for. 4. It is the tatest document existence, far as mre in as knowygiving details respecting the Europeansettlers in NorthAmerica-although centurya be.fore Columbuss great voyageacrossthe Atlantic-and showinffl they still survivedat thatthatperiod. 5. Thehonour a distinguished of man,whoseonlyfaultsasregards this ancientstoryn fruitfulill mischiefas they havebeen,^Tere he did not possess geographical that the knowledgeof to-day, that he indulged the glowing and in fancies diction andof his sunnycountry, beenvindicated: has and 6. The bookwhichhasbeendeclared be "one of the most topuzzling the wholecircleof literature will henceforth no in bepuzzleat al]. Sxrveys StnatanZPatestine. By Major w.IX. RecenG tn a. WIL8QN,R.E. [Read, June 23rd, 1873.]THEBWEfew countries the world are in which, withinthe samearea,present manyfeatures generalinterestas Sinaiand so of * There can be no better proof of the correctness of th;s statement than the^fact that while the true site was correctly believed iIl by Eggers in 1794,Captain Graah was sent out ill 1828 to learn, if possible, whether the site wereon the east or the west coast- and even thoufflh he himself correctly helieved inthe true site, his pleas, on behalf of his convictions, were so inconclusive, thatthe learned author of Iceland, Greenland, and the Faroe Isltds, in 1840, afterwell weighing the argtlments, says: "For these reasons we are disposed toregard thist point not only as still undecided, but one on which without moroendence it would be premature to come to any conclusion."
    • - - - 3 a? 3 6?34 34 30
    • iN.>>;; t ) A )xt "I,lw; _>_ii <s^zvat-*rrz .... r S - 3{) +r X . . ta face miwe 2D7 36?30 3S7340Hd*eNiSE t / 2 /<9 3a > i 3 Ch,,,,2"5" < t >, X %& . - aN- < -"S g > &; A 4 53? | ,,j.t . : e gk X, D 30 v46>WtM[.%,> >$a5S . . . 32 - s a A -e,, a i.^j:!v_ r v riAkiMi5)Rrffl,e"
    • x!N,ih!St > X -<4 OY e o r b eb w P F $ S +W W !4 -- 7 eASA1!,,elul,l<iS?J t 9[:|-J 4 ov C >9 , - v i,,s,i; !. i.% u 9-7xt"v< t->- f- Scde ;,4sX ii| w"" w She fieres Ze 2 .} <.;. as? 3o?30 36? - Bubushedvffr zie.To7trna,oft77sRogyaGjSJcogrv17QMSocmy,ty Jo7Mttrray,X7ba?Lor1X5treet,Lonuors,1873.
    • xoveb or 20 beLow the 7>e?vet S0 of Bera>w , , ,! 1 ^ tiT n 1 MAP PHYSICAL 30# of EALE$TENE b,y to aW7mpc<ythe:Paper Major C.W.MllsonR.E. Scale of b?sh Stae ffiles 40 soI,e 75pres Snote t7Le aZe or kressorlJ "3oo 36?p0 En3raved by ZdwWWeller73.
    • WILSONS Recezt Stlrveys Sinai andPalestixae. 207 inPalestine, it is oulymrithin lastfewyearsthatanyattempt yet thehasbeenmaUle submit to themto that thorough systematic arldexamination whichis alike demanded the geographer, by thegeologist,the arGhseologist, the Biblical studellt. This andworkhas beenundertaken tlle PalestineExploration by Fund,andotherkindredsocieties,and the following pape.r been hasprepared with a vielv of drawingattentionto what may be-called the geographical results of their labours,and moreespecially the progress the Trigorlometrical to of Surveylvhichwascommenced 1871.in The field of operations be said to e:ttendfromMount mayHermon, lat. 33?26 10"s., on the north,to Ras Muhammed inin lat. 27? 43 20t N. on the south, andfromthe Mediterraneanon the west to the longitudeof Damascus36? 18 24tE., 0I1the east-an areaof 40,000 square miles. For the present, however, various considerations,principallythosearisingfromwantof funds,haveinducedthe societies toconfine their attentionto Palestineproper, whichincludesanareaof about12,000square miles. At RasMuhammed greatfissure the Red Seabranchess the ofoff to the rightandleft, onearmforming Gulf of Suez,the theother,underthe severalnamesof the Gulf of Akabah,the Arabah, Ghor,and the Buleaa, the stretching llorthwards tothe vicinityof Antioch. At the southernestretnityof thepeninsula Sinairise the SinaiticMountairls, vast crystal- of aline mass.similarin character the adjoining to mountains ofAfrica and Arabia;on the eastthey descendabruptlyto theGulf of Akabah, whilst on the west they are flankedby anarid plain,vhich es:tends almostwithoutinterruption thetoMediterranean, forsomedistance alld, northof Tur is separatedfromthe Gulf of ?bues a loxv by rangeof hills of tertXiary sand-stone. Northward, broken sandstonedistrict,sornetimes aknown the Debbeter Ramleh, as separates Sinaitic the Mountains fromthe liinestone plateauof the Till, a drearydesertthat falls gradually towards north,alld is chieflydrailled theby the great NVady Arish, the River of Egypt of the elBible. To the plateauof the Tih succeed,on the north-east, thelimestonehills of Judeea, rising near :Etebron a height of to2840 feet. Thismountain range,whichhas been aptlycalledthe "backbone of Palestine,runs north to Esdraelon, " withslightlyvarvingaltitucleand then,after throwing a spllr outwestwarA Carmel, linkedto the Lebanon the Hills of to is byGalilee,which attai:rl their culminating point in Jebel Jer-muk,4000 high. West of this centralrangees;tend feet withvarying breadth maritime the plainsof Philistiaand Phcenicia,
    • 208 ILSONS Sleruysin Rccewlt Si?lai and Pa7estile. vhilston the eastlies the deplession the Joldan,formin a ofllatural separation betweenPalestineand the great eastern3?1ateall, stretclles which awayalmostto tlle Euphrates. The peninsula Sinai has beenn7ell of described a ;desert asof roch,gravel,anflboulder, gauntpeahs,dreary of ridges, andaridvalleys; * it is extremely wild and ruggecl, is inter- andsectedby oneof tlle lnost conaplicated systemsof drainage illthe wolld. The greatcrvstalline nlasswhichformsa it were, asthe "core of the pe:iinsula, split up into irlnunilerable ispeaks,that attaill a collsiderable altitude Jf3bel Zetir, So51feet; J. Waterin, Sa36 feet; J. Umm Shomern 8449 feet; J.Musa, 7375feet; andJ. Serbal, 6734feet-and present viewsofthe mostgrandand impressive character Tlle sandstone dis-trict,richill alltiquities mineral and wealth, broken illto is upquaintforms,whicll,combined ^7ith riclocovering, the give apeculiar chartnto the seenery;in tlle cretaceous tertiary andElistricts, the otherhalld,the features devoidof interest, on areandthe scellery monotonous, is e2ccept when lightedup by theriGh glowof therisingorsettingsun. Thewadies, salleysn or aredeeply cut, and descend rapidlyto the sea; thev frequentlytake theirrisein openplains, "fershs," oz tllat lie at the footof the peaks,and forinone of the most interesting topogra-phicalfeatures the interior. valleysappear havebeen of The toformed the actionof water,andin manyplacesalongtlleir bysides are loft.ybanksof alluvium,lvllich,according some to vriters,markthe existence, a lemoteperiod, inland at of lakes;.The +^rater supplyis lllore abundallt than llas generally beesupposed,and in the mountaindistricts,especiallvin tile icinityof JebelAlusa, tllereareseveral smallperenlwial streanls,andnumerous springs good of water.lhe sandstone limestone anddistricts badly are supluliecl tlle waterfound the latteris and inrbrackish laasa purgative and effect. Thereis onehot SplilNg tat the foot of Jebel HammalaFaltlu; the temperature is157?. Thevegetationls sparse, there are llot +sTanting but indica-tionstllatit wasformerly mc)re plentiful;es-ellllOW thereis, atcertainseasolls the rearfa considerable of aluount lregetatioll ofon the upland pla;nsn in addition the well-knowll of and to oasisBeiran there are severalothersscattered over the peninsula.The climateis verylTariable; in the higherdistricts coldin the vinteris severe,and the peaksare fiequentlycoxrered lvitlsnoxv;in the lowerdistrictsthe heat is illtense, and,lvllenthe * Capt.Palmer,in; Ordnance Surveyof Sinai sol. i. p. 17 t This arisesfromthe lart,equantities carbonate sodaand othersalis 11e111 of ofin solution.
    • ILSONS Recent Surveys StnaiandPcllestine. 209 iwlkhamsill blows, almostunbearable.The air is dry,clear,andbracing,alld there i8 alsvas a great diSerellcebetweentheniglat day temperature; averagerainfallis small but and thethe country subjectto localstormsof greatviolence, is whichproduce "seils,"or floods, muclldreaded the Bedawill. the so byOneof these11as been grapllically described an eye-witness, byAIr.Holland it will suffice mentionhere that on this oc- ;* tocasionthe bed of the great M;adyFeiranwas at one platfewashed to a depthof 8 feet; andtllatin the gorgeof Wady outSigilliyehthe waterroseto a heightof 30 feet,and then,aftelrunning nearly milesoverthe dryslesert E1Gaah, 20 of enteredthe sea nearTura broad riverfrom3 to t feet deep. Oneof the most strikingfeatures Palestineproperis its ofnatural divisioninto four parallelstrips-the CoastlUlain, theHill Country, Jordan the Valley,andthe Eastern Plateau.TheCoastPlain,from10 to 20 mileswide,extends without brealv afiomthe deserton the south to hIountCarmel the north; onbeyond Calmel the Plainof Acre,about20 mileslongand lies4 to 6 wide,andthis againis separated fromthe narrow Plainof Phoeniciaby Ras en Nakurah,better known as the Ladderof Tyre. The greaterportionof the plain is fertile and culti-sated, but north of the Nahr Aujell there are low hills of tel-tiary sandstone,which check the drainagefrom the mountains,and give rise to several larre swamps; these vere formerlydlained by tunnels or drifts cut through the hills, which arenowchoked withrubbish. TheHill Countrycommencesabout50 milessoutllof the BIediterranean, interrupted and, oulybythe PlaiIIof Esdraelola, traverses countryfronlsouth to tllenorth. The hills are broad-backed, there is no marked andgrandeur their physicalfeatures, everyhere and there in butrounded summits abovethe generalSevel tlle range, rise of andaSordstrikingpanoramas the surrounding of country. Theaveragealtitudemaybe gathered fromthe following heights:-Hebron, 2840 feet; Mount Olives, of 2665 feet; Neby Samwil,2900 feet; Jebel Hazur,3165 feet; MountEbal, 3029 feet;Jebel Fukua,1716feet; Neby Ismail (Nazareth), 1790 feet;JebelJermuk, 40()0feet. The main road from Jerusalem Nablus,Nazareth, to andBaniasfollomrs line of water-parting, in close prosi- the andmity to it were the most importantcities of Judah and Israel.Onthe east the hills descendrapidly the Jordan,and are tofurrowed cleft by deep, wild torrentbeds; whiIston the andwest they fall, at first abruptly, then pass,by a seriesof andlow,1lndulating hills, the " Shephelah," " low country of or " * RoyalGeo,,raphical Societys Journal, s2Zviii. p. 148. sol. VOL. XLIII. p
    • 210 WILSONS Surveys Sinai andPalestine. Recent i?lScripture,to the AtaritimePlain. The valleys for the mostpart take their rise in small upla:nd plains,and,preservinffl gene-rally an east andwestdirection, debouch, after an infinitevarietyof windings,on the Coast Plaill and the JordallValley. Tlle JordanValley runs nearly parallel to the coast from thebaseof MountHermon the Dead Sea,whichoccupiesits deepest toportion. South of the Dead Sea the valley rises graduallyforabout 68 Iniles to the water-parting which, at all altitude of7814 feet, separatesthe sraters of the Dead Sea from thoseof the GLulf XAkabah. This water-parting, of which links theTih to Arabia, is, according to M. Lartet,a cretaceousbarrierseparatingin the lnost completemannerthe two slopesof thedistrict. The cretaceous strata are covered with their own(lebris,and sllowno trace of any water-coursein the directionof the Red Sea. The Eastern Plateau attains its greatestaltitude at FJS Salt,2771 feet; it is tolerably uniform in its characteristics, andnaintains, as far north as Banias, a general altitude of about2000 feet. At this point the grand peak of l]:ermonrises to alleight of 8700 feet, and formsthe commencement the range ofof Arlti Lebanon. Orl the north the great plateau is coveredby the basaltsof the Jaulan, and east of them lie the volcanichills of the Hallranand Ledja. The one great liver of the countrv Jordan, a river is tllewhicll, as Ritter justly obselvesS wholly unique: " There is isno other like it on tlle whole face of the earth; a purely inlandriver, having no embouchure the sea, and closing its course onat the very deepest part of the Old Vorld,and far below thelevel of the ocean.7 After the Junctionof the three strealns,whichrise respectivelyat HaslDeiya., el liady, and Banias, Telltlle Jordan spreads out into the lake E1 Huleh, and thencedescends rapidly to the Sea of Galilee; from tllis lake itfO11OWS 66 miTeS tOrtUOUS fOr a COUrSe, W11011Y the 1eVe1 be1OWOf the MediteRranUan, the Dead Sea. FrOE Te11e1 WadY tOto E1 Huleh theie is a fall of 328 feet in 11@9 miles, fron ElHuleh to the Sea of Galilee a fall of 898 75 in 111 miles, andfroznthe Sea of Galilee to the Dead Sea a fall of 665a75feet in65 9 miles. From the Dead Sea to the water-parting there is &rise of 2()73feet in 67)9 lmiles,and from the water-parting tothe Gulf of Akaball there is a fall of 781 feet in 40 7miles. The Jordan has severaltributaries,of which the mostimportant are the Yarmuk al3d Zerka on the east and thestreams in MTadies Jalud and Ferla on the west; in additionto these, Wadies :Rubadiyeh and lIammaln discharge theirwatersinto the Sea of Galilee, and WVadies ZerkaMain, Zlojib,Rerak, a:ndAhsi into the Dead Sea. There are also several
    • WILSONS Recent Surveys Sinai andPalestine. in 211streams runnillg westward thecoast,as the Litany(Leontes) toNaman (Bellls), and the :Kishon, northof Carmel;and theBelka, Zerka,Aklldar, and Aujeh,to the south. Tlaere are;numerous sprilags good freshwater, of and severalhot springs,of whichthe principal thosenearTiberias are (132-2? 142l2?), tothosenearUmmReis (Gadara), 110?; andthose at Callirrhoe,in W. Zerka Alain, 120?. Palestine was evidentlyat one time thiclily coveredwitllforests,but they have elltirelydisappeared, except in a fewplacesOllthe mountains alongthe sea coast,and tlle only andexisting tracesare tlle roots,that forln one of tlle plincipalsourcesfromwhich charcoal firewood obtained. The and aleplainsand rockyhills are,in spring, carpeted with herbaceousplants,but they soondisappear underthe burningSUll of sum-mer,andtlle coUntly thenassumes dreary, a monotonous aspect.Thoughmostof the country wasteat present, wasat one lies it timehiglllycultivated, the art of " terracecultule" seems andto havebeenbrought a state of great perfection. Onevery to hill, remains the ancientterraces be tracedrisingone of can.above other, evenfarto the south Beersheba, the and of ProtessorPaltnerfound long swathes ,stones the hill-side,marking of onthe presellce former of xrineyards. Frolnthe peculiar formation the country, of thereis a greatsarietyof climate;thatof the Lebanon be compared rnay withthat of the Alps; that of the B:illCountry Italy, andthat with of the Jordan Valley+vith tropics. In summer, the from local causes,the towns and villages are subjectto fever, but theelimateis generally healthy, the bracing of the Lebanon and air is alwayswithin easy reach. The mostunhealthy periodsof the yearare Mayand October, vvhen country visitedby the isthe khamsin winds, whichfrequently forseveraldays at a last time. In connection with this wind,Dr. Chaplinhas noticed the factthatit is entirelydestit,ute ozolle. rlnhe of rainyseason commences the end of Octoberor beginningof November at and lasts till March;it is not a continuous rain, but a suc- cession of heavy showers, with interveningpeliods of fine weatller. The average rainfall Jerusalem at duringthe seven yearsfrom1860to 1867was19 62 inches,the maxilnum being 22s9 inchesin lS60-61, and the minimum14-8 ill 1864-5. There are occasional falls of snow,and one at Jerusalem ill April 1870 was 2 inches to 5 inches deep, and lay on the gloundfor three days. The countryis still subjectto those sudden storms which sofrequently are alluded in theBible,and to tbey areacconlpanied a sudden in tlle telBperature; by fall on one occasion temperature in a few minutesfrom about the fell 75? to belonv fieezin^,-poillt.In summerthe dexvs very are P2
    • 212 MlILSONs in Sialai PcGlestine. Surve?ys Becent d?Zdsheavy penetrating tentSandwettingeverything the witllinit.Theredoes not appearto have been any great chanye;11tlletemperatulle, thatx tlle dateof the kingdolns Judalland to at ofIsrael; therelnayhave beena slit,^ht decrease the rainillS inbut the existenceof the co:nduits, pools, arldcisternsfor tllewatersuloply Jerusalean, tlle llumerous of and aqueducts tIIldcisterns irrigation, thattheremustalway3 llavebeen a for showdeficiency water,anc1 fact that the fruitsgrownat the of thepresentday,are tllose rnentiolled the Bible wouldseemto mconfirm it. Such are the principal features tlle country whichthe of inoperations the British alld Aluericansocietiesare being ofcarriedon. :3efore,however,alludi:n", their labourss to itwill be well to give a brief account the results of obtained byprevious travellers. The publication, 1835, of Bergllauss ill map (; WartesonSyrien withan acconlpanying "), rnemoir greatsalue,mas be ofsaid to nlalk the commenceme}wt a new era ill the geo- ofgrapllicalinvestigation Palestine, it lvasthe first serious of folattetnptto classifyand portrayin & carefuland sstemat;emannerthe lesults obtainecl the earliertravellersof the bypresellt century.$ Tllewintelof 1836-7is marked VonSchuberts loy travelsaandhis account themcontains of lauchthatis new,relatingto thenatural history the country, wellas some of as vividdescriptiollsof the scenery. In 1838Russegger travelled through country, collected the anda massof i:nformatioll, especia.lly regardto the geologicaT withcharacter the districts passed of he thllough. Tn 1838also,Robinson Eli Smithmadetheirfirstjourney andtilrough SinaiandPalestine, the foriner and published lesult theof their latOUlS iN a work, BiblicalResearches Palestine,> inwvhich fortns test-book all students Scriptule still tlle of of geo-graphy. Robinson was the first traxTeller conceived who theideaof writingsucha bookfrornpersonal observatiorl tlle ongrounditself. He prepared himselffor 1lisworkby a coulsseof arduous studxr,extending over a period fifteell of yearsn andleapedh;s rewardin a seriesof important discoveries, +xhiclat once placedilim in the foremost rallkof travellers tlle inHoly Land. Provided ollly witha large compass, nume-hisrous and careful bearings,a.7nd strikillgly accuratemeasule-- hisments and topographical descriptions, aSordedsuch voluininousdata that ProfessorKiepert, of Berlill, was enabledto construct * Clarke7 Bey, Seetsen, Burokhardt, A1; Richter,Irby and Manles, LeCh,Richardson,Buckingham, HoC,g, Catherwood,Blarmont,Laborde, Ruppell, &c.Wellsted,Moresby,
    • Wecent NVILSONS Suwreys Sinai andPulestine. in 213a llev reap,wllichalmost entirely superseded of Berghaus.* that(:ommencing Sillai, Dr. Robinson at travellednorthwards toDamascus, collectinO information everystep,and lieepinga atminuteitineraryof his route,whilst his companion, Eli Dr.Smith,suppliedlists of Arabic names, whichhavebeenof thegreatest service Biblicalstudents. to In 1852 Dr. Ptobinson a second paici visit to Palestine,ancllYaS ac,ain accompanied Dr. Eli SInith.Landing Beyrout, by atthey passed thronnh Galileeto Acre,andthence throughGalileeandSamaria Jerusaletn; to fromJerusalem turnednorth- theywards :Beisan, Sea of Galilee, to the Hasbeiya, DamasetSn andwhence they crossed Letanonto Beyrout. Tlleirroute on thethis occasiorl passed through thosedistricts whichhad not beenpreviously exainined, anaccount their jourlley pub- and of wasJished the I.aterBiblicalVEtesearches in il] Palestine,xvhichcon-taineda newmapby Pro?I(iepert. In 1841Lieut.Symonds, wasenabled makea triangll- R.E., tolationof the country between JaSa and Jerusalem, thenee arldto the l1ead the Dead Sea, on the south; and fron1Cape ofBlancoto Said and the Sea of Galilee on the l:lorth; thes.etwo lnainseriesof trianbles being connected intermediate bytriangles. By thistriant,ulation level of the I)eadSea was theSisedat 13122 feet, arldthat of the Sea of Galilee at 32889feet below the Mediterranean.The triangulation mad wasotithan 8-inchtheodolite frombaseslneasured neal Acre anelJaCa,but therewereno astronomica1 observatio1ls. Somepor-tiOll of the detailsof thejnortherz1 sheetwas f11edin, butthemThole in too fragmentary stateforpublication. For this vas aserviceLieut.Svmonds received Patrorks Aledal the the Gold oflloyal Geographical Society 1842. in Fromsketches madein 184041 by Scott,Robe,NVilbraharnandSymonds, Major Scottprepared map in three sheets; in atllis,however, Symonds triangulation underwent much modifi-cation, instead being used, as it shouldhave been, as the ofleasis the construction the map. br of In 1846 Lepsiusvisited the peninsulaof Sinai, and inadditio:n his archtolot,ical lesearches, colle( to ted muchvaluableinformation the topography Jebels Musaand on ofaSerbal. In Ig47 Lieut. Molyneux, R.N., made an adx7enturouscleseent tlle Seaof Galileeto the DeadSea, whichunfoltu- fromxwately terminated his prernature in deathfromexposure the tofierceraysof an autumnal sun. * Prof. Kieperts map +vas accompallied by an excellent anernoir,wllich ispulJlished in vol iii. of the Biblical Ilesearches.
    • 214 RecentSurveysin Sinai and Palestine. WILSONS In 1848Lynchdescended Jordan the fromthe Sea of Galileeto the DeadSea in two boats,and spent fifteendays on thelatterlake. The resultsof his expeditioll ^ere,a sketchof thecourseof the Jordan,which,consiclering manner avhich the init was esecuted,is of great accuracy, and has never beensuperseded a verye2cact ;* chartof the Dead Sea,with sound--ings,andthe cleterminationits depression, a line of levels of bycarriedup Wady en Nal to Jerusalem, and thence by theordinary to JaSa. The sketchof the Jordanshowedthat roadin a directdistance 60 miles,the lent,thof the riverwas200 ofmiles, whilstthe soundings gave the Dead Sea a maximumclepth 13()S of feet,andthe levelsfixedl surface 1317 feet its atbelowthe Mediterrarlean. instrument The used in levellint,wasone of Troughton Simsspiritlevels. and In 1850-51 MvI. SaulcyviKsited westernand southern cle theshoresof tlle DeadSea,Kerak,andMoab, travelled and north-wardthrout,ll Palestine, collecting material which embodiecl wasin a mappub]ished illustrate travels. to his In a second journey, madein 1863-4.tI. de Saulcywas ac-companied Capt.Gelis of the :ttat BIajor, the route by andslietchesmade by this officerfrom JaSa to Jerusalem andH:ebron, and frola Jerusalemnorthwaldby Jifna, Mozare,fibnela,Nablus,and Jenin to Nazaretll form a valuablecon-tribution Palestine to topoOraphy. account the jour:ney Tlle ofwasalsoaccompaolied specialplans madeby Capt.Gelis, of byEbal and Gerizim, Jericho, AInman, Hesban,Arak el Emir,&c. Iu 1851-2Vande Velcle thlougllPalestine, the travellecl a:ndresultwashis filst mappublished a scale of 1 ,100o Van oncle Velde used a 7-inch compass with two levels, a cross-threadedplungingtelescope,and verticalsemicircle; hacl he aneroids othermeansof deterininillg or altitudes. Themapwas based on Symoncls triangulation, and compiledfromhis OlVll observations, the compass with bearings,itinerarieseand astronomical observations others;it vvasaccompaniecl ofby a memoir,colltaining rich store of authentic well- a andarranged data. Aftera second visit to the country 1861-2,Vande Velde inpublished neweditionof his excellentmap,which, a until therecentpublication Mr.hfurrays of Atlas,was the best map ofPalestine. In 1853,andagain in 1862,Dean StanlevvisitedPalestiney * The acctlracyof Lynchs work ljas sometimesbeen questioned,but the point,the embouchure Wzidypositionof one important of Zerka,whichVall d(;Velde considered be in error, foundto be quite accurate Lieut.AndersolJ. to was byand myself.
    • WILSONS RecentSurveysiz Sinai and Palestine. 215and published resultof llis travelsin a bool; Sinai and thePalesti:ne,> which has perhaps created greater interest inBiblicalgeographythall any worlK has appeared tlle that onsubJect. 1850-55.- In his work Five Years in Damascus, BIr.Portergivesa mapeinlsodying resultsof observations the madeduring fiveyearsstay in the colmtry. The map contains hismuchnew and intelestinginformation the Ledja, on E[auran,the Lebanon, the watersystemof the Plain of Damascus, andbutunfortunatelyzmistake rnade the application the a +as in ofvariation, that the relative so positionsof placesare somewhatdistorted. Bearings weretakenwith a compass, altitudes and vithall aneroid.* 1855.-In a paper readbefore RoyalGLeographical tlle Society,Mr. Poole communicated resultsof an examination the the ofwesternand southern shoresof the Dead Sea alld the Lisan.lIe madethe depression aneroid by 1313h5feet.t 1857.-In a paper read before the Royal Geot,raphicalSociety,AIr.Cyril Graham gave an accountof his travelsinthe Hauranand the districtof E1 Harah, whichhad not pre-viouslybeen visited. EIispapervas accompanied a route bymap co:ntallling large numberof new namesof townsancl avlllages.; 1858.-An ilnportant journey the Hauranand Ledjawas inmadeby tlle Prussian Consul Dfamascus, Wetzstein, at lIerr wllopublished account it in 1860,whichwas accolupallied an of bva mapby Kiepert. Theinstruments by MJetzsteirl a used were7-inch sextantnboxchronometer, a Schmalkalders a and compass;his latitudes fromobservations the pole-star circum- are of andmeridians the sun; and the map contains of much authenticinformation the districtsthat he visited, which werepre- ofviouslylittle known. In 1860-61advantage takenof the presenceof Frencl wastroopsill Syria to make severalrecormaissances, were whichafterwards embodied the ;Cartedu Liban,: beautifully in aesecutedmap,published a scale Ofgoolooo The detailed onfeatures of the countryare correctlygiven, but the lati-tudes of manyof the placesare in error, the mrork and bearsthe appearance being a series of militaryreconnaissances offitted together;unfortunately meinoirwas published no withtlle map,from whichits claimto accuracy mightbe judged. Tothe same periodbelongsZI.Renansexpedition Phaenic,ia, tothe account whiehis accompanied solnebeautiful of by topo- * Royal Geographical SocietysJournal, sz;vi vol. $ Ibid.,vol. x;viii. t Ibid.,sol. sssi.
    • 216 Surveys SinazandPalestiwze. Recent WILSONSS ingraphical maps and plans by CaptainGelis and other Frenclofficers. In 1860-62 an Admiraltv Survey of the coast of Palestineand Sylia ^-as made by Captain Mansel, R.N., assisted lDyAItlsters Hul] and Christian,and a trian^,ulation was carriedover a portiorlof the country. Drinlr the prot,ress of theSurvey, Alexalldriawas connectedxvitllMaltafor longitude bvelectlic telegraph,and by 8 or 9 meridian distances by 1.Sehrononle.ters carried roundfrom Malta to 13eyrout, JaWa, andAlexandria, the restllts bein,, most satisfactory. An astro-nomical base was measured betxveenHassall Cove, Beylout,and tlle south point of Jezileh Island, Saida. The longitude ofBeyrout vas fixeci from 3 chronometricmeridian distallcesbetween Alexandria and Beyrout, and that of Saida fiom 4 hronometricIlleridiandistallces between Beyrout a:ndSaida.llhe latitude was in each case fixed with the sextant by nume-rous observationsof stars northalld south of the zenith. TllellorthernmiIlalet of the Great AIosqueat Damascuswas con-nected xvith Hassarl Cove, Beyrout,for longitude,by electrictelegrapll, and tlle latitude of tlle millaret fised with the.sextant. This placed the minaret in lat. 33? 30 30" N. andlong. 36?1S 24tE. In additionto the accuratedelineation ofthe coast line, and the preparationof charts on a lalger scaleof the harbours, large number of points in the iaterior ere afised by astronomicalobservations an(l triangulation; thevariationof the compasssvascarefullyobserved,and numerousaltitudeswere detelmined by barometerand angles of elevationand depression. In 1863-4 Dr. Tristramvisitetl Palestine, and published tlleresults of llis travels in tlle LaIldof Israel, whieh was accom-panied by a general map of the country,and a special map ofthe Dead Sea, that adds much to our knowledge of the topo-graphy of its zvesterllshores. II1 1872 Dr. Tristram againvisited Palestille, arld spent some time in an examinationofSIoab; his account of his journeY is noNY in tlle press,and the map lvhich is to accompanyit will give Inanyne+sdetails of the topographyof that district.$ Dr. Tristram was fortunate enough duling his visit to discolterthe remainsof a renaarkable palace at Umm Shittah, not far from tl-e Darnascus Hajroute. In 1863-4 the Duc de Luynes conducted an expedition to Palestine, the entire cost of whichwas defrayed from lais Osx private means. He was accompanied LientenantVignes of by tlle Frencll Navy, and an accomplished geologist, Monsieur * This work has since l)een pululislled ullcleI the title of The Land of tIoal).
    • Surveys Sinai andPabstine. WILSONES Recent inLartet. Theset^vogentlemenspent a month 8th BIarcll to 2177th April1864 in examining DeadSea, withthe aidof a theboat carriedin sections from Jerusalem. They afterwardspassed the Jordall up valleyto Jisrl)amieh,andthealce passedby way of Amman, Hesban, Moab, a:ndPetra,to the Arabah,whichwascarefully examined. Owingto the lamented deathof the Duc de Lllynes full account the expedition not a of hasyet beenpublished, we already but bave an excellentmap byLieutenant Vignes,of the Dead Sea and its vicinity, includingthe Arabah, a scale ?f 2+0l00(); M. Lartethas pub- on andlished a workon the geology of Palestinewhich is of thellighestvallle. Eis paperon the Dead Sea treats the wholequestioll its origin? the geological of and formation its basin, ofill the most able manner, his examination the water- ar1d ofparti3ag the Arabah sholvnthat there is no groundfor in hassupposing tlle wateLs the Jordaneverenteredtlle Gulf that ofof eAkabah. In 1867 {;heRev F. W. Hollalld spent some time inexploring pen;nsula Sinal,andcommunieated accoullt the of anof hisjourney, well as of a former in 1861,to the Royal as oneGeographical Socif3ty a paper in published Vol. s:xxviii. in oithe Journal. Mr.Hollands journeywas performed foot onandaloneandhe wasenabled fromhis itineraries numerous andcompass-bearings the pealzs, from with barometrical hypso- alldmetricalobservations their altitudes, construct mapof of to athe entirepeninsula, whichis insertedin Vol. xxxis. of theSocietys Journal. This map, when tested afterwards bythe closere;xamination the Survey 1868-69,wasfoundto of ofbe veryaceurate, ua.sof great use to the expedition; and itwasthe first map uponwhichany attempthad been madetosllow irkdetail the peculiartopographical features of thepeninsula, is remarkable the workof a single,unaided and ase:plorer. In 1870Captains SIieuletandDerrien, tlle iFlench of Etat-Major, proceeded Palestinewitloa viexrof coz}structing to amapof the country;they commencad operations tlle 10th onMayandworledtill the 10thAugust whenthey wererecalledto France. A base lille vas measured the plain of Acre, onand from this, 21 stations were fixed by triangulationvith atheodolite; altitudes 500 saparate the of pointswerefised,andn:lorethan 1000 squaremiles surveyed. The field sketchesweremadeon a scale?f -0-oloo andcontain towns, all houses, woods,&e.; the hill featuresaretombs,ruins,wells, springs,6hown contourlines,and the namesare writtenin French byandArabic. Themapis at presentbeing prepared fromthefieldsketches.
    • 218 Surveys Sinaiand Wecent WILSONS in Palestine. In 1871Captain Burton Mr.Drakema(lean exploration andof the Tululel Safa,the volcaIlic regioneast of Damascus,alldan accountof theirjourney Captain by Burton been pub- haslished in No. 2 of Vol. svi. of the Proceedinosof the RoyalGeographical Society. A fuller account was published under Syria,witha mapby Mr.Drake,whichthe title Urlexploredaddsmuchto OU1 knowledge the Trachonitis. of In 1871-2 an Admiralty Surveyof the Gulf of Suez wasmade by CaptainNarfes, R.N.X H.M.S. in Newporg, the andfirstsheet,estending fromTurto Bas Muhammed, already hask)een published.*In addition the hydrographical to featuresthe charts show rnany new and importanttopographicaldetails,especiallywith regard to the coast range running worthwards Tur, and the hills in the vicinityof WVady fiomGharalldel. Thepresent yearhasbeenmarkecl the publication the by ofnorthern sheetof Mr.Murrays mapof Palestine. new whichisbeautifully esecuted, contains and information derived fromthemostrecentsurveys expeditions. and This portionof the subjectcan hardlybe closed withoutalludingto the worksof ;Tllomson, Tobler, Ritter,as svell andas to the articlesby Mr. Grovein the sDictionary tlle ofBible, all of svhichhavelargelycontributed ourknowledge toof the physical features SinaiandPalestine. of I nowpassto the moreaccurate surveyswhich haverecentlybeenmade,commencing that of Jerusalem, with whichmayillsome measulebe said to have given rise to the subsequentoperations.Early in 1864 the sanitarystate of Jerusalemattracted considerable attention, severalschemes and were pro-posedfor its improvement providing adequate by an supplyofpuremrater the inhabitants.The Baroness for BurdettCoutts,havingbeeninformed it wasnecessary the firstplaceto that inobtainall accurate plan of the city,at once placeda sum of5001. the handsof a committee gentlemen in of interestedinthe subject,for that purpose. The committeerequestedLordde Grey,then Secretary StateforTar, to allowa survey of tobe made by a partyof Royal Engineersfromtlle OrdnanceSurveyunderthe direction Sir HenryJames,andobtained of afavourableanswer. It was,houever, stipulatedthat Govern-mentshouldbe put to no es:pense, that an officershould andaccompany party at his own cost,as the fundswere not thesufficient detrayhis e2zpenses. to The surveywas madeby officers the BoyalEngi-myself and five non-commissioned ofneers, on ourreturn England costof publication and to the was * The remaining charts of thc PteclSea llave since beeIl issuecl.
    • Recent WILSONS Surveys Sinai andPalestine. in 219defrayed a grantfrom the Treasury, by whiehhas been morethan repaidby the sale of the plans, photographs, The &e.plansarenowsowellknown it will be suffieient zmention that toherethat they weremadeon the samesealeandwiththe sameaeeuraey the ParishPlans of the Ordnanee as Survey,2-5100DBefore partyleft England, the somedoubt entertained to was asthe possibility leakinga elose-eontoured of survey, whiehneees-sitatedeonstant trespass private on property, a toxvn ^hieh of intherewassueha largeMoslem population but witha little eare *andmanagement diffieulties disappeared. the soon The groulldeoveredby the surveywas triangulated a with7-ineh theodolite, a ehain survey and then madeof the whole,a 5-inehtheodolite beillgusedto lay out the longerand nworecliffieult lines. The base was measuredthree times with astanclardehain,andthe meanof the threemeasurements, whiellhada rangeof halfa link,wasusedforealelllation.A traversesurvey made of the eity andHaram was Area with a 5-inehtlleodolite. The ehaill surveyxvasplotted at Jerusalem, ancltraeesmadeof the work, whiehwereearefully examined theonground, inaeeuraeies omissions any or being at onee eorreeteclOThe ground was eontoured 10-footintervals, at with the es-eeption the eityitself,in whiehthe streets of werelevelled,andbenehmarks wereeut at frequent intervals. The llill featureswere thensketehed on the ground, plans of the most in andimportant buildings made. Suehof the subterranean passagesas wereaeeessible wereexalnined, a fewexeavations and madeat importantpoints. The plans were brought home in aSnished state,andeonsisted of 25100 of Jerusalem vicinity,with 10-foot plan and contours ditto withhill features. 500 planof Earam Area. 200 and 500 plansof Chllrch HolySepulchre other of and buildinrs. V7hilst Jerusalem wasrequested earrya line of levels at I tofromthe Mediterranean the Dead Sea,and froulJerusalem toto Solomons Pools, fundsin one easebeingprovided the the byRoyal,andRoyalGeographieal, Soeieties, in the other by andthe Syrian Improvement Soeiety. After a eareful reeon-naissanee the intervening of eountry, line seleeted,as that thewhieh+A7ould the bestresults,wasonefollo+ving eamel give theroadup WadySuleimanto Jerusalem, and theneethe usualroadto Jericho the DeadSea. As the expellseof running andtwoindependent lines of levelswouldhavebeenverygreat itwasdecided runa singleline withtwo ihstruments two to andobservers.The back and forward staveswere read twice byeachobserver, the resultscompared the spot; if they and onlay xvithina certain limit, the instrulnents meremovedto
    • Ordnancebalometel ................... 1377- .... Russet,ffer, .. ............. ....1316Lieut.Survey,DeBertotl, bybymonds, bybarometer Vignes, levellincr bytrianCulation .............. ..................... 1312-2....Schllbert, .. .............. 1430 .................... 1292-13 barometer 1286-15 Bridaes, Poole, .... barometer barometer barometer . ............. 1367 638220 Revent WILSONS Pcllestine. Surveys Sinai and: inanotherstation,if not, tlaereadingswere taken again. From acomparison the two sets of levels, it is certain that the limit ofof errorin the ascertaineddepression the Dead Sea does not ofexceed 4 inches. Tlle rate of levellinOvaried accordirlgto thenatureof the glound; the averagenumberof stationsin a daywas 89, and the greatest interval between the staves lvas8 chains, 4 on each side of the instrument. 35 bench nlarks+verecut betweenJaSa and the AIountof Olives, alld 18 be-taveentlle latter place and the Dead Sea, ^rherea stone wassunk in the sand. Tllese bench marks llave been conrlectedwith the trianrulationof the survey nosvin course of progress,and have enabledthe surveyorsto checlQ altitudes of many theof their trigonometrical points. The partysuffered considerablyflom the intellse lleat and the bad +s-ater.Tlle depressionofthe Dead Sea was foundto be 129213 feet on the 12th Mareh1865, but it was ascertailleclthat in early summer the level ofthe sea is at least 6 feet lower; this wouidmalzethe depression1298 feet, and it is probably never greatel than 1.300 feet.An examinatioll of the drift-woocl the shole of the lake onshowed that the watel had stood 22 feet higher durirlgthewinter,or at 1289 6 feet; there is thus a range of 1Q4 feet, blltvllether it is an annualvariation, or notSwe had no means ofascertaining. Tllis represents an ellormousamount of evapo- ation, and it is to be hoped that aclvalata,:,e be taken of may tlle present survey, to establish a gauge by which we mafr arrive at the annualrise and fall. The Jordan is subjectto two annualfiseshets, duringthe rainyseasorl, other when one the the Lebanon snows melt, and at this time the suppltrfar exceeds the evaporation;the highest level of the lake would probablybe in Jallualy, the lowest toxvards end of October. the It Inaynot be ullinterestint, here to give tlle resultsobtained by previoustravellels:- Feet, Feet.Lynch, by levellina* .. 1316 7 Von Wildenbruch,barometer1441 The success which attended the Jerllsalem Survey showedthat the time had arrivedwhen it would be possible to carryout a systematic examinationof the whole country,and at ameeting held on the 221adJune 1865, an associatiorlwas * Lynchsline of levels was run in May,and from indicationsin his mapthe water appe:rs to have been at that time vely low. A small tollue of land sllowllhy him as collnected fiom with tlle shole was in 1865an island separated tlle sholely water6 ol 7 feet deep.
    • ILSONS Recent Surveys Sinai andPalestine. in 221formedfor this purposeunder the name of tlle PalestineExplorationFund. Her BIajeKsty graciouslyconsentedtobecomethe Patron,anda committee appointed arrange was tomatters detail. A prospectus prepaledby Mr. George of wasGrove, inclefati the ,ableIIonorary Secretary, wllose to unceasingexertions much the success the Fundis due,andin this,the of ofobjectwas said to be the esamination the arclseology, of themanners custozns, topographv, geology, wellasthe. and tlle the asbotany, zoology, meteorology, of the HolyLand. The com- Ac.,mitteedecided that,in the firstplace,an expedition shouldbesentout " withthe viewof making suclla general surveyof thecountry xvould as enablethe promoters the Fund to fis on ofparticular forfurther spots examination, alsoto collectsuch andspecialinformation +^7asas coonpatible the larger with purposes ofthe Expedition, would and throw lighton anyof the pointsmelz-tionedin the proOrammethe Exploration of Fund." Thecom-mittee did me the honourto oWer the command the me ofXExpedition; accompanied Lieutenant,now C&ptain7 and, byAnderson, andonesergeant I left England Novembel R.E., R.E., in1865. Landing Beyrout proceeded Damascus, after- at we to anddetermining position the lakes to the east,proceeded the of toBanias; thencewe travelled southwards Hebron, afterwarcls to andmade excursion an alongtlle Maritime Plainto Athlit. In some excursions whichI hadmadefromJerusalem 1864-651had inbeen muchstruckby the claaracter the countryas affectinC of its survey; the clearness the atmosphere extensive of and viewsflom manypointsoSer great facilitiesto tlle surveyor,whilst on the otherhandthe deeptransverse valleys prevented free movement the country, the absenceof spiresor pro- over and minentpointsill the villat,es,combined with the uncertain charactel the population, of madeit difficultto establish fixecT trigonometrical stations. As underthe circumstances the of Es:pedition was impossilule calryout a satisfactory it to trian- gulation, determined makea reconnaissance the coulltry I to of passed through, observing the principal at stations timeand for latitude,and connecting them by aziinuthlines with some known point. The resultsof the Expedition, whichremained in the country about6 months, were briefly fo]lows:Obser- as vations time andlcltitude 49 diCerent for at stations;a line of azimuths fromBaniasto Jerusalem giving independent deter- millations longitude the pointsused,Mansels of br positionfor the Domeof the Rockat Jerusalem being adoptedas a fised point; a reconnaissance a scale of 1 ineh to a mile of a on districte2ztending Baniasto Hebron, embracing from and the +^rhole backbone the country;a recoIlnaissance a large. of of portionof the hIaritime Plain; specialsurveysof the Sea of
    • 222 WILSONSS Surveys SinaiandPalestine. Recent inGalileea:ndvicinity,Salnaria, Beisan,and MountsEbal andGerizim;an examination the Frenchtnapof the Lebanon, ofin whichanany errors werefound;morethan50 plansof syna-gogues,churchesn temples, tombs,&c.; anda numbel: tenta- oftive excavations variouspoirkts at whichyieldedgood results.A largenumber photographs taken,and two questions of wereof some importa:nce the geography the countrywere to ofsettled: one the point at whichthe streamfromWadyZerkaentersthe Jordan, otherthe correctcourse WadySurar. the ofThereis not spaceto enterinto the detailsof these a:lld otherresultswhichhave been published frola time to time by theBund. Themethodof conductiIlg recounaissance be tlle willbestunderstood a shortdescription its commecement; from ofthe latitude of Baniasvas carefullyfised by astronomicalobservationsn a similar determination lnade of the and wasjunctionof the Jordanand Banias streams, about5 milesdistant. Thesetwoplaceshavingbeen connected compass bybearings, base was obtainedon which to framethe trian- agulation the mountains bothsides of the valley. Explo- to onrationson horseback madein different were directions the overvalley,and the position all the important of pointsfised bycompassbearingsto points previouslydetermined. FromBaniasan azimuthlille was obser^TedS with a 5-inchaltitudealld azilnuthinstrument, a prominent to peakabout10 milesdistanton the west side of the valley,and the latitudeof ourcamp,pitchedclose to this peak at the village of Hunin, wasdetermined astronomica11y, the connection alld accurately madewiththe diCerent placesvisitedduringthe exploration the invalley,includingthe last campat Banias. At Huninwe wereon the water-parting, which explored was about8 milesfurther orth, tc)the great bend of tlle Leontes. From Hurlinthewater-parting follo-ed to Jerusalem, was and this aSordedgreatfacilities topographical for reconnaissance a clearview aswas alwaysobtained great distances to botll on the east andwest,andall important placesvisiblesvithin or 10 lnilesfi:ecl 8by triangulation. Froln Hunin the line of azimuthswascarriedto Jerusalem, principal the points used beingBanias,Eunin,Alma,Sasa,Safed,Wazareth, Jebel Duhy,Mount Ebal,Mount Gelsizim, Jebel Easur,Jerusalem. At everycalnpthechronometers carefully were rated and compared; latitude for10 observatiolls a northand10 of a southstarwerelalade, ofandfortime5 observations an eastand5 of a weststar; the ofsun was rarelvused, as we were generallyreconnoitring oe:xcavating duringthe day; the azimuthlines xvere with runa 5-inch alt. azimuthiustrnment, the principal ancl tria.ngu-lation made with the same. LEIeights determined wele by
    • WILSONS RecentSurveysin Sinai and Palestine. 223aneroid.* The observations Baniasaregivenas an example atforlatitude time,t andarl examplefromthe Sitlai Survey andis given for tlle method of reducingthe azimuths.t Tllereconnaissance carriedout by CaptainAnderson. The wastonstantday and night workwasverytrying,buta shortrestat Jerusalem lestoredthe partyto perfbet soon llealth. Onourreturn England submitted schelue a regular to I a forsurves of the country,but the committee,taking into con-sideratio:n extreme the interestfelt by everyonein Jerusalerndetermined devotetheir attention, the time being, to to forte:xcavationsthe Holy City. In accordance this decision in withan expedition sent out in January1867, under Captai:n wasXVarren, neither R.E., Captain Anderson myselfbeing nor ableatthe timeto return Palestine. Thedifficulties to whichCaptai:nMTarren to encounter the retnarkable had and resultswhichlleobtainedby his excavations well knowll, they hardly are andeomewithin scopeof the presentpaper. Ie was,however, theable whilstin Palestine carryoutsome ilnportant to reconnais-sances, whichhaveaddedmuchto ourknowledge the topo- ofgraphyof the country.ThereconnaissancesCaptainof Warren(since esnbodied Mr.Murrays of Palestine)weremade in mapat intervals during excavations Jerusalem, werecon- the at andductedin tlle samemanneras thoseof the Expedition the inprevious year. They consisted about 650 squaremiles in the Plain of ofPhilistia,about 300 squarenliles on the west bank of theJordanto the northof the Dead Sea, and about 1050 squaremilesto the eastof tlle Jordan,as far as the Hajroutein thedesert. In addition, sketchof the hills aboutthe Jordan aValley was madeas far as the Sea of Tiberias, including theplain of Beisan, a geographical description the western ofsideof the DeadSea,alsoan account Mou:nt of Hernaon, togetherwith plans, c., of all the templesin Co3lo-Syria :lir as at aspresent known. Capt.Warren usuallyaccolnpanied a photographer was by(Sergeant Phillips,R.E.), or by othernon-commissioned oflicersof Royal Engineers, planswere:rnade all the anciellt and ofbuildings ruinsanet and with; among othersNebo,Amman, alldJerash, together withphotographs archa3010gical geolo- both andgical,andillustrative the manners customs the people. of and of * The Expedition was but poorly furnished svith instrurnents,the only onessupplied being 1 S-inch sextant; 1 5-inch alt. azimuth instrument- 1 largeazimuth compass; 1 prismatic compass; 4 pocket chronolneters; 2 chains, 1eyphon barometer; 3 aneroids; 2 thermometers; 1 hygrorneter. Three of t-hechronoxnetersproved to be reliable instruments, and were found to have accumu-lated only errors of 2 and 3 minutes in 7 snonth. t Appendis I. t Appendis II,
    • 224 Recent in Palestine. NVILSONSS Surveys Sinai arzdI may melltion pllotographs theruinsof Atarsada, of Arnmars,andJerash,also tl:lehill desertof Sachaandabolltthe DeaclSea. Advantage talienof Jacob-es-Shellabys was presenceollZlountGerizimto pllotofflraph Samaritan the colony,both incampalldwhenassembled prayer the evening for on beforethePassover. These are the only photographs the Samaritans ofknown exist. to Captain VN7arreIl to tlseconclusion taliingcostfor came that,costn resultsof reconnaissances a country the lIolv the in likeLand(where everyru;n is of importance) llot to be colu wasparedwith tlle resultsto be obtairled froma systematictrigo-nometrlcalsurveyforrrling the veryleasta skeleton at outliIaeythe substance whichcouldbe filledin at anyfutureperiod; ofandhe urgeduponthe Comluittee llecessity the survey the forwhich llas now happily been commenced under such goodausplces. In Philistia, Ramleh beingtalen as a fized point,a triancrulationby means truebearings latitudes carried of and was downto Gaza,and as far east as NebySamvil thus checliingthelongitude Jerusalem. of The principal lleights and latitudeand lollgitude abou$ of300 villages (mdluins ;n this plain xvere obtained, pub- andlishedin the papers the Palestine of Exploration Fund. It wasobserved thisfertileplainis bei:ng that threatened vastsand- byllills,gradually advancing fromthe sea, put in motionby theprevailing sllrice wind; wholevillageshaw-e been engulphedandinstanceslla+Te been foundwheresome landowners, moreindustrious the rest,havefromyear to year patiently tllan car-riedthe adxTancing awayfromtheir plotsof groundvlutil sandat the present theyaresituated belowthesurface the tinle far ofsand, elltirely and surroullded it. The only chance arrest- by ofing the advartcing enemyis unitedactionon the part of theinhabitants, the planting pinetrees(asat iBeyrout). and of In makingtllis reconnaissarlce Philistia, the e:xisting ofmapswere of no assistance, thoughexternally for accurate illparts, with regardto the relat;X-e positionof certainancienttownsoneto another, general the positions entirely were mrong;thusclearlyshowing necessityfor a correctoutlineof the thecountry which the ancientruinsfou:nd tinleto timeby on fromtravellers couldgladuallyle filledin. Threeseparate expeditionswere madewhen filling in the 1350 squarelniles about the Jordan Valley. The lecon-naissallces extend fromthe edgeof Captain Andersons survey ofthe water-pa1ting between Jerusalem Nablus the Jordan, and toandthenacross Gilead the elevated to Plainof Arabia, faras asthe lIaj route,leing from north to south30 miles,to eastof
    • TILSON S ReC8?lt SU?V8yS i?l Siwrai Pulestirle. 920 aZe!ffordan miles, to west 15 miles. The greaterportionof 30the countr)had llot been mapped the grolludbefore, Oll tlleortion to eastof Jordan,showll Vande Veldes in map,llavingloeenconstructed him at Jerusalem by frolllthe itineraries oftravellers information and obtained fromnatives. Thisworkwasperformed Captainby WNTarrerltime when at athe Beda+vin wassvlth, lle xvere ill armsagainstan invadin3 upTurkish army a pricebeinyplacedon the headof tlle Sheilihwlloaccolxlpanied llim. Tlaey wereoluligecl retreat to suddenlyfromJerash,the Turkislltroopsoccupying tllat rtlin ontllefollo+^Tingday. The ruinedtoxvn Nebbeh,closeto the Sprin;,s hIo?es, of ofwasdiscovered; is nearthe moulltain tlle samename,and it ofthushelpsto settlethe site of Nebo, discovered independent.ly a yeal or twopreviously threedistinguished by explorers. The heights of severalhundred places have been obtainecl andpublished, toetllel with a list of Arabicnalllesmet NVitll; the latitudes longitudes and havealso been snrol out,but it ked has not been considered necessary publishthem, as the to AmericanExpeditionis ill possession tlle leconnaissance of sheet,andwill beable to ^ork out the positions +vithmoreac- curacy a trigonometrical by survey, thantheycouldbe,obtained astronomically the instruments with used. Captain WATarren is the firstlvho beellenabled examine describe vhole has to and tlae .Tordan VallevfromTiberias tlle Dead Sea (Lynchs to survey, llavingbeenof the river and its banks). In };ebruary 1868 he, witlla party, traversed lvestern the side as far as the Jisr SIejamia, returning the eastern by side,andcontinning fal as as Callirhoe; uas arrested tlaejourney Werak the illness he in to by anddeathof olleof tlle party. Theoverflowing the banks of of the Lower Joldan lvaswitnessed, lvhichoperation by xvhole tractsof cornwereirrigated the landfertilised. and Theexcursion AIalsada JebelUsdum made mid- to and was in summer, undera tropical heat,the tllermometer oneoccasio:n on egisterinOr after s:unset; 110? llevertllelesssonle good photo- graphs lveretakell, the Serpents and Pathat DIarsada., described by Josepllus, discovered scaled. was and In the Leloanon, old idea that 3IountHermoll the the was Kibleh to wllichall the templeswereturlled, disploved, was it being ascertained beyonddoubtthatthe entrances all tlle of templeswere eastward.A plan was made of the sumlllits of Hermon, together +w-ith sacellum ancient the and rillt or towaf. In 1868a fundwasraised, principally the exertions tlle by of late ZIr.PierceButler,for an exaluination the peninsula of of Sinai,andSir H. Jameswasrequested undertake direc- to the tion of the Survey. Theprelnature deatllof Mitr. Butlerwhen YOL. XLIII. Q
    • 226 AVILsoNs Surveys Sinai andPalesti^ee. Recent inOnthe eve of starting the East,caused for somedelay,bute-ely-thing was arranged l;he24th October by 1868,when-a party,consistingof Captains Wilson and Palmer,R.E., Rev. F. AY.liolland, and fi+Te non-comlaissioned officersRoyal Engineersfrom the Ordnance Survey,sailed from Southalnpton. TheExpedition joined;n Egypt by Mr. E. H. PalmerandMr. xvasAVyatt, former accomplished tlle an Arabic scholarthe latter atnaturalist. The E2mpedition actively empioyedin the wasdesertforfivemonths, xvith following the results: At 36 encampments there were 83 sets of observations fordetermining time,3 forlongitude 201 forlatitude.The the anddirection the true mericlian deterrnined 6 diSerent of was atstations, miscellaneous alld observations azimuth mag- for and aeticvariation weretakenat 24 pointsof the survey. Twospecial surveys, upona scale of 6 inchesto a mile,theone of .1ebelSIusaand its vicinitV, other of Jebel Serleal tlleand its xicinity,alld respectively and 13 squalre i7 miles inextent,+ ere completed, tlie plans drawn. In the es:ecu- andtion of these survefrs, base lines weremeasured, the two andlelative positionsand altitudesof 68 trigonometrical stationsdetermined triangulation.The stations, of whichwere by 55observecl ranged to an altitudeof 2700feet above the from, upleaseline at Jebel Musa, 4800 feet abovethat at Jebel and Serbal. The special surveys likewise comprised milesof traversing7 63 45 of levelling,and 4t of contouring, were completed and by llill sketches. They were connectedby a traversesurvey 29 ulileslong,andaccurate models havesincebeen madefrom them. The l1elative position altitudeof 56 mountain and peakswere detelmined triangulation 25 selectedpoints. A series by from of baroluetrical hypsometrical and observations takell at were Suez,andat the campsof the Expedition, well as on ma.ny as of the peaks themselves, as to enabletheir levels to be so referred that of the Red Sea. Sevenhundred to milesof route survevsrere:rnade, extendingover many parts of a district zvllich be roughly may described bounded its fourextren:le as at points Suez,AinHudherah, by JebelethThebt, Tur,andem- and bracing areaof 3600square an miles abouttwicethatof :Kentv lheinstruments in the specialsurveys used werethe 5-illch theodolite 8-inchspirit-level;tlle hill sketching filled ancl was ill with 2<S-inch prismatic compasses small aneroids.For and the general survey 8-inchand6-inchsextants, 6-illchaltitude a azilnuththeodolite, box and three pooLetchronometers, one a 5-inchprisinatic compasson stand,5-illchtheodolites, pocket compasses, barometers, :hypsoineters,&c.
    • ILSONs Recent Surv(s in Si^Zai Palestine. 227 a^zd The mapsrhich havebeenpublished, speciail ale, sulareysofJebelsMusa Serbal, a scaleof 6 inchesto a lllile,in out- ancl online, and withhill shadillg;a nlap of the general survey,on ascaleof 2 milesto an inch; and a mapof t}le peninsula, a onscaleof 10 milesto an inch. The difficulties carrying a chainsur^7etTa countly of out insllch as Sinai,with lofty mountains bare.rock,were of 1lo ofordinary clearacter; cairlls to be erectedon the summits had ofpeaksso difficult accessthat it was sometimes gooddays of a.workto get to andfroma singlestation, on a fessoceasions anclthe instruments to be hoistedup the steepleclgesby ropes. hadNor was tlle actualobselvingan easy matter,for often after reaching cairn,in a violentperspiration tlle intellseheat a from of the sunin the sheltered xralleys, fingers the became numbed so by the keenwindon the heights that theycould hardlyworL the scremTsthe instruments. of OnreachingSuez it was at once apparent that the labour andexpense connecting of Suezwiththe SinaiticMountains by triangulation would verygreat,andit was decidedto adopt be a similar plan of operations that followedin the Palestille to Survey 1865-6,viz.:- of 1st. To establish position at least oneseriesof selectecl the of pealisbetss7een andJebel BIusaby observing latitude Suez the of the peaks, and their reciprocaltrue bearingsfiom one another;this- Jebel Serbalbeingone of the peaksas well as JebelAtusa-would the trueposition the special give of surveys alldof severalpointsbetween thereandSuez. 2nd. Fromthe pointsthus fised, andalsofromthe principal tligonometrical stationsin the special surveys,to extencla triangulation faras possible as rightandleft of the mainline of peaks. 3rd. To fill in the topographical details by route alld recon- naissance surveys,checkedby bearingsto knownpoints, and observations latitudeat the camps. This planwas adhered for to throu^,hout. The modeof deterinining diflerellces longitude the of betsveen the pointsiIl the seriesletxveen SuezandJebel Musais given in Appendis: II. The altitudes thetwopermanent of camps JebelsMusa at and Serbal weredetermined a careful by conzparison a long series of of observations made at them with a Gay-Lussac barometer witha seriesmadeat Suez by Mr. Andrewsof the P. and O.Company; andto thesealtitudes other observatiolls the all in peninsula^rere referred. Tlle instruments used in the field sere 1 Gay-Lussac barometer, alleroids, 3 hypsometers; 8 and and a comparison the 9 barometers made by myself of was Q2
    • 228 WILSONS Surveys SinaiandPalestine. Rece1lt inevery morning and evening wllen the regular meteorolot,icalobseraTations made; the aneroidswere also comparedby werethe officersUSillg them on leaving and returning to camp. AsI believe it to be one of the most complete series of barome-trical readingslvhich has been made on an expedition of thiskind, I have given in Appendix III. a note on tlle subject bfrCaptainPalmer, R.E., talQenfrom the published accouIltof thesurvey, which is not lvithinevery onesreach. Meteorologicalobservationswere made at Suez, and at thecamps at Jebels 3!Tu>a Serbal,and the resultsare published andin the accountof the survey. In addition to the survey, special plans were made of allruinsmet ith, the rlumerous cells and tombsexamined,impres-sions and photographstaken of tlle Egyptian remains and in-scriptions,and sevelal small excavations. Geological,botanical,and laaturalhistory specimens were collected, and, thanlzs toAIl. Palmer, the native llames and tladitionswere obtained inthe most authentic and complete manner. Mr. Palmer wasalso able to set at rest for ever, the questionscollnectedxviththe Sinaitic inscliptions,alld by the discoveryof several in bilingual characters, form a complete alphabet. The inscriptionsthroxv to little light on the history of the peninsula,bllt are of great +alue to philologists; they date from about the 1st century l)eforeChristto the 3rd and 4th A.D. On the retuln of tlle Expedition to E^,ypt,careful measure- rnentsX7ere made of the Nilometer alld the base of the Gleat Pyramid. ln November1869 Atr.Palmer was sent out by the Fund to explorethe Desert of the Tih and part of )Ioab, and he was accompaniedon his journey by 31r.C. F. Tyrwhitt Drake. Leaving Suez, BIr. Palmer proceeded,in the first instance,to Jebel hIusa,and thence to Ain Hudherah; from this point he proceededup &adyByar, and ascendingthe Tih by a pass not previotlsly known crossed over to Nakhl. From Nakhl Atr. Palmer traxelled northwards ]3eersheba to and Hebron,xisiting e)z route Aujeh, Sbaita,ilihalasah,and other places of which E1 little was previouslyknown; plans of these places were made, photographs taken of the ruins,and a large amountof xaluable infortnation collected. From Jerusalem AIr.Palmer travelled southwards Hebron,and thence for the greater part of the to way by an entilely llew route throughthe Negeb to Petra; on this occasionhe was fortunateenough to discover the ruins o Abdeh, the ancient Eboda, and came upon several traces of the old Ron:lan roadfrolll Gaza to Petra. From Petra, near which a new rock-hewll toxvnwas found,he proceededup the sArabah to the Dead Sea, and after an examination of the Lisan
    • WILSONS Recent Surveys Sinai andPalestine. in 229ascended by Shihan to )Ioal, here he spent some timeexamining the countrywith a view of discoverinO inscriptions,alld then crossedthe Jordan to Jerusalem. The whole of Mr.Palmersjourney was accomplishedon foot in native costume,and a careful sltetch of his route was made with a prismaticcompass, and by pacing; the accuracy of the work may bejudged fromthe fact that on closing on Eebron t,he amount oferror was ollly 4i Iniles. The geographical results of thejourney are very valuable, alld the discovery of traces ofextensis-e cultivation, prillcipallyvine culture,in former daysto the extreme southern limit of the Negeb is especially in-teresting. Of great value also, is the collection of the correctnornenclatureand native tra(litions, a work for which Mr.Palmer was so elainently qualified; alld his account of llisjourney is one of the most interesting and valuable paperswhich have been contributedto the quarterlypublicationof theFund. Having failed to obtainpermission excavatein tlle Haram toArea at Jerusalem,tlle attention of the Committeewas turlledto tlle survey; it was felt that Biblical researchhad reached apoint at which an accurate :rnapwas indispensablefor itsfurtherprogress,and that the strong tide of Mtestern civilisation+hicll had recently set in, would sweep avay for ever many oldnames, traditions, and relics of the past, if they were notrescuedby the speedycompleti()n an accurateand systematic of examination. A resolutionwas thereforepassedat the Annual C;eneralMeeting of the Fund in June 1871, that irnmediatesteps should be taken to completethe stlrvey of Palestine. At the same meeting it was announced that a PalestineExplorationFund had been formed in Amelica to co-operatewith the English Fund, and that an arrallgementhad loeenmade by hich the English party was to survey the country west of Jordan,whilst tlle Americanstook the east. CaptainStewart,R.E., was appointedto the commandof the English party, and tro non-comrnissioned officers,good ob- serversand surveyors fromthe Ordllance Survey, were selectecl to accoinpany him. Mr. Tvrxvhitt l)rake, who was at the time in Palestine,also consented the party and take chalge to join of the nomenclature, traditions,natulal llztory, &c. The objects of the Expedition, as embodied in Captain Stewartsinstructions,+rere briefly:- 1. rlo obtain an accurate map of the country,on which, inadditionto the topographical features,;should laid down the besites of all towns, villages,roads,&c. 2. To collect, as far as possible,the native names and tradi- tions connectedwith the variousplaces.
    • 230 WVILSONS Surveysin SincGi Palestine. Recent awzd 3. To maketentativeexcavations where necessary. 4. To calryon a seriesof rneteorological observations. 5. To lnakesuchnotesas might be possibleon the geologyof the country, botany, itS zoologfT, &c. 6. To take any opportunity zzllichluight offerof malvingexcavatiolls Jerusaletn at whichwouldleadto decisive results. 7. To examille makeplalls and drawings interesting and ofarchaeological reinains the COlliltl. in S. To carry ollt generallvthe scllenle wllicll had beeproposed the several ill prospectuses issuedby the Committee. rlhescale approved the Committee the generalmap by foravas inchto a mile, whilstplansof localities 1 haviIlga specialinterest, of important arld buildings, xvere be madeon such tolargerscaleas circumstances mightrequire. The projectioll selected Sir H. Jartless was Reetangular Tail-gentive Projection, a series of sheets were prepared and by(Japtaill Baileynr;.N.embracing the whole country. 13achsheet corktains of lat. and30 of long. As the samepro- 20jectiorland arrangement the slleets has been, I believe, ofadopted the Commallder the AInerican by of party,therewillbe no difficulty combining resultsof the two surveys. in theThecoastline mras downOll sheetsfromthe Adlniralty laid theSurvey,and CaptainhIansels longitudesof JaSa,Acre aladBeyrout weretakenas correct. The instructions the surveypointedout the vicinityof forRamleh, the plaineastof JaSa,as the mostsuitable on localityfor the lneasurement a base, and recommended con- of thenection the baseas earlyas possible of witlla common pointofthe AdmiraltySurs-ey JaSa and with the triangulation atof the Jerusalem Survey. Whenthis wascompleted trian- thegulationwas to be carriednorthwards checlzed theand bymeasurement a second of baseon the plainof Esdraelon. Underordinary cilcurustances wholecountry the wouldhanrebeentriangulated, the pointslaid downbeforethe survey andwas commenced;but in the present instanceit was,for severalreasons,deemed advisable to fill in the details as the trian-gulation proceeded. Tlle instrumentssuppliedfol the triangu-latiorL were one 7-;nchand two-5 inch theodolites. Someyearspreviously,meteorologicalobservatories been hadestablished the Fundat Beyrout, by Nazareth, JaSa,andGaza,whilstan observatoryunder Chaplins hadbeenin full Dr. carework Jerusalem at since1864. A full set of instruments, witha portableobservatorydesignedby Elliott andCo.,weresup-plied to CaptainStewart,and he was requestedto makearrangeinents the other statiorlsfor lnaking,as fal as withpossible, simultaneousobservations.
    • +ILSONs RecentSurveysin Sinai andPalestine. 231 lIr. Glaishervery kindly undertook directionof the themeteorological andhas contributed valuablepapers work, someon the resultsalready obtained, the quarterly to publication ofthe :Fund. On the 8th November1871?CaptainStewartlanded atJaffa,and he and llis partyiminediately to work on the setnecessary preparations the conduct the Survey. A calup for ofwasestablished Ramleh, base line measured, the first at a andpointsfor the tliangulation selected, when, on the 25th No-vember,CaptainSte^vart unfortunately was attacked by asevere illness wllieh compelledhim to return to Englalld.In consequence Captain of Stewarts sudden illness,the dutiesconnected with the Surveydevolvedupon the two non-com-missioned officers had takenout withhinz -Seljeant he BlackandCorporal Armstrong andI wouldtake this opportullity ofspeaking the highesttermsof the generalaccuracy their in ofworkandof the judgmellt shown the selectionof pointsfor inthe triangulation.On the 17tll December Drake arrived Mr.fromDamascus, takingoverthe chargeof the Surveyfrom and CaptainStewart, joined the camp at Ramleh. The araried llatuleof the dutieswhichMr.Drakewassuddenly calledupon to pelform, be gathered may from programme the Survey, the of andthe Committee deeplyindebted that gentleman are to for the ablelnanner whichhe carriedon the mTork for the in and teadiness whichhe undertook responsibility with the attached to it. O:athe resignation Captain of Stewart, whichfollowed his leturn to England, Lieutenant Conder, was appointed R.E., as his successor, assumed chargeof the Surveyoll his and the alrival at Nabluson the 17thJuly 1872. Sincethis date the progress the Surveyhas been rapidand steady,and some of idea of Lieutenant Conders esertionssince he joined, maybe ,athered flom the fact, that, in additionto many beautiful sketches, areindebted him personally the delineatioll we to for of the hill features the area surveyed, for a geoloC,ical of and mapof the samedistrict. Tlle base selectednearRamlehwas measured three times witha common chainwhichllad been compared a stand- with ard; the three measurements agreedwell together, gave and a mean length of 22183-8feet,or 482miles,the accuracy vf whichwastestedby one of the usual methods. The positioll of the base with regardto the meridian determinedwas by observations of Polaris, a seriesof observations latitude and for weremadeat Bamleh,givingresultswhichagreedexcellelltly sviththosederived triangulation theAdmiralty by flom latitude of Jaffa. By theell(lof January, Seljeant Blackwasableto report tllat
    • 2.32 WIESONS Surveys SixlaiandPalesti?le. Recent intlle triangulation beencalXried fromthe baseline in a llad awayseries of well-sllapedtrianglesextendingover 100 squaremiles,that 80 squaremiles had been surveyed laid dovn andon the sheets,and that a connection been made with a hadcommonpoint of the AdmiraltySurveyat JafEa, and witha benchmarkon the line of levels fromJerusalem JaSa. toDurinU, February March, square and 100 milesweretriangulatedandsurveyetl, a completeconnection and establislledbetweenJaSaandthe triangulation the Jerusalem of Survey. AIr. Drake,veryjustlydeeming unadvisable expose it to menllewto the climate, the greatheatof the maritime to plain insummer, determined pushthe triangulation to nortllurards overtlle hill country towards Nablus, and by the 17thJuly, whenLieutenant Conder arrived take chargeof the Survey, to 560squaremile.s,partly of tlle most difficultcountry, had beentriangulatecl, sllrveyed, drawn the sheets. and on In Septelllber secondbase,23810feet, 42 mileslong,was ameasured the flattestportion the breat plain of EsdraelonM on ofand connected with the triallgtllcatiorl. lies within 4? ot Itnoltll alld soutla, aIld its ends have been markedin a mosJzdurable islliol-l loycairnsof stone set in casort of mortaroffresh-slalced This wasalso measured lilne. base threetimes,andiulthercheclved observations its endsandfroma point by fromnear its calltre. Considering many difficulties the attendillffltlle rork the caIculated lengtllof tlle line agrees well with therneasured one. Fromthisbasetlle triallgulation extended the north xvas toalldwest,pieltillg several up pointsusedin the reconllaissance of1865-6,andl)y the 20thJanuary this yealXof (1873),LieutenalltC)onder ableto report, thetriannulation beencairiecl was that hadto Haiicl Carmel, that 1250squarf3 hadbeenCOlll- aled and milespleted alld drawnorl tlle sheets. The dia,ramswhichI es-hibited tlleSocietysllowed principal to the triangulation the allcIareawhichhas l)eensurveyed plotted; the origillal and planswerein Palestine, tlle tracings but sent home by Lieutenani;Conder ++/ere fbrinspection the Palestine lent by iFund. TheSurvey nosv progress is in betweell Carmel Jaffa, alld andLieutenalltCollder hopesbeforethe hot veather sets in tDcomplete portioll the xvork.$ this of lll additionto the triangulation, observations latitude forleavebeenmadeat tlle principal places,andit is satisfactory to * The Survey now extends over 1800 square miles, ITths of the wllole area of Palestine, wllilst tlle Inonthly rate has been increased to 180-89 nliles, bein an illerease of nearly 30 per cent. on the masimum attained beforeLieutellant Conderjoined the Survey. Twelve special survey3 have also been made of importfantlocalities, and tlle geoloDical nlap has been colltinued.
    • NVILSON s RecentSurveysin Silai and Palestine. 233find thatwherethese can be coznpared aglee well witll they(:aptain Mansels observations, that the position Acre,as and ofderivedfromtlle trian^,ulation, differsbut slithtly fromthatlaid do^rn the Admiralty on chart. The altitudesale deter-1llined reciprocal by anglesof elevation depression, well and asas by aneroidbarometer, frequent and observations made arefor variation. On the originalnlaps the hills are properlyhachulXed according a scale of shade, principalslopes to thebeing talien with an Abneysleve]. Lieutenant Collder andZIr.Drake are not, however,content with nlaking a melemoderll map; theyareintentUpOll making thorougn a exami-nationof the wholecountry. To tlleseadditional laboursonlya l)liefallusion be nzade can llere. Not olllyis everyruin,however small,visited,buta descrip-tion of it is written the spot,plansand sketches on madeof ityif of sufficient importance, occasionally and slight excavations.Theresultof this is a mass IllOSt intelesting of plans papersS andsome of whicllhave alreadybeen receivedill England;thegreater portion,holvever,are still in Palestine,LieutenantConder beingIlllvilling trustsuchvaluable to documents tlle tol?ost-office; it is hopedthat lIr. Drake,who is expecteci buthome shortly, lvill bring themwithhim. In connection vitllthis subjectit rtway mentioned be tha.tthe old Romanloadsthrough country carefully the are traced and laid doxvn out ollthe map,and fromthis sourcealollewe mayhope to reco+Termanylost sites. ZIeteerolo^,ical observations madeat all the campsunder areinstructions supplied Mr.Glaisher, at times,as nearly by and aspossible, sameas thoseof the fixedobservatories. will the Thisgive valuable information the clileateof Palestine. on Geological specirnens collected, a geologicalmap of are andthe country beingprepared, Lieutenant is by (Conder; among.stthe resultsalreacly obtained the discovery several are of basaltieoutbreaks previously unknowll, sozneallcientmilaes the alld inw-icinity Carmel. of lahenames of all ruins,valleys,hills, and other naturalfeaturesare collectedby hIr.DralSe, whoselong residence illthe country,alld familiarity ^^ith native cllaracter the allclArabiclancruage, rendershim peculiarlynTell fitted for thisimporlantalld difficlllttask. He has alreadysueceedecl illidentif^ing several Bib]icallocalities, +^re expecta lost and mayrichharvest fiomllis esertions. )Ir. Drakealso collectsall nativetraditions, is a close andobserver the existingmanners of and CUStOllIS of the people.He is also engagedin forminO collectionof botanicalalzd1. azoological specilllells.
    • .. .... .. .... .. ...... .... .. .. .. .. ...... .. 9 930 26-0 31 38-0 30 21-6234 Surveys Sinai andPalestine. Recent WATILSONS in The difflculties which the surveying party have had toencounterhave been by no lueans inconsiderable: work llas thebeen carriedon ill one of the most trying climatesin the world,and in the midst of a tulqbulent population with but slifflhtsupport from the local government; cairns have been pullecldown as soon as erected,and in some places the OppOsitioll ofthe natives has takell the form of opell hostilities. lhe resultslvhichhave been obtainedare largely due to the tact which tlleofiicers have shown in their dealings with the natives, andunder such controlwe may hope for a successful completion ofa work which has well been describeclas "a new phase ingeographicalresearch." In collelusioll it lYlaybe nlentioneclthat, accordingto tllelatest reportsfrom Beyrout,Lieutenant Steever, of the UnitedStates Engineers,had completedthe outfit of his party and hadleft for the country east of Jordan. NVemay thus hope toobtain at an early date interestingdetails of the progressof tlleAInericanExpedition.$ APPENDIX I. DeCe21ber 1860. NII. BANISS, CAMP 31, South Star, " Sirius,"for Latitude. Observed Meridian Double Altitude. Observed Tilnes. o X // H. M. S. 80 28 30 .. 80 28 90 .. 80 28 20 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 31 29s6 80 28 20 .. 80 28 20 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 32 36-0 80 28 10 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 33 080 80 28 0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 33 47 6 80 28 0 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 34 19 6 80 28 00 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 34 32-4 S0 27 ,54 .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 9 34 492 * By recent accountsthe Americanpartyhad rneasured base line oll the aplainsof Moab,and 400 squalemiles had been triangulated filled in. The andarchseological scientificdepartments the expeditionhad also been very and ofsuccessful.
    • 236 ILSONs Revent Surveys SinaiandPalestirle. in APPENDIX II.$ Longitude.-The differencesof lonoitllde betsveen initial stations of the SursTeylvere determined as the points sclected as follows:- Let A and B be two statiolls OI1 the surface of the / Pspheroid visiblefromoneanotller,A P = +, B P = + / /their observedcolatitudes,the lant,les and B their / / A / /reciprocaltrue azimuths. and A P B the reqtlired t/ant,ulardifferenceof lolsoitude. Then, by spherical /tribonornetry,+ / cot RP- ^ (+, + +) tan ^ (A + B), (1) gothich determines P. t But, as the ancrles A and B may not have becn at measuredavith perfect accuracy,it is necessaryto computethe small quantitiesby which the observefl azimuths must be corrected. The followingnzethod of doing so has been kindly sug(rested Lieut.-Col. byA. R. Clarlse,C.B., r.E.:- Let X be the latitudeof A, the latitudeof B, tllean^,les and B the true azimutlls,s rl the nolmals A atA and B. Also let k be the chordline joinin(tthe two stationsA and X, ancl,u ,uthe anoles made by > Bthis chord with tlle normals at A and B, so tllatmutllaldepressions those points. 90?-fl, 90?-,u arc tllc of Then, from forlllula (7), pac,e231 of tlle Accoullt of the Plincipal Triala-Culatiorl the Ordnance of Survey,inwhicha , A ^ correspondrespectivelytoA B, n n in this statement of tlle problenl,and Z is the difference oflonoitude, t,et- we sin y sin A _ n cos A sin sin B n cos ABut,from the txro last equationsOI1 the same it may be proared paCeX thatfland ,uare so nearly equal, tllat we can pvlt i , = 1 without appreciableerror.Hence, sin A ^ cos A Sill B 7 c08 A = 72 (say), (2) .-. sin A _ m sin B. (3)Suppose and l3to be the observedazimuths, and let x y be ato appliedto them. Tllen,by (3), be the correctiolls sin (a + x) = s6 sin (,B+ y);and,since x and y are small, sin a + Z cos a = nz sin W3+ nz y cos ,B Sill a COS ,X3 -m sm ,8+ sin ,8 Y * FromOrdnance Surveyof Sinai. t Equation is truefor the spheroid for the spllere. (1) as .;See eazamples, 9 and 10, pa:,e235 of tile same a]so lilles work.
    • Recexzt %t1LSONs bwllrvcys i? Si;zai and Palestine. 237 .s. 1 + x cot a-nz . + y cot h . x cot a-y cot ,B= qn . -1, (+)Froll1 this and x2 + y?, a minimum, x and y are to be obtained. Or, lDyloOarithms log sin (a + x) = log qB lot, Sill(,+ y). + (5) The foR10wing is oiven as an exan1ple the reduction:- case of Exccmple.-At Jebel Bisher (A), in Lltitude29? 40 15" N., the azinallthofstation on Jebel HammamFarian(B), in 1atitude29Q11t ()"s. xvasobservedto be 1 e8? 34 24", the observedazirl1uthof A frv1<l bein,g 358? 3S 30", or Bs. 1? 24 30" w. Requiredthe diSerenceof lon:,itude. Hele, A-29? 11 0", A = 29? 40 15".)y (2,, c03 A / n cos A m = . . log m-log n cos A n cos A lofr nt-2 0066189} GeodetiGal Tables OrduanCt Survey cos A = 9s9410461 A. C. cos A = 0?0610384 0-0020738= log xn.Now, by (t)) log sin (a + z)-log qn + log sin (,B+ y3 . *. loU, (178?34t24"+ $") = *0020738 log sin (1?24t 30t/+ ytt) sin + . *. 8-3961550-*0000845 x = *0020738 8-3905391+ *0000856 + y . . 845 x + 856 y = 35421. It lvill be sufficientlycorrectto substitute for this eqllationthe followina- x + y = 42,antl the valuesof Z andy will be, x = 21", y = 21", and the obselved azimuths,corrected with the smallest possiblecorrections, will become- A = 178?34 45",B-1? 2+51"(the trueazimuths) . . S (A + B) = 90?-12";and, by (1), cot 2 p = COS 60034,37,, cot l2",nYhence P = 49". It is obviousthat, in determiningdiSerencesof lon(Jitude this method, bythe smallerthe angle at which the line connectinC two stationsis inclined theto the meridian,the moreindependent lvill the result be of any small errorsinlatittlde. In the Sinai Survey, these anCleswere sufficientlysmall to plomiset,oodresults,*and the ez;treme clearnessof the atmosphere very favourable +^7asl)oth to the azimuthobservations and fol accuratedeterminations latitude- of vhilc, from Jebel HammEmFarun southward,there ras an aburldanceof vell-marked peaks to select from. The lonaest line used in these observationswas that connectinffl Jebel Hammale Fartinwith Jebel Serbal,a distance ofabout fifty-five miles. The lonCitudesof the sllrvey are all e:xpressed relation to Commander in * Jebel Musabearsabouts. 40? E. fronlSuez.
    • 238 RecentSurveysin gTIL>SONS Sinai and Palestine.Mansels lonCitudeof Suez Hotel, 32? 33 29" E.- this was found by tele-traphi and depends upon the lollOitudeof Alexandria Lighthouse bein Threevalues fol ttle diIYerence lonoitude between Suez alld Jebel Mvisa ofwere obtainedby the n1ethoddescribed above; they are, Dlfference Longitude. of Longitudeof Jebel Musa. O , ,, o , ,, 1st Value .. 1 25 30 E. equivalent 33 58 59 E to 2nd ,, . 1 25 32 ,, ,, 33 59 1 3rd 7? ** 1 25 34 ,, ,, 33 59 3 Mean .... .. 1 25 32 ,, ,, 33 59 1This value was checked by observationsfrom Jebel Musa and Jebel AbuMesudto Jazirat Tiranin the Gulf of Akabah, with the followin;,results.- I)ifference Longitude. of Longitudeof Jebel Musa. O , ,, o , 1st Value .. 0 33 35 E. equivalentto33 59 5 E. 2nd ,, .. 0 33 27 ,, ,, 33 59 13 Mean .... .. 0 33 31 ,, ,, 33 59 9For final result, Longitudeof Jebel Musa o , ,, hIeanfromSuez .. .. .. .. 33 59 1 E. ,, ,, Tiran .. .. .. .. 33 59 9 Mealllongitudeof Jebel Musa .. 33 59 5 E. within5 of the truth.Thisvaluehasbeenadopted, it is probably and APPENDIX III. OFALTITUDES, DETERMINATION The altitudes of larCenumber of pointsin thc peninsula 214 in all aparts of the countly, besides the 68 trigononwetrical stations in the specialsurveys-have been determinedby valious means and with various degreesof accuracy. The greaternumberof the results are containedin the Tables;all of them, xviththree or four exceptions,have been written on the maps andplans. The datulm-level, which all the heights refer,is that of mean tide toat Suez. One nzountainbarometerand two Gay-Lussac barometers,eightaneroids,and three hypsometels,were used in the determinations. One Gay-Lussacwas left, with othermeteorolofflicalinstruments,at Suez, and registereddaily, A.10:.and P.X.,by Mr.Andrews,of the PeninsulararldOrientalCompany.The mountainbarometer unfortunately was injuredbeyondhope of repair,onthe way from Suez to Jebel Musa,by the conductof a refractory riding-camelwhichsucceeded brincring instrumentandthe corporal in the carryinffl to the it,ground. lheGay-Lussac happily suSeredno harnl, and becamethe standardat our permanent camps,to which,in connection with the Gay-Lussacat Suez,all other barometricleadings were ultimately referred. The whole of thebarometric hypsometricobservations alld have been reducedat Southamptonby Quartermaster James Steel, R.E. He has brought great expelience tobearupon the subject,and we are indebtedto him for a laboriousand, as ras could be, successful analysis of a very puzzlin(Dt complicatedmass of and
    • XVILSONS RecentServeysin Sinai and Palestine. 239finres. I will endeavourto indicate the meansby which the variotlsrestlltsavelearrivedat, alld the generalconclusionsto be drawnflom them. 1. The Gay-Lussacbarometerwas kept stationaryat the special surveycamps-six weeks at Jebel Musa,followed by ten weeks at Feiran, and thena secondperiodof five weeks at Jebel Mvisa. It was reaistereddaily, at timesto correspond +viththe reCisters Suez, and all aneroidsin camp were con- atstalltly comparedxvithit. lhe altitude of each permanentcamp was thusconcluded froma comparison long series of readingsof the two standards. ofThe formlllaused in the reductionswas- H = 60345 5 { [log B-log b (1 + 0000897(s-)] @ x [1 + *0010652(f + t)] x [1 + *002695 2 ?]}, coswhere H representsthe diSerenceof heit,ht betweell the tsvo stations, + thelatitude midway between tSem, and B b, r r, t t, the heights of barometerstemperaturesof mercury,and temperaturesof air, at the lower and hiherstationsrespectively. Ill the reductionsof the aneroidreadinCs taken in the collrseof the generallsurvey, it was consideredsufficiently accurateto use a mean latitude (O, amean pressure(B), and mean temperatures the whole. A table of altitudes forfor every llO of pressure, from the sea level to 8,500 feet above it, wascalculated with these data. The aneroid readinCswere correctedfor indexerrol, and for any deviation at the time of readinc,from the mean pressureboth at Suez and at the permanentcamp,and the altitu(leswerethen obtainedfromthe table by interpolation. 2. The lines of levellinC and the computed relative heiChts (by vertical anCles)of the trigonometrical stationsin the special surveys were all referred to the levels of the respective permanent special survey camps,and theil or true altitudesthence obtained. Clhen, from these trigonometrical stations, we determined verticalaUnbles altitudes of the ,,reaternumberof the peaks by the of the generaltrian(rulation, cluster about each specialsurvey being con- the puted separately. 3. Durincr geoCraphicbll the survey, aneroids had mainly to be dependedon. They lvele observedat our camps and latitede stations,at the crossingsandX mouths of wadies, at watersheds,and on all the pealss we ascended. The reCisters the different of instrumentswere at first very perplexinC did not and seem likely to lead to goodresults. lhereadinCs fhree out of the eiaht for of some time defiedall attempts to harmonisethem; but it was at length dis- covered,on close investivation,that their indes errorshad been effectedby atIIliform la7 The Gay-Lussachad been the means of ftlrnishingtrustworthy altitudes of the two permanentCaUlpS, and a comparison the indes errors of of the three aneroidsat these stationswith their errorsat the sea level pointedto the conclusionthat these errorsvaried in direct proportion the pressure. to This was verifiedby a scrutinyof the aneroidreadinCs the higher trigono- at metricalstations (of known altitude), when the same law was found to hold good. It thlls became possible to compute a sliding-scale of applosimate index errorfor each instrument,by which its readint, any altilude fromthe at sea-levelto 8500 feet coulclbe corrected. lhe errorsdid not all increase in the same direction. Two aneroidsgave the 1057 plus value at the sea-level the high value on high ground; but, with the third, the errorvaried in the contral direction, y and so tended to correctthe otherswhen used in connection with them. The results fromthese three aneroidsservedto checli those fronl the other five,the indes errors xvhich, not appearto have been regulated of did by ally known or discoverable law. By this means fair determinations n7ereno dollbt obtainedin the majority of cases. The valtle to be attachedto them was tested in severalinstancesby
    • Surface240 HOWORTHRecentElevatios of theEczrths On lYfcrence the aneroidreadingsat points of ltnonvn to altitude.* In ciht Ollt-oftvelve such comparisons was foulldthat tllc results afterbeing colrected it ly the slidin,-scales of crror,agreedpretty closely witl the triConometrical ]reights,the diSerencesvaryinConly flonl + 48 to-34 feet. ln the othel iour instances the discrepancieswere lart,er,but this was probablyoxvinC to tile fact of the lveatherhavin(r been on those occasionsstorlllyor unsettled. 4. Hypsometelslveretried on lually occasiorls, nearly akvays rvithdis- bllteordantandllnsatisfactory reslllts. Out of tililteen comparisolls hypsometric ofheiChtswith those found by the Gay-Lussacand verticcal angles, in two onlxrwas thele close a(rreelllellt. In the renaaintlel hypsometricvalues varie(l thehom 54 to 133 feet beloav, anclfrom 184 to 383 feet above, the true altitudes. They differed tlle nlost irreCular uIlaccollntable in and mallner,and no zveiCllthas been attachedto tllem. It will have been seen fromthe foregoin(r description that the opportunitiesthis survey aSordedof testinC the vallles of aneroids and hypsometersfordetcrmilaina altitudes have been more than usually nllmerousand favourable. The instrunaents 0-erel)}r the best mahers,clndt,oodof their Lind; there wasa fair supply of them; they wele used in a systematicmanner,and tried overa consideral)le rant,eof heights. The series of results is very numerous,ancl erhapsmorecoinplehensivein its character than any yet ^,ivellto the public.Thc conclusionsto be drawnfromthem, cannot but be valuable. These con-clusions appearto be-(1) that at hiCh altitudes hypsometers not to be arealepellded for any bllt the roughestapproximations;(2) that alleroidsare, onpe? se, almost worthless for absoklte determinations, and are only of serxice ^hen llsed, as at Sinai, in direct connectiorl with st,andard nzercurialbaro- eters at variousheights, or for filling in details of a sllrvey between datum- oints of kllolvnaltitude. If it had not been for the data at Feiranand JebelMusa aSortled the Gay-Lussac,the slidillt,-scales index errorcould nevel by ofhave beel1hit u)on, and the corlect reductionof the aneroidreadingsuroul(lhave l)een hopeless; alld, as it waws, itldes errols of five aneroidsout ot theeinl1tcould not be depended01l,wl1enthey averecalried to any Creatlleightabove tlle hiahest Gay-Lussacclatumin NVady Deil. It is difficult to say edwhether,if takez1illdependently-t,hat is, without the incidental help of theGay-Lussac-thc aneroidheights 070uld 1lave been mole or less tlustsrorthyo11the wllole, than those tcrivell the hypsometers. But there caz1be no by loubt that otlr best deternlinations those of the tvzolernlanent campsalld aleof tlle triConometlical points in arldaboutthe special stlrveys.N. Recet ElevaZions t7ze of EarthsSqxrface theNorthern in Ctrcumpolar ReyWons. HENRY HOWORTH. By H.AMONGthe phrases owe to the arlcients, we there are few+^euse Inore frequentlytlaantllat of terray7rnwa; amongthe andprejudices common untutored there arefewrnore to man justi-fiableperhaps that of the staloility tlle solidearthwhen tllan ofcolupared the mobilityandlsestlessness the water. Yet with ofat a veryearlfr the inhaloitants sotneareasof the world date ofmusthavelJeen impressed that there +sere considerable excep-tionsto the rule,that in the neighbourhoodEtnaandVesu- of feet * The hi,hest pointwhereaneroidobservations made is about8,576 wereabovethe sea.