Chapter 19 – History of Ancient IndiaSection Notes VideoEarly Indian Civilizations Impact of Buddhism as a WorldOrigins of Hinduism ReligionOrigins of Buddhism MapsIndian Empires Ancient India, 2300 BC-AD 500Indian Achievements Harappan Civilization, c. 2600-1900 BC Aryan Migrations Early Spread of Buddhism Mauryan Empire, c. 320-185 BCClose-up Gupta Empire, c. 400Life in Mohenjo Daro India: Physical Ancient India Images Harappan ArtQuick Facts The Great DepartureChapter 19 Visual Summary Mauryan Troops Gupta Art Temple Architecture
Early Indian Civilizations The Big Idea Indian civilization developed on the Indus River. Main Ideas Located on the Indus River, the Harappan civilization also had contact with people far from India. Harappan achievements included a writing system, city planning, and art.• The Aryan invasion changed India’s civilization.
Main Idea 1: Located on the Indus River, the Harappan civilization also had contact with people far from India.• Archaeologists think that the Harappan civilization thrived between 2300 and 1700 BC.• The Harappan civilization controlled large areas on both sides of the Indus River.• The largest settlements were two cities: Harappa and Mohenjo Daro.• The Harappan civilization was dependent on agriculture and grew a variety of crops—from wheat and barley to dates and vegetables.• The Harappans traded with people as far away as southern India and Mesopotamia.
Main Idea 2: Harappan achievements included a writing system, city planning, and art. • Developed India’s first writing systemWriting System • Scholars cannot read this system. • Must rely on other clues to study Harappan society • Skilled engineers • Towering fortresses were built near each city.City Planning • Streets were lined with storehouses, workshops, market stalls, and houses. • Built extensive sewer systems • Skilled artisans ArtisticAchievements • Sturdy pottery vessels, jewelry, and ivory objects
The End of the Harappan Civilization• Harappan civilization ended by the early 1700s BC.• No one is sure why their civilization ended.• Perhaps invaders or natural disasters caused the civilization to collapse.
Main Idea 3: The Ayran invasion changed India’s civilization. Arrival and Government Language Spread and Society• First arrived in • Nomads who India in the 2000s eventually settled • Did not read or BC in villages and write began to farm • Memorized poems• Originally from the area around • Lived in small and hymns that the Caspian Sea communities were important to in Central Asia based on family their culture ties • Sanskrit was the• Spread east and south into central • Villages were most important India governed by language in rajas. ancient India.• Most of what we know about Aryan • Groups often • Sanskrit is no society comes fought each other longer spoken from the Vedas today.
Origins of Hinduism The Big Idea Hinduism, the largest religion in India, developed out of ancient Indian beliefs and practices. Main Ideas• Indian society divided into distinct groups.• The Aryans formed a religion known as Brahmanism.• Hinduism developed out of Brahmanism and influences from other cultures.• The Jains reacted to Hinduism by breaking away.
Main Idea 1: Indian society divided into distinct groups.• These groups were largely organized by people’s occupations.• Strict rules developed about how people of different groups could interact.• Over time, these rules became stricter and became central to Indian society.
Social Divisions in Aryan society The Varnas The Caste System Caste Rules• Brahmins – • Divided Indian • Aryans wanted to priests society into groups keep the classes based on a person’s distinct.• Kshatriyas – birth, wealth, or rulers and occupation • Sutras, or warriors guides, which • Determined his or listed the rules of• Vaisyas – her place in society the caste system farmers, craftspe ople, and traders • On rare • People spent occasions, people almost all of their• Sudras – could change caste. time with others laborers and in their same non-Aryans • Untouchables were class. considered unclean and were the outcasts of society.
Main Idea 2: Aryans formed a religion known as Brahmanism.• Aryan priests were called Brahmins, and their religion is often called Brahmanism.• Aryan religion was based on the Vedas.• Aryans wrote down their thoughts about the Vedas in collections called Vedic texts. – One collection of Vedic texts describes Aryan religious rituals. – A second collection describes secret rituals that only certain people could perform. – The final group of Vedic texts are the Upanishads. These writings are reflections on the Vedas by religious students and teachers.
Main Idea 3: Hinduism developed out of Brahmanism and influences from other cultures.• The Vedas, the Upanishads, and other Vedic texts remained the basis of Indian religion for centuries.• Eventually, the ideas began to blend with ideas from other cultures.• This blending created a religion called Hinduism, the largest religion in India today.
Hinduism Hindu Beliefs Life and Rebirth • Believe that everyone has• Believe in many gods a soul• Each god is part of a single • A person’s ultimate goal universal spirit called should be to reunite that Brahman. soul with Brahman, the universal spirit.• Brahman created the world • People must try and see and preserves it. through the illusion of the world, which can take• Everything in the world is part of Brahman. several lifetimes. • Souls are born and reborn many times, each time into a new body. This process of rebirth is called reincarnation.
Hinduism Hinduism and the Caste Hinduism and Women System• A person’s karma determines • Early Hinduism taught that what physical form person will both men and women could be reborn into. gain salvation, but that• Karma is the effects that women were inferior to men. good or bad actions have on a person’s soul. • Over the centuries, Hindu• Hinduism teaches that one women have gained more must obey one’s dharma. rights.• Hinduism was popular at all • Mohandas Gandhi was levels of Hindu society. influential in helping women• Hinduism preserved the caste achieve more rights. system in India by teaching people to accept their places in society.
Main Idea 4: The Jains reacted to Hinduism by breaking away.• Mahariva did not like the control of religion by the Brahmins and founded a new religion called Jainism. – Jains try to live by four principals: injure no life, tell the truth, do not steal, and own no property. – Jains practice nonviolence, or the avoidance of violent action. – Jains believe that everything is alive and part of the cycle of rebirth. – Jains are vegetarians. They do not eat any food that comes from animals.
Origins of Buddhism The Big Idea Buddhism began in India and became a major religion. Main Ideas• Siddhartha Gautama searched for wisdom in many ways.• The teachings of Buddhism deal with finding peace.• Buddhism spread far from where it began in India.
Main Idea 1: Siddhartha Gautama searched for wisdom in many ways.• Siddhartha Gautama was born around 563 BC in northern India.• He was a prince, a member of the Kshatriya (or warrior) class, who grew up in luxury.• Siddhartha began to ask questions about the meaning of life.• Before he was 30, Siddhartha left his home and family and began to travel around India, talking to priests and people known for their wisdom.
The Buddha Finds Enlightenment• Siddhartha spent six years wandering throughout India. – He started fasting, or went without food. – He spent time in meditation, the focusing of the mind on spiritual ideas.• After seven weeks of deep meditation under a tree in the town of Gaya, Siddhartha suddenly had the answers that he had been looking for.• He discovered that human suffering comes from three things: – wanting what we like but do not have, – wanting to keep what we like and already have, and – not wanting what we dislike but have.• Siddhartha is said to have found “enlightenment” under the tree. From that point on, he would be called the Buddha, or “Enlightened One.”
Main Idea 2:The teachings of Buddhism deal with finding peace.• At the heart of the Buddha’s teachings were four guiding principles, which became known as the Four Nobel Truths.• The Eightfold Path was a middle way between human desires and denying oneself any pleasure.• Some of Buddha’s teaching challenged traditional Hindu ideas.
The Four Noble Truths Suffering and unhappiness are a part of human life. No one can escape sorrow.• Suffering comes from our desires for pleasure and material goods. People cause their own misery because they want things they cannot have. People can overcome their desires and ignorance and reach nirvana, a state of perfect peace. Reaching nirvana would free a person’s soul from suffering and from the need for further reincarnation.• People can overcome ignorance and desire by following an eightfold path that leads to wisdom, enlightenment, and salvation.
The Eightfold Path1. Right Thought2. Right Intent3. Right Speech4. Right Action5. Right Livelihood6. Right Effort7. Right Mindfulness8. Right Concentration
Buddhist Teachings Challenged Hindu Ideas• The Buddha rejected many of the ideas contained in the Vedas and told people that they did not have to follow these texts.• The Buddha challenged the authority of the Hindu priests, the Brahmins. He taught that each person was responsible for their own salvation.• The Buddha was opposed to the caste system.
Main Idea 3: Buddhism spread far from where it began in India. In India Beyond India Buddhism Splits• After his • The Indian king • As Buddhism death, 500 of the Asoka helped to spread, not all Buddha’s followers spread Buddhism Buddhists could spread his both within India agree on their teachings and outside of beliefs and throughout India India. practices. after the Buddha died. • He built Buddhist • Buddhism split into temples and two major• Buddhist teachings schools throughout branches: were popular and India. Theravada and easy to Mahayana. understand. • Asoka sent missionaries to • Both branches have• Within 200 years other kingdoms in millions of followers of the Buddha’s Asia. today, but death, Buddhism Mahayana is by far had spread • Buddhism spread the larger branch. throughout most via the Silk Road of India. into China, then Korea and Japan.
Indian Achievements The Big Idea The people of ancient India made great contributions to the arts and sciences. Main Ideas• Indian artists created great works of religious art.• Sanskrit literature flourished during the Gupta period.• The Indians made scientific advances in metalworking, medicine, and other sciences.
Buddhist and Hindu Temples during the Mauryan and Gupta Periods Hindu Temples Buddhist Temples• During the Mauryan • Some Buddhists carved period, temples were entire temples out of small, stone structures mountainsides. with one or two rooms and flat roofs. • The temples at Ajanta and Ellora are two of the• During the Gupta most famous of this period, the temples type of Buddhist temple. were more complex, with huge • Another type of towers and intricate Buddhist temple was the carvings. stupa.
Main Idea 2: Sanskrit literature flourished during the Gupta period.Religious Epics• During the Mauryan and Gupta period, many works of Sanskrit literature were created.• The greatest of these Sanskrit writings are two religious epics: the Mahabharata and the Ramayana.Other Works• Writers in the Gupta period also created plays, poetry, and other types of literature.• Kalidasa was a famous writer during this time.• Indian writers produced a book of stories called the Panchatantra. This collection of moral stories spread throughout the world.
Main Idea 3: The Indians made scientific advances in metalworking, medicine, and other sciences. Metalworking Mathematics Other Sciences• Pioneers of • The most skilled • Began writing metallurgy, the mathematicians of medical textbooks science of working their day as early as the AD with metals • Hindu-Arabic 100s• Knew processes for numerals were • Doctors knew mixing metals to created by Indian about disease produce scholars and prevention and alloys, mixtures of brought to Europe used inoculation. two or more metals by Arabs. • Doctors could• Metalworkers made • The first people to perform surgery. their strongest create the zero • Interested in products out of astronomy, the iron. study of stars and planets