The Musculoskeletal System


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This slide was presented to class by Ms. Dinah Hernandez, MSN, PHN, RN.

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The Musculoskeletal System

  1. 1. Dinah Hernandez, MSN, PHN, RN
  2. 2. <ul><li>Musculoskeletal system includes: skeleton, joints, ligaments, muscles and tendons. </li></ul><ul><li>Functions of Skeleton </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Movement </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hematopoeisis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Long – extended shape, provide support & strength </li></ul><ul><li>Short – approx cube shape </li></ul><ul><li>Flat – provide broad surfaces for muscle attachments </li></ul><ul><li>Irregular – similar to short but irregular in shape </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Compact Bone – hard & dense; composes that shaft of long bones and outer layer of bones. </li></ul><ul><li>Spongy Bone – composed of small bony plates, contains more spaces than compact bones. Filled with soft substance: marrow </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellow marrow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red marrow – responsible for hematopoiesis </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Periosteum contains bld vessels that supply O2 & nutrients to bone cells keeping them alive. </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of osseous tissue: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Diaphysis – shaft of the long bones, hard and compact </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ephiphysis – end of the long bone, spongelike & covered by a shell or harder bone. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Epiphyseal growth plate – diaphysis and epiphysis fuse together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Markings – contours of bones that resemble the configuration of landscape. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Facet – small plane or smooth area </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Damage to the Epiphyseal Growth Plate </li></ul><ul><li>The younger the child is when injury occurs, the greater the </li></ul><ul><li>final deficit in length between the injured </li></ul><ul><li>limb and the uninjured limb will be. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Condyle – large rounded projection usually for articulation with another bone </li></ul><ul><li>Tuberosity – large elevated knoblike proj usually for muscle attachment </li></ul><ul><li>Plate – flat projection </li></ul><ul><li>Bony prominences – prominice/projection </li></ul><ul><li>Ridge/crest – thin or narrow process usually on the superior aspect of the bone, known as crest </li></ul><ul><li>Tubercle – small rounded knob or nodule, usually for attachment of ligament or tendon </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Foramen – a hole thru w/c bld vessels, ligament, nerve pass </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Types of foramen </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Transverse foramen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vertebral foramen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apical foramen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sciatic foramen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Alcock’s canal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carotid canal </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Infraorbital canal </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Sinus – sponge-like air space within a bone such as paranasal sinuses </li></ul><ul><li>Cranial/ cerebral fossae – depression in w/c the brain rests </li></ul><ul><li>Olfactory bulb lies in the ethmoid foassa, mandibl lies in the mandibular or glenoid fossae. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Classification accdg to degree of movement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synathroses – immovable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Amphiarthroses – slightly immovable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diarthroses – freely movable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ligaments – tough fiber that bind bones together </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid, a libricating material </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bursae – fluid-filled sac that cushion the movement of mucscles and tendons </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Hinge (ginglymus) – allows movement only in one plane </li></ul><ul><li>Ball & socket (spheroidal) rounded end of the bone, moves within a cup-shaped depression in the other bone </li></ul><ul><li>Pivot joint – one bone pivots or turns within bony or cartilagenous ring </li></ul><ul><li>Gliding (arthodial plane) bones slide against each other </li></ul><ul><li>Condyloid joint – oval shape, head of one bone moves within the elliptical in another permitting all movements exept axial rotation </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Connect bones to muscle or cartilage </li></ul><ul><li>Support internal organs or structures </li></ul><ul><li>Allow great flexeility, stretching, movement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accessory ligaments do not move or stretch but strengthen or support other ligaments to produce stability in joint. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A ligament is said to arise or originate in the bone or structure that is more stationary. It is said to insert into the bone that does most of the movement. </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Arcuate ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Broad ligament of uterus </li></ul><ul><li>Broad ligament of liver </li></ul><ul><li>Cruciate </li></ul><ul><li>Henle’s ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Inguinal ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Medial ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Patella ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Periodontal ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Pubofemoral ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Rhomboid ligament </li></ul><ul><li>Round ligament of femur </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Type of connective tissue organized into a system of fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Helps reduce friction in joints & distribute weight evenly </li></ul><ul><li>Provides slick surface for rotation </li></ul><ul><li>Absors shocks & jars to the body </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Articular cartilage covers the ends of long bones, such as in the knee or hip joints </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Axial skeleton – skull, vertebral column, rib cage </li></ul><ul><li>Appendicular – bones of the extremeties & appendages of the body </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Scoliosis </li></ul><ul><li>Lordosis </li></ul><ul><li>Kyphosis </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Skeletal Muscle – controls movement of skeleton </li></ul><ul><li>Smooth/visceral Muscle- controls involuntary motion inside body organs </li></ul><ul><li>Cardiac Muscle – automatic; responsible for propelling blood thru blood vessels </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones </li></ul><ul><li>Muscle tissue characteristics </li></ul>