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The Musculoskeletal System
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The Musculoskeletal System

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This slide was presented to class by Ms. Dinah Hernandez, MSN, PHN, RN.

This slide was presented to class by Ms. Dinah Hernandez, MSN, PHN, RN.

Published in Health & Medicine , Technology
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  • 1. Dinah Hernandez, MSN, PHN, RN
  • 2.
    • Musculoskeletal system includes: skeleton, joints, ligaments, muscles and tendons.
    • Functions of Skeleton
      • Support
      • Protection
      • Movement
      • Hematopoeisis
      • Storage
  • 3.
    • Long – extended shape, provide support & strength
    • Short – approx cube shape
    • Flat – provide broad surfaces for muscle attachments
    • Irregular – similar to short but irregular in shape
  • 4.
    • Compact Bone – hard & dense; composes that shaft of long bones and outer layer of bones.
    • Spongy Bone – composed of small bony plates, contains more spaces than compact bones. Filled with soft substance: marrow
      • Yellow marrow
      • Red marrow – responsible for hematopoiesis
  • 5.
    • Periosteum contains bld vessels that supply O2 & nutrients to bone cells keeping them alive.
    • Two types of osseous tissue:
      • Diaphysis – shaft of the long bones, hard and compact
      • Ephiphysis – end of the long bone, spongelike & covered by a shell or harder bone.
      • Epiphyseal growth plate – diaphysis and epiphysis fuse together
      • Markings – contours of bones that resemble the configuration of landscape.
      • Facet – small plane or smooth area
  • 6.
    • Damage to the Epiphyseal Growth Plate
    • The younger the child is when injury occurs, the greater the
    • final deficit in length between the injured
    • limb and the uninjured limb will be.
  • 7.
    • Condyle – large rounded projection usually for articulation with another bone
    • Tuberosity – large elevated knoblike proj usually for muscle attachment
    • Plate – flat projection
    • Bony prominences – prominice/projection
    • Ridge/crest – thin or narrow process usually on the superior aspect of the bone, known as crest
    • Tubercle – small rounded knob or nodule, usually for attachment of ligament or tendon
  • 8.
    • Foramen – a hole thru w/c bld vessels, ligament, nerve pass
      • Types of foramen
        • Transverse foramen
        • Vertebral foramen
        • Apical foramen
        • Sciatic foramen
        • Alcock’s canal
        • Carotid canal
        • Infraorbital canal
  • 9.
    • Sinus – sponge-like air space within a bone such as paranasal sinuses
    • Cranial/ cerebral fossae – depression in w/c the brain rests
    • Olfactory bulb lies in the ethmoid foassa, mandibl lies in the mandibular or glenoid fossae.
  • 10.
    • Classification accdg to degree of movement:
      • Synathroses – immovable
      • Amphiarthroses – slightly immovable
      • Diarthroses – freely movable
      • Ligaments – tough fiber that bind bones together
      • Synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid, a libricating material
      • Bursae – fluid-filled sac that cushion the movement of mucscles and tendons
  • 11.
    • Hinge (ginglymus) – allows movement only in one plane
    • Ball & socket (spheroidal) rounded end of the bone, moves within a cup-shaped depression in the other bone
    • Pivot joint – one bone pivots or turns within bony or cartilagenous ring
    • Gliding (arthodial plane) bones slide against each other
    • Condyloid joint – oval shape, head of one bone moves within the elliptical in another permitting all movements exept axial rotation
  • 12.
    • Connect bones to muscle or cartilage
    • Support internal organs or structures
    • Allow great flexeility, stretching, movement
      • Accessory ligaments do not move or stretch but strengthen or support other ligaments to produce stability in joint.
      • A ligament is said to arise or originate in the bone or structure that is more stationary. It is said to insert into the bone that does most of the movement.
  • 13.
    • Arcuate ligament
    • Broad ligament of uterus
    • Broad ligament of liver
    • Cruciate
    • Henle’s ligament
    • Inguinal ligament
    • Medial ligament
    • Patella ligament
    • Periodontal ligament
    • Pubofemoral ligament
    • Rhomboid ligament
    • Round ligament of femur
  • 14.
    • Type of connective tissue organized into a system of fibers
    • Helps reduce friction in joints & distribute weight evenly
    • Provides slick surface for rotation
    • Absors shocks & jars to the body
      • Articular cartilage covers the ends of long bones, such as in the knee or hip joints
  • 15.
    • Axial skeleton – skull, vertebral column, rib cage
    • Appendicular – bones of the extremeties & appendages of the body
  • 16.
    • Scoliosis
    • Lordosis
    • Kyphosis
  • 17.
    • Skeletal Muscle – controls movement of skeleton
    • Smooth/visceral Muscle- controls involuntary motion inside body organs
    • Cardiac Muscle – automatic; responsible for propelling blood thru blood vessels
  • 18.
    • Heredity
    • Nutrition
    • Exercise
    • Hormones
    • Muscle tissue characteristics