Effectively using predictors of success for student funding
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Effectively using predictors of success for student funding

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  • The idea for this study came from a meeting about being able to attract the best applicants to the university, with the most amount of funding (given limited resources). Resources are limited not just to funding, but also because of the amount of time it takes to train a student researcher, and the amount of mentoring hours involved. <br /> <br /> The question was whether we can identify students based on their applications, and give out funding to those who are most likely to succeed. This helps us for a number of reasons. We can better allocate funding resources such that we get the most out of it in terms of student success. <br />
  • This is a whole line of literature that attempts to examine the correlation between GRE scores and GPA, ranging from cross-disciplinary, multi-disciplinary and just one single discipline, like this study. There has been mixed results (as I will discuss in the next slide) with regard to the correlation studies, but none have taken it as far as to discuss how knowing (or not knowing) all this helps in enrolment management. <br /> <br /> Knowing what we know about how we admit students will help us manage our recruitment and enrolment strategies better. <br /> <br />
  • Existing literature tells us that GRE scores are either valid in predicting graduate school success or not. Based on the existing literature, we can see three points on the spectrum. <br /> <br /> First few investigations included Cooksey and Stenning (1981). They analyzed data from various colleges at Texas A&M University and found little correlation between GRE scores and GPA <br /> <br /> Morrison and Morrison did a study on studies on PsychLit and ERIC between 1955 to 1992. A total sample of 22 studies and 5,186. These studies used CGPA as a dependent variable, and found that the overall correlation were low (0.22). <br /> <br /> Powers conducted a study of veterinary colleges in 1998 and sampled more than 2300 students from 27 colleges in the US. Correlation was 0.21. <br /> <br /> Also a matter of perspective, some people were expecting a stronger validity and correlation than others. The later studies are more forgiving than the later studies. <br /> <br /> Must remember that in this case, there are different factors influencing admissions as well. <br />
  • Kuncel – U of MN has done extensive research on GRE scores and how it relates to student access. <br /> In 2001, Professor Kuncel conducted a meta-analysis comparing GRE scores against CGPA, UGPA and time to degree. CGPA has the strongest validity against GRE scores. Subject test scores show stronger validity. UGPA small validity. Also looked at publication numbers, faculty rating. Different fields also made a difference. <br /> <br /> In 2007, he collected and synthesized studies done on graduate standardized tests and found that standardized testing are effective predictors of performance in grad school. Both tests and undergraduate grades predicted performance beyond grades in grad school. Standardized tests also predicted most measures of success better than other factors. Combination and tests and grades yields most accurate predictions of success. <br /> <br /> 2009 – Based on study done in 2001. Differences in validity on both programs because of type of work involved. <br /> <br /> The vast differences in findings may be attributed to various reasons (computational/methodical differences, sample size, etc) <br />
  • This investigation is mainly a two step process. <br /> <br /> Given the mix of results from current research, the first step was to see if in this case, GRE scores were an accurate predictor of success for our students. If it was the case, then step two was then to figure out if students who were offered assistantships in their first semester had significantly higher test scores than their peers who were not. <br /> The question was not whether GRE scores could predict success, but that we would use this information to identify students who will be most successful, thus helping us allocate funding only to those most likely to succeed. <br /> <br /> Looking at our current data will give us a better idea of the kind of students we are admitting – who, from where, how many are given assistantships, etc.
  • The study looks at graduate students at a civil engineering program at a large, R-1 university. <br /> <br /> Data is taken from the enrollment numbers as of each Fall from 2003 to 2013 – for funding. This means that we are only looking at students whose first semester is in the fall of each academic year. Fall enrollment is always the largest, and hopefully this will give us some significant data – for now. <br /> <br /> As of Fall 2013 enrollment, the program has 71% of international students and 28% domestic students. - This is significant because we all know that international students sometimes do not do as well in their GRE scores or even in their first semester of school because of the language barrier. This also has a rollover effect on our assistantships – most professors select domestic students as TA because of the english language requirement. While there are a good number of international students who are given assistantships in their first semester – a lot of concern is placed on having to clear their language requirements, having to balance the stresses of moving to a different culture, etc.
  • Currently, the following is evaluated for admission. We look at scores and GPAs, and also at personal statements and letters of recommendation. Because of the wide variety of civil engineering fields, the resume may play a bigger role than others. For example, a student interested in construction engineering will benefit from work experience, while it may not be as important in another field. <br /> <br /> In some cases, the university from which the student graduated from is also important – though this is usually for international students more than it is for domestic students. <br /> <br /> For the purpose of this study, we will be looking at the measurable factors. While non-measurable factors are also important, the priority is to investigate 1) if GRE scores have a positive relationship with graduate school GPA, 2) if this tells us anything about who we award assistantships to.
  • Note that only those who graduated were included in the sample size since graduation is a major factor of success in graduate schools. Students who withdrew or transferred out for whatever reason were not taken into account in this study.
  • We first looked at the cohort as a whole and found that in general, there as a positive correlation between GRE scores and success in graduate school, though there were stronger correlations in some years than others. <br /> <br /> This tells us two things about admissions in general – that somehow, something else played a far bigger role than GRE scores in admission, or that the GRE is just a part of the entire process. <br /> <br /> Additionally, since this takes into account all our students, we do not differentiate between international and domestic students. This is important because international students tended to do better in GRE testing, but do worse in GPA because of language and cultural barriers, this may have played a role in the low validity. <br /> <br /> To investigate further, we split the study and looked at domestic students and international students separately.
  • 2003 is intentionally left blank because the cohort was all international students. <br /> <br /> Again, we see that the results are about the same with the previous slide. There is a general positive, but weak correlation. We see that in some years, there is a stronger correlation between GRE scores and GPA. At this point, we do not know what are the factors behind this, but we know that we can’t really tell that nationality makes any difference.
  • -Correlation for international and domestic students, nothing really stands out. There is a positive correlation at every step, but are pretty weak and vary by cohort (naturally)
  • At this point, we know that while GRE scores are somewhat important in helping us decide who gets admitted and who doesn’t – it generally gets taken into context with other aspects of the graduate school application <br /> <br /> But how does this tell us about funding? <br /> Next step was to see if there was a correlation between in GPA, GRE of students who were on assistantships and students who were not. <br /> Took into account other factors of success – time to degree <br /> <br /> Per Dr. Kuncel, weak correlations are common. <br /> <br /> Based on his suggestions, the results of this study is not out of the ordinary. <br /> The numbers also reflect a number of things -> other factors determining admission. <br />
  • How do we make use of the knowledge we have now to see if we can identify students who are most likely to succeed and allocate funding to these students? <br /> <br /> The first step was to see if GRE scores were a valid predictor for those who were also on assistantships. This will tell us a number of things, 1) Are we using GRE scores in the selection of our graduate assistants?, 2) how does our graduate assistant scores match up against those who don’t have assistantships? 3) Are we directing funding to the most successful students? (how does their GPA look against others?) <br /> <br /> Also 4) If we are not awarding assistantships to those who are not most likely to succeed based off GPA, then is the assistantship helping them or hurting them?
  • Our first step was to see if students who had assistantships had a stronger correlation between GRE scores and graduate school GPA. This can tell us two things. <br /> Those on assistantships may or may not have a higher rate of success (if they had a higher correlation) <br /> Having an assistantship may improve your graduate school success
  • Only students in their first semester were sampled because the point of the study is to find out what we have done to identify students who could succeed at the point of admission. Also because in subsequent semesters, other factors would have come into play, like relationships with professors. <br /> <br /> If we compare the correlation against the entire class, for some reason there is a weaker correlation for those on assistantships than against everyone. <br /> <br /> This can be due to a variety of reasons that are not entirely dependent on GRE scores <br /> Abilities (domestic students are preferred because international students tend to have to deal with more things when they first arrive – an adjustment period is needed) <br /> <br /> Now that we know that there is some correlation between GRE scores and GPA, and that there is generally a weaker correlation for students on assistantships, what else do we need to know about how we give out assistantships to help us better manage our enrolment? <br /> <br /> <br />
  • The next step was to determine what other measurables we can get from a student’s application. They were determined to be GPAs and time to degree completion. <br /> <br /> We know that GRE scores seem to be the most significant factor in this study. In comparing UGPA and GGPA for those on assistantships, we know that UGPA plays a very small role in selecting Tas and Ras. <br /> <br /> There are many reasons that could explain it, small sample size, motivation, etc.
  • So, if GRE scores do not account for the majority of how we select students and offer them assistantships, then what else do we know about these students who are given assistantships in their first year? <br /> <br /> Our next step is to figure out who are these students that we are providing funding to and how do they fare when stacked up against the rest of their cohort in terms of GRE scores? <br /> <br /> Median GRE scores is taken from all the students enrolled for the first time in the same year. <br /> Interesting to note: in 2009 and 2012, we offered assistantships to more students whose GRE scores fell below the median score. <br /> <br /> What about GRE verbal scores? How do those on assistantships stack up against their peers?
  • Again, there is no clear outcome. <br /> <br /> This again reinforces the point that GRE scores do not really do a good job in predicting student success, or that right now, our selection of graduate assistants are not based upon their GRE scores in totality <br /> <br /> While GRE scores were a pretty decent predictor of success for our students, having a positive correlation all around. The students we are offering assistantships to tended to have lower scores than the mean GRE scores. <br /> <br /> What this is telling us is that even though we put GRE scores pretty high up on the admissions factor, we do not do so in terms of selecting assistantships. Does this mean that our admissions process has nothing to do with our assistantship selection? <br /> <br />
  • The next question to answer was whether students who are offered assistantships are more successful and hopefully work backwards to find some answers to our questions. <br /> <br /> Generally, students who are on assistantships also tended to do better in grad school in terms of overall GPA. This could mean one of two things 1) students on assistantships are generally of better quality. Therefore, even though GRE scores do not show anything significant, there might be something about the selection process that allows us to pick out the ones who are more likely to do better in school. – segue into next slide. There might be something in their GRE scores that we might have missed. <br /> <br /> 2) It could also mean that students on assistantships are more engaged with their coursework and less distracted by worries of funding, etc.
  • Common logic would expect those on assistantships to finish earlier than those without assistantships. Mostly because a stable form of financial support reduces the probability of students stopping school to work, etc. <br /> <br /> However, what is interesting is that Master of Science students who were being offered assistantships tended to take longer than their peers who are not on assistantships. One possible explanation is that students may find less incentive to get out of school quickly if they were being supported.
  • Master’s students who were on assistantships actually took longer than their peers to complete their degree. This is interesting since one might assume that students who are on assistantships would finish faster because of funding, mentoring and support structures. <br /> <br /> Why would students on assistantships take longer to complete their degrees? A variety of reasons. Because of the way the department and its degree is structured, most students who do not have assistantships typically do not have any other position taking up time. They may take up student worker positions, or other part-time positions, but these tend to take up less time than a research position since it is strictly 20 hours. They have more free time to concentrate on coursework, or getting other things done. <br /> <br /> It is definitely an interesting observation, and worth further investigation. However, this is outside the scope of this study.
  • GRE scores do have a positive relationship with graduate student GPA, they have proven to be fairly consistent in predicting the trends with CGPA <br /> However, if we think along the terms of graduate school success, we need to consider other factors as well <br /> We also proved that our graduate assistantships are more successful both at point of application and after they enroll, in general. Therefore, we know that providing funding to students generally contribute their graduate school success. <br /> To answer my own question set at the beginning of this presentation, then, we can make use of GRE scores to predict success, and we can use GRE scores to award funding. However, the caveat is that it has to be taken into account with other factors. We cannot rely completely on GRE scores alone to make admission decisions.

Effectively using predictors of success for student funding Effectively using predictors of success for student funding Presentation Transcript

  • Can we use effectively use predictors of success to allocate funding? A study on the correlation between GRE scores and other factors of success in engineering Presented by: Melissa Lee Department of Civil Engineering
  • Presentation outline • Introduction • Literature review • Methodology, results and discussion • Conclusions
  • Introduction • Limited funding opportunities for students • Funding in the form of assistantships and fellowships helps attract the best potential students • How do we recruit and identify students? • How do we identify those most likely to succeed through their graduate school applications?
  • Introduction • Helps us better effectively manage enrolment and offers of funding • How do we know what we know about graduate school admission? • What do we know about how we admit students, our admission profile, and funding profile?
  • Existing Literature Little to No correlation Very accurate predictor Valid but with other factors • Cooksey and Stenning (1981) • Morrison and Morrison (1995) • Powers (2004) found that there is some validity, though it is clearly accompanied by other corresponding factors • Holt, Bleckmann et al. (2006), found that GRE scores were a fairly accurate predictor of graduate school success • Nathan Kuncel Cooksey, L., & Stenning, W. F. (1981). The Empirical Impact of the Graduate Record Examination and Grade Point Average on Entry and Success in Graduate School at Texas A&M University. ERIC. Holt, D. T., Bleckmann, C. A., & Zitzmann, C. C. (2006). The Graduate Record Examination and Success in an Engineering Management Program: A Case Study. Engineering Management Journal, 18(1), 10-16. Morrison, T., & Morrison, M. (1995). A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Predictive Validity of the Quantitative and Verbal Components of the Graduate Record Examination with Graduate Grade Point Average Representing the Criterion of Graduate Success. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(2), 309-316. doi: 10.1177/0013164495055002015 Powers, D. E. (2004). Validity of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test Scores for Admissions to Colleges of Veterinary Medicine. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(2), 208-219.
  • Existing literature • Orlando (2005) – Reviewed a range of studies between 1977 and 2001 – Different findings regarding validity – Some correlation, though there is disagreement to the extent of correlation – Difference in disciplines, skills demanded, type of admission, age Orlando, J. (2005). The reliability of GRE scores in predicting graduate school success: a meta-analytic, cross-functional, regressive, unilateral, post-kantian, hyper-empirical, quadruple blind, verbiage-intensive and hemorrhoid-inducing study. Ubiquity, 2005, 1-1. doi: 10.1145/1071916.1071921
  • Existing Literature • Nathan Kuncel – extensive research on GRE scores as predictor of success – Meta-analysis of different factors influencing graduate school success (2001) – Synthesized studies done on all standardized tests (2007) – Another meta-analytic study on GRE scores for Master’s and Doctoral programs (2010) • Existing studies discussed the validity of GRE scores, but what can we do with this knowledge? Kuncel, N. R., & Hezlett, S. A. (2007). Standardized Tests Predict Graduate Students' Success. Science, 315(5815), 1080-1081. doi: 10.1126/science.1136618 Kuncel, N. R., Hezlett, S. A., & Ones, D. S. (2001). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the predictive validity of the Graduate Record Examinations: Implications for graduate student selection and performance. Psychological Bulletin, 127(1), 162-181. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.1.162 Kuncel, N. R., Wee, S., Serafin, L., & Hezlett, S. A. (2010). The Validity of the Graduate Record Examination for Master’s and Doctoral Programs: A Meta-Analytic Investigation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70(2), 340-352. doi: 10.1177/0013164409344508
  • Questions • Is there a relationship between GRE scores and GPA? Are GRE scores an accurate predictor of success? • If GRE scores could predict success, how do we use this knowledge to allocate funding?
  • Can GRE scores be used as an accurate determinant of success in graduate school?
  • Profile • Civil engineering graduate students at a large, research university • Enrolled each Fall from 2003-2013 • Enrolments at three different degree programs, Master of Engineering, Master of Science, and Doctoral program
  • Citizenship status 71 28 Citizenship status (% of total enrolment) International Domestic
  • Degree program 24 31 43 MEN MS PhD Percentage of students enrolled in each degree program
  • Is there a correlation between GRE scores and graduate school GPA? • GRE scores and graduate school GPA were taken from the Fall enrolments between 2003- 2013 • Total of 1,083 students sampled over this period • Multiple regression was applied across enrollments during the 10 year period • GRE scores as the independent variable • Graduate school GPA as dependent variable
  • Correlation between GRE scores and GPA 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Correlati on 0.379 0.108 0.114 0.246 0.403 0.182 0.196 0.190 0.262 0.221 0.209 Coeffici ent 0.143 0.012 0.013 0.061 0.162 0.033 0.038 0.036 0.069 0.049 0.044 Significa nce -F 0.0065 0.732 0.634 0.099 0.0002 0.131 0.102 0.129 0.033 0.069 0.043 Sample size 68 56 72 77 100 123 120 114 99 110 144
  • Correlation between GRE scores and GPA (international students) 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Correlation 0.144 0.216 0.257 0.611 0.117 0.156 0.147 0.270 0.243 0.288 Coefficient 0.021 0.047 0.066 0.374 0.013 0.024 0.022 0.073 0.059 0.083 Significanc e -F 0.632 0.376 0.201 0.003 0.562 0.540 0.485 0.130 0.177 0.051 Sample size 47 44 50 28 86 53 69 57 60 72
  • Correlation between GRE scores and GPA (domestic) 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Correlation 0.174 0.083 0.347 0.611 0.343 0.156 0.174 0.317 0.256 0.166 Coefficient 0.030 0.007 0.120 0.374 0.118 0.024 0.030 0.100 0.065 0.028 Significance -F 0.912 0.918 0.215 0.003 0.119 0.540 0.522 0.127 0.204 0.495 Sample size 9 28 27 28 37 53 45 42 50 53
  • Is there a correlation between GRE scores and graduate school GPA? • Positive correlation, but fairly weak • Corresponds to earlier studies between GRE scores and graduate school GPA • Kuncel’s studies support that GRE scores have some validity with CGPA Kuncel, N. R., & Hezlett, S. A. (2007). Standardized Tests Predict Graduate Students' Success. Science, 315(5815), 1080-1081. doi: 10.1126/science.1136618 Kuncel, N. R., Hezlett, S. A., & Ones, D. S. (2001). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the predictive validity of the Graduate Record Examinations: Implications for graduate student selection and performance. Psychological Bulletin, 127(1), 162-181. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.1.162 Kuncel, N. R., Wee, S., Serafin, L., & Hezlett, S. A. (2010). The Validity of the Graduate Record Examination for Master’s and Doctoral Programs: A Meta-Analytic Investigation. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 70(2), 340-352. doi: 10.1177/0013164409344508
  • Can GRE scores therefore be used to help allocate funding?
  • 1.Can GRE scores be used as an accurate determinant for success in graduate school? 2.Can we identify and allocate funding to those most likely to succeed?
  • Questions 1. Are we using GRE scores in the selection of our graduate assistants? 2. How does our graduate assistant scores match up against those who don’t have assistantships? 3. Are we directing funding to the most successful students? (how does their GPA look against others?) 4. If we are not awarding assistantships to those who are not most likely to succeed based off GPA, then is the assistantship helping them or hurting them?
  • Does having an assistantship make a difference? • Assistantship data from 2009 to 2013 is used for this determination • Students offered either a teaching assistantship or graduate assistantship in their first year of enrolment in the program • GRE scores and Graduate school GPA • Undergraduate GPA and Graduate school GPA
  • Assistantships - Correlation between GRE scores and GPA • Total of 96 students were sampled between 2009-2013 • Only students who were offered assistantships in their first semester • Correlation of 0.141. Positive, but a weak correlation between GRE scores and the GPAs of those given assistantships
  • Relationship between U-GPA and G-GPA • Correlation of 0.04 • Extremely weak correlation between undergraduate GPA and graduate GPA for those who are on assistantships • How else would we determine who is best suited to be teaching and research assistants?
  • Questions 1. Are we using GRE scores in the selection of our graduate assistants? 2. How does our graduate assistant scores match up against those who don’t have assistantships? 3. Are we directing funding to the most successful students? (how does their GPA look against others?) 4. If we are not awarding assistantships to those who are not most likely to succeed based off GPA, then is the assistantship helping them or hurting them?
  • Average GRE Verbal scores for those on Assistantships • For each of the years analyzed, it was found that: Year Median GRE - Verbal Total number of GAs Above Below 2009 470 32 13 17 2010 480 20 12 6 2011 490 24 12 11 2012 530 10 4 5 2013 490 12 6 4
  • Average GRE Quantitative scores for those on Assistantships • For each of the years analyzed, it was found that: Year Median GRE - Quantitative Total number of GAs Above Below 2009 750 32 17 11 2010 760 20 8 8 2011 760 24 12 11 2012 780 10 4 5 2013 770 12 6 4
  • Questions 1. Are we using GRE scores in the selection of our graduate assistants? 2. How does our graduate assistant scores match up against those who don’t have assistantships? 3. Are we directing funding to the most successful students? (how does their GPA look against others?) 4. If we are not awarding assistantships to those who are not most likely to succeed based off GPA, then is the assistantship helping them or hurting them?
  • Average GPA Average GPA With assistantships No assistantships MEN 3.69 3.58 MS 3.7 3.7 PhD 3.75 3.68
  • Questions 1. Are we using GRE scores in the selection of our graduate assistants? 2. How does our graduate assistant scores match up against those who don’t have assistantships? 3. Are we directing funding to the most successful students? (how does their GPA look against others?) 4. If we are not awarding assistantships to those who are not most likely to succeed based off GPA, then is the assistantship helping them or hurting them?
  • Average time to degree (semesters) Average time to degree With Assistantships No Assistantships MEN 4.5 4.37 MS 6.58 6.05 PhD 11.36 11.82
  • Conclusions • We cannot rely on GRE alone in predicting future success in graduate school (determined by graduate school GPA and time to degree) • Students on assistantships tend to do better in terms of overall grades and time taken to complete their degrees
  • Further research • More study is required on how we admit students and distribute funding to students • Bigger sample size will help give a more accurate picture of how and why students are admitted • Indicators of success for graduate students • Can we create a matrix of sorts to help better allocate funding? • Best practices in admission and funding • Eliman (1991) and Suhayda, Hicks and Fogg (2008) have also explored this possibility in other disciplines • Is graduate school admission an art or a science? • Considering the different aspects of evaluating applicants, particularly the non-measurable factors, can we reduce each and every applicant in graduate school to a data point? Eliman, A. A. (1991). A decision support system for Univeristy admission policies. European Journal of Operational Research, 50(2), 140-156. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(91)90237-P Suhayda, R., Hicks, F., & Fogg, L. (2008). A Decision Algorithm for Admitting Students to Advanced Practice Programs in Nursing. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(5), 281-284. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2007.10.002
  • References Attiyeh, G., & Attiyeh, R. (1997). Testing for Bias in Graduate School Admissions. Journal of Human Resources, 32(3), 524-548. Cieboter, F. J. (1969). Factors Related to the Performance of Foreign Graduate Students. The Journal of Educational Research, 62(8), 360-365. doi: 10.2307/27532232 Cooksey, L., & Stenning, W. F. (1981). The Empirical Impact of the Graduate Record Examination and Grade Point Average on Entry and Success in Graduate School at Texas A&M University. ERIC. Eliman, A. A. (1991). A decision support system for Univeristy admission policies. European Journal of Operational Research, 50(2), 140-156. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0377-2217(91)90237-P Feeley, T. H., Williams, V., & Wise, T. (2005). Testing the Predictive Validity of the GRE Exam on Communication Graduate Student Success: A Case Study at University at Buffalo. Communication Quarterly, 53(2), 229-245. doi: 10.1080/01463370500090209 Freeman, R. B. (2005). Fellowship Stipend Support and the Supply of Science and Engineering Students: NSF Graduate Research Fellowships. American Economic Review, 95(2), 61-65. Holt, D. T., Bleckmann, C. A., & Zitzmann, C. C. (2006). The Graduate Record Examination and Success in an Engineering Management Program: A Case Study. Engineering Management Journal, 18(1), 10-16. House, J. D., & Johnson, J. J. (1993). Graduate Record Examination Scores and Academic Background Variables as Predictors of Graduate Degree Completion. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53(2), 551-556. doi: 10.1177/0013164493053002025 Ingram, R. E. (1983). The GRE in the graduate admissions process: Is how it is used justified by the evidence of its validity? Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 14(6), 711-714. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0735-7028.14.6.711 Kuncel, N. R., & Hezlett, S. A. (2007). Standardized Tests Predict Graduate Students' Success. Science, 315(5815), 1080-1081. doi: 10.1126/science.1136618 Kuncel, N. R., Hezlett, S. A., & Ones, D. S. (2001). A comprehensive meta-analysis of the predictive validity of the Graduate Record Examinations: Implications for graduate student selection and performance. Psychological Bulletin, 127(1), 162-181. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.127.1.162 Marston, A. R. (1971). It is time to reconsider the Graduate Record Examination. American Psychologist, 26(7), 653-655. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0032124 Morrison, T., & Morrison, M. (1995). A Meta-Analytic Assessment of the Predictive Validity of the Quantitative and Verbal Components of the Graduate Record Examination with Graduate Grade Point Average Representing the Criterion of Graduate Success. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 55(2), 309-316. doi: 10.1177/0013164495055002015
  • References Orlando, J. (2005). The reliability of GRE scores in predicting graduate school success: a meta-analytic, cross-functional, regressive, unilateral, post-kantian, hyper-empirical, quadruple blind, verbiage-intensive and hemorrhoid-inducing study. Ubiquity, 2005, 1-1. doi: 10.1145/1071916.1071921 Powers, D. E. (2004). Validity of Graduate Record Examinations (GRE) General Test Scores for Admissions to Colleges of Veterinary Medicine. Journal of Applied Psychology, 89(2), 208-219. Robertson, M., & Nielsen, W. (1961). The graduate record examination and selection of graduate students. American Psychologist, 16(10), 648-650. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0043209 Rosser, M. (1970). Criteria used for admission by graduate departments. American Psychologist, 25(6), 558- 560. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/h0037862 Rubio, D. M., Rubin, R. S., & Brennan, D. G. (2003). How Well Does the GRE Work for Your University? An Empirical Institutional Case Study of the Graduate Record Examination across Multiple Disciplines. College and University, 78(4), 11-17. Saaty, T. L., France, J. W., & Valentine, K. R. (1991). Modeling the graduate business school admissions process. Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, 25(2), 155-162. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0038- 0121(91)90013-H Sternberg, R. J., & Williams, W. M. (1997). Does the Graduate Record Examination predict meaningful success in the graduate training of psychology? A case study. American Psychologist, 52(6), 630-641. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.52.6.630 Suhayda, R., Hicks, F., & Fogg, L. (2008). A Decision Algorithm for Admitting Students to Advanced Practice Programs in Nursing. Journal of Professional Nursing, 24(5), 281-284. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.profnurs.2007.10.002 Thornell, J. G., & Mccoy, A. (1985). The Predictive Validity of the Graduate Record Examinations for Subgroups of Students in Different Academic Disciplines. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 45(2), 415-419. doi: 10.1177/001316448504500229
  • Thank you!