U.S. History Chapter 13:  Industrial Growth in the North Section 2:  Changes in Working Life
Factory Families <ul><li>Samuel Slater couldn’t find enough workers </li></ul><ul><li>Used apprentices </li></ul><ul><li>M...
Factory Families <ul><li>Hired entire families </li></ul><ul><li>Children  worked for low wages </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks si...
Factory Families <ul><li>Adults earned in one day what children earned in a week </li></ul><ul><li>Rhode Island System —pr...
The Lowell System <ul><li>Francis Cabot Lowell:  built a water-powered loom that could weave thread and spin cloth on the ...
The Lowell System <ul><li>Noted for clean factories and neat boarding houses </li></ul><ul><li>Women paid $2-$4/week </li>...
The Lowell System <ul><li>Encouraged to pursue outside activities </li></ul><ul><li>12-14 hour workday </li></ul><ul><li>H...
Workers Organize <ul><li>Craftspeople threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Factory worker wages decreased, work conditions worsene...
Workers Organize <ul><li>Lowell girls replaced by immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled workers felt threatened </li></ul><...
End of Child Labor Worker Safety 40 Hour Work Week Increased Pay & Benefits
Workers Organize <ul><li>Strike —employees refuse to work until employers meet their demands </li></ul><ul><li>Courts and ...
Labor Reform Efforts <ul><li>Sarah Bagley —union founder who publicized workers' struggles </li></ul><ul><li>1844:  founde...
Labor Reform Efforts <ul><li>1840:  President Martin Van Buren granted 10-hour workday to federal employees </li></ul><ul>...
Labor Reform Efforts <ul><li>Opposed by business owners </li></ul><ul><li>VP of new England Workingmen's’ Association </li...
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US History Ch 13.2

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US History Ch 13.2

  1. 1. U.S. History Chapter 13: Industrial Growth in the North Section 2: Changes in Working Life
  2. 2. Factory Families <ul><li>Samuel Slater couldn’t find enough workers </li></ul><ul><li>Used apprentices </li></ul><ul><li>Menial tasks </li></ul>Samuel Slater
  3. 3. Factory Families <ul><li>Hired entire families </li></ul><ul><li>Children worked for low wages </li></ul><ul><li>Tasks simple enough for children </li></ul>
  4. 4. Factory Families <ul><li>Adults earned in one day what children earned in a week </li></ul><ul><li>Rhode Island System —practice of hiring families an dividing factory work into simple tasks </li></ul>
  5. 5. The Lowell System <ul><li>Francis Cabot Lowell: built a water-powered loom that could weave thread and spin cloth on the same mill </li></ul><ul><li>Hired young, unmarried women from local farms </li></ul>Francis Cabot Lowell
  6. 6. The Lowell System <ul><li>Noted for clean factories and neat boarding houses </li></ul><ul><li>Women paid $2-$4/week </li></ul><ul><li>4 year stay </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Lowell System <ul><li>Encouraged to pursue outside activities </li></ul><ul><li>12-14 hour workday </li></ul><ul><li>Highly regimented workday </li></ul><ul><li>Bigger, faster machines </li></ul>
  8. 8. Workers Organize <ul><li>Craftspeople threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Factory worker wages decreased, work conditions worsened </li></ul><ul><li>Immigration, unemployment due to Panic of 1837 </li></ul>
  9. 9. Workers Organize <ul><li>Lowell girls replaced by immigrants </li></ul><ul><li>Skilled workers felt threatened </li></ul><ul><li>Trade Unions —organizations created by workers to improve working conditions </li></ul>
  10. 10. End of Child Labor Worker Safety 40 Hour Work Week Increased Pay & Benefits
  11. 11. Workers Organize <ul><li>Strike —employees refuse to work until employers meet their demands </li></ul><ul><li>Courts and police usually supported companies </li></ul><ul><li>Became politically active </li></ul>
  12. 12. Labor Reform Efforts <ul><li>Sarah Bagley —union founder who publicized workers' struggles </li></ul><ul><li>1844: founded Lowell Female labor Reform Association </li></ul><ul><li>Fought for shorter workday </li></ul>
  13. 13. Labor Reform Efforts <ul><li>1840: President Martin Van Buren granted 10-hour workday to federal employees </li></ul><ul><li>Bagley wanted this extended to the private sector </li></ul><ul><li>12-14 hour workday </li></ul>President Martin Van Buren
  14. 14. Labor Reform Efforts <ul><li>Opposed by business owners </li></ul><ul><li>VP of new England Workingmen's’ Association </li></ul><ul><li>Some legal victories </li></ul><ul><li>Loopholes </li></ul>
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