TX History Ch 21.4
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TX History Ch 21.4






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TX History Ch 21.4 TX History Ch 21.4 Presentation Transcript

  • Chapter 21: The Cattle Kingdom Section 4: The Closing of the Open Range
  • Fencing the Open Range
    • Problems:
      • Farmers wanted to keep stray cattle out of crops
      • Little wood on plains to build fences
      • Illinois woman asks husband to create a fence to keep dogs out of garden
  • Barbed Wire
  • Fencing the Open Range
    • Joseph F. Glidden —Illinois farmer who invented barbed wire
    Joseph Glidden
  • Fencing the Open Range
    • Glidden opened a factory to produce wire
    • “ Light as air…cheap as dirt”
    • Made large scale fencing easy & inexpensive
  • Fencing the Open Range
    • The cattle kingdom began to disappear after fences started to enclose the open range
  • The Range Wars
    • Barbed wire presented problems:
      • Small property owners surrounded
      • Public roads blocked off & mail delivery disrupted
      • Water sources fenced off
  • The Range Wars
    • Range War —armed conflict over fencing and sheep that erupted during the 1880s
  • The Range Wars
    • Fence cutting becomes a major issue
    • 1884: Gov. John Ireland calls an emergency session of the legislature:
      • Fence cutting illegal
      • Gates every three miles
      • Illegal to fence land you do not own
  • The Range Wars
    • In parts of Texas that were too rugged and dry for cattle, some ranchers turned to sheep herding.
  • Legacy of the Open Range
    • Death of the Open Range:
      • Barbed wire and fencing of open range
      • Extension of rail lines & refrigerated railcars
      • Overgrazing of land
  • Legacy of the Open Range
    • Death of the open range:
      • Introduction of windmills & expansion of farming onto the Plains
      • Expansion of sheep ranching
    • Cattle ranching an important part of Texas’ legacy & economy