TX History Ch 21.1

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TX History Ch 21.1

  1. 1. Chapter 21: The Cattle Kingdom Section 1: Early Cattle Ranching
  2. 2. Spanish Beginnings <ul><li>1500s: Spanish had ranches firmly established in Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>1700s: Cattle moved northward to support missions in Rio Grande & San Antonio River Valleys </li></ul><ul><li>Good climate & water supply </li></ul>
  3. 3. Spanish Beginnings <ul><li>First Texas Ranchers : Tejanos who brought knowledge of ranching from Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Brands —marks that made it possible to determine who owned Texas cattle </li></ul>
  4. 7. Spanish Beginnings <ul><li>Cattle drives —herding groups of cattle to market </li></ul><ul><li>Cattle driven from South of Rio Grande to supply Spanish military outposts </li></ul><ul><li>Driven from SE Texas to Louisiana </li></ul>
  5. 8. Spanish Beginnings <ul><li>Ranching spreads: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>East TX: near markets in New Orleans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Central/South TX: rich prairies & moderate climates </li></ul></ul>
  6. 9. Spanish Beginnings <ul><li>Cattle driven out of state: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New Orleans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>California after discovery of gold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ohio </li></ul></ul>
  7. 10. Spanish Beginnings <ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rustlers —thieves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to markets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low population = low demand </li></ul></ul>
  8. 11. The Texas Longhorns <ul><li>Longhorn —a cross between Spanish & English cattle </li></ul>BEVO—it’s what’s for dinner!
  9. 12. The Texas Longhorns <ul><li>Strengths: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thrived on native grasses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could endure hot/cold </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Could eat prickly pear and survive on little water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistant to Texas Fever </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. The Texas Longhorns <ul><li>“ 8 pounds of hamburger on 800 pounds of bone and horn.” </li></ul><ul><li>Horns provided protection </li></ul>
  11. 15. The Texas Longhorns <ul><li>Texas cattle grew during the Civil War because Union blockades made it difficult to move cattle out of state </li></ul>

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