TX History Ch 20.4

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TX History Ch 20.4

  1. 1. Chapter 20: The Indian Wars Section 4: The Indian Wars End in Texas
  2. 2. Fighting on the Rio Grande <ul><li>Mangas Coloradas, an Apache chief, was a mentor to Victorio </li></ul><ul><li>Mangas Coloradas killed by U.S. soldiers </li></ul><ul><li>Apache ordered to move to reservations in New Mexico </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fighting on the Rio Grande <ul><li>Victorio —Apache leader who fled into Mexico & conducted raids across the Rio Grande </li></ul>Victorio
  4. 4. Fighting on the Rio Grande <ul><li>More troops sent to Rio Grande area </li></ul><ul><li>Army chased Victorio for two years </li></ul><ul><li>Troops part of the 9 th & 10 th Cavalries and 24 th & 25 th Infantry Regiments </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fighting on the Rio Grande <ul><li>Buffalo Soldiers —name that American Indians gave to African American troops </li></ul>Stamp commemorating the Buffalo Soldiers
  6. 6. Fighting on the Rio Grande <ul><li>Henry O. Flipper —first black graduate of the U.S. Military Academy at West Point who took part in raids against the Apache while stationed at Fort Davis </li></ul>Henry O. Flipper
  7. 7. Fighting on the Rio Grande <ul><li>Troops trailed Apache for weeks at a time </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed back into Mexico </li></ul><ul><li>Raids stopped when Mexican troops became involved </li></ul><ul><li>Victorio died in 1880 </li></ul>
  8. 8. Reservation Life <ul><li>Forced to take up farming </li></ul><ul><li>Poor soil </li></ul><ul><li>Little experience raising crops </li></ul>
  9. 9. Reservation Life <ul><li>Government did not supply food </li></ul><ul><li>1883: Federal government banned many Indian religious practices </li></ul><ul><li>Forced to traditional ceremonies in secret </li></ul>
  10. 10. Reservation Life <ul><li>1875: Parker surrenders & moves to reservation </li></ul><ul><li>Worked to better relations between federal government & Indians </li></ul><ul><li>Went to Washington D.C. to negotiate </li></ul>Quanah Parker
  11. 11. Reservation Life <ul><li>Indians on reservations shared the land they farmed </li></ul><ul><li>Some government officials believed Indians would be better off owning land </li></ul>
  12. 12. Reservation Life <ul><li>Dawes General Allotment Act —U.S. law passed in 1887 that divided up reservation lands for American Indians and promised the citizenship </li></ul>
  13. 13. Reservation Life <ul><li>Many Indians did not receive enough land to sustain themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Government sold remaining land after dividing land </li></ul><ul><li>Indians not granted citizenship until 1924 </li></ul>
  14. 14. Reservation Life <ul><li>By the 1880s most American Indians were gone from Texas </li></ul><ul><li>Opened vast amounts of land to farming, ranch, & settlement </li></ul>
  15. 16. Reservation Life Farming Traditional Culture Ownership of Land

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