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TX History Ch 20.2
 

TX History Ch 20.2

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    TX History Ch 20.2 TX History Ch 20.2 Presentation Transcript

    • Chapter 20: The Indian Wars Section 2: War on the Plains
    • The Salt Creek Raid
      • Problems remain after Treaty of Medicine Lodge
      • Indians frustrated with reservation life
      • Some Indians begin to attack Texas settlements
    • The Salt Creek Raid
      • July 1870: U.S. troops defeated in battle after chasing Kiowa that attacked a stagecoach
      • August 1870: Kiowa leader White Horse leads a series of attacks
      • Legislature asks for help
    • The Salt Creek Raid
      • 1871: Gen. William T. Sherman sent to Texas
      • Has doubts about Indian threat
      General William T. Sherman
    • The Salt Creek Raid
      • May 1871: Kiowa & Comanche under big Tree, Satank, & Satanta attack wagon train near Salt Creek
      • 7 men killed
      Big Tree & Santanta
    • The Salt Creek Raid
      • Salt Creek Raid —Kiowa and Comanche attack on a wagon train that caused a shift in military policy towards Indians
    • The Salt Creek Raid
      • Sherman has Big Tree, Satank, & Satanta arrested
      • Satank killed while trying to escape
      • Big Tree & Satanta convicted or murder and sentenced to death
    • The Salt Creek Raid
      • Gov. E.J. Davis changes sentence to life in prison
      • Released from prison in 1873
      Governor E.J. Davis
    • Mackenzie’s Raids
      • The Salt Creek Raid convince the war department that Indians must be forced onto reservations.
    • Mackenzie’s Raids
      • Ranald S. Mackenzie —U.S. colonel who became famous fighting American Indians on the frontier
      Ranald S. Mackenzie
    • Mackenzie’s Raids
      • Colonel Mackenzie’s campaign in Texas was meant to force all of the Indians onto reservations.
    • Mackenzie’s Raids
      • Fall 1871: Mackenzie begins raids
      • Led by Tonkawa Indian scouts
      • Fought battle against Comanche at Blanco Canyon
    • Mackenzie’s Raids
      • Quanah Parker —Comanche leader whose mother was a captured settler
      Quanah Parker
    • Cynthia Parker
      • Captured by Comanche in 1836
      • Lived with Comanche
      • 1860: captured by Texas Rangers
      • Always wanted to return to Comanche
      Cynthia Parker
    • Mackenzie’s Raids
      • Mackenzie pursues Comanche into Panhandle
      • Escape during snowstorm
      • Spring 1872: Mackenzie renews attacks following Indian raids
    • Mackenzie’s Raids
      • September 29, 1872: Mackenzie’s troops defeat a Comanche force near Pampa
      • Killed Comanche, destroyed village, & took 120 women and children prisoner
      • Parker led unsuccessful attack to free prisoners
    • Mackenzie’s Raids
      • Mackenzie kept prisoners at Fort Concho to try & convince others to surrender
      • Many Comanche abandoned life on plains & move to reservations
      • Mackenzie goes to Mexican border to stop Kickapoo & Lipan Apache attacks
    • The Slaughter of the Buffalo
      • Plains Indians depended on buffalo for generations
      • Risks to survival of buffalo:
        • Westward expansion of railroads
        • Development of new tanning technology & a market for hides
    • The Slaughter of the Buffalo
      • Risks to survival of buffalo:
        • Buffalo guns
        • Desire to force Plains Indians to live on reservations
    • The Slaughter of the Buffalo
      • Buffalo guns allowed hunters to kill from a long distance away.
    • The Slaughter of the Buffalo
      • “ Let them (hunters) kill, skin, & sell until the buffaloes are exterminated. Then your prairies can be covered with speckled cattle.”
      • --General Philip Sheridan
      General Philip Sheridan
    • The Slaughter of the Buffalo
      • Buffalo killed in order to force Indians to move.
      • Growing market for buffalo hides nearly made them extinct .
      • 1872-1874: estimated 4.3 million buffalo killed