TX History Ch 20.1

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TX History Ch 20.1

  1. 1. Chapter 20: The Indian Wars Section 1: Changes in Indian Policy
  2. 2. American Indian Relations <ul><li>Early 1860s: Indian raids common </li></ul><ul><li>Frontier open to attack as men and soldiers fight in Civil War </li></ul><ul><li>Plains Indians see opportunity to westward expansion </li></ul>
  3. 3. American Indian Relations <ul><li>Federal troops arrive at end of war </li></ul><ul><li>Not enough troops to go around </li></ul><ul><li>October 1865: Federal commissioners negotiate peace treaty </li></ul>
  4. 4. American Indian Relations <ul><li>Treaty of the Little Arkansas —treaty under which Comanche & Kiowa leaders agreed to settle on a Panhandle reservation </li></ul><ul><li>Reservation never created </li></ul>
  5. 5. American Indian Relations <ul><li>Kiowa & Comanche renew attacks </li></ul><ul><li>People move to safer areas </li></ul><ul><li>Frontier line pushed back east </li></ul>
  6. 6. American Indian Relations <ul><li>During the 1860s the frontier in Texas sometimes fell back under pressure from American Indian raids </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Treaty of Medicine Lodge <ul><li>1867: federal government attempts to negotiate a new treaty </li></ul><ul><li>Treaty of Medicine Lodge —agreement of 1867 that required the Plains Indians to move onto a reservation in the Indian Territory </li></ul>
  8. 8. The Treaty of Medicine Lodge <ul><li>Terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gifts of blankets, clothing, & weapons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3 million acres for reservation in Indian Territory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings, tools, & money </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. The Treaty of Medicine Lodge <ul><li>Terms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop raiding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay on reservations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take up farming </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Treaty of Medicine Lodge <ul><li>Satanta —Kiowa leader who refused to accept reservation life and died in prison </li></ul>Satanta
  11. 11. The Treaty of Medicine Lodge <ul><li>Some Indians honored the treaty, others remained determined to roam the plains </li></ul>
  12. 12. The Peace Policy <ul><li>1869: President Grant established Board of Indian Commissioners </li></ul><ul><li>Quakers —members of the Society of Friends, some of whom became Indian agents to help prevent war </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Peace Policy <ul><li>Government hoped Indians would make living by farming </li></ul><ul><li>Reservation life was difficult and food was often scarce. </li></ul><ul><li>Poor soil </li></ul>
  14. 14. The Peace Policy <ul><li>Government food supplies insufficient </li></ul><ul><li>Goods sent by government were illegally sold and never arrived </li></ul><ul><li>Buffalo hunters entered reservations </li></ul>
  15. 15. Civil War Reconstruction Treaty of Little Arkansas Treaty of Medicine Lodge Effects Effects Effects Effects

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