Hi guys, today my presentation is on Albert Einstein Hope to go over who he was and his more famous discoveries, some of which I’ll attempt to explain. I’ll also mention some of the times when he wasn’t right
Just in case there are people here who haven’t heard of him, Einstein is one of the most celebrated and renowned scientists of all time. He was born in Ulm, Germany in the late 1800s to a not very scientific family. He grew up in Germany austria and switzerland.
There was no single thing made him famous. It was actually the total of all the things he’d contributed to the many fields of science, Including some of which he himself created! Many people know him as the creator of relativity or for e = mc2, but he actually gained the Nobel prize for The Photoelectric effect
Not a good scholar when he was younger. He graduated university with a teaching diploma, but finally found a job at the patent office. While working here he published an incredible four papers in one year which was unheard of! So he wasn’t so bad after all
These are the four papers he published that gained him international scientific acclaim. Special relativity , brownian motion of particles in a solution, photoelectric effect and another of his most famous discoveries, energy and mass equivalence.
Of these 4 theories, special rel is the hardest to understand. There are two concepts called length contraction and time dilation. These say that when you look at someone moving relative to you, they will appear shorter and it will look like time is going slower for them. There’s a very interesting consequence of this called the Twins paradox.
Brownian Motion – the random motion of dust particles in the air which was unexplained at the time – seems obvious to us - led to an indirect confirmation that atoms and particles exist
Photoelectric effect – the effect where an electron can escape from a metal when it is hit by a photon with enough energy. Particle nature of light although this would not be fully accepted until later This was the piece of work that gained him the Nobel Prize
Especially important of these was the discovery of the relation between mass and energy. This led the way for nuclear power stations and is really important nowadays as scientists are trying to understand nuclear fusion and whether it is viable.
Following these papers, Einstein was offered many prestigious places at universities in europe. He eventually settled for professorships in germany, although he had special contract terms that meant he didn’t really have to do any teaching.
General relativity was the next theory that einstein created that took the world by storm. Having an object warp space time (Gen Rel – gravitational lensing – maybe link to eduardo by saying something about him and astronomy) The experimental confirmation of this theory led to him becoming a house-hold name.
This is the coolest consequence of general relativity. Black holes are these incredibly dense objects in space that nothing can escape from, including light. They can only be explained using general relativity.
Einstein was a pretty amazing guy. He had his fingers in every scientific pie possible. This included coming up with the theoretical background for lasers. Einstein also theorised that under certain conditions
Moved to the U.S. Became a citizen. Worked at princeton where he remained for the rest of his life.
However, no one is perfect. There were things that Einstein did not believe that turned out to be true. Quantum entanglement was one of them. When two particles are linked and then separated, the state of one of the objects can be measured which instantly affects the state of the other one.
Einstein found this to be a paradox as this would mean that information was travelling faster than the speed of light : which he himself had said was impossible. This is what Einstein called spooky action at distance. It was later found that Einstein drew an incorrect conclusion. EPR paradox – Entanglement – Jonathan always says he doesn’t like spooky action at a distance (constructors doing new?)
His interpretation of quantum physics was different to most. Thought that it was not probabilistic and not statistical and that there were hidden variables. This is where his famous quote “god does not play dice with the universe”
Einstein was a highly prolific scientist, some of his other work includes zero point energy ( the min energy an oscillating particle can have) And work on Bose-Einstein condensates which are gases cooled to near 0K which exhibit some very weird properties!
Talk about how his legend has lived on? Amazing because he was such an all rounder. His work touched or was in all of the major fields of his time and in fact he was really the father of modern physics.
So I’m now at the end of my presentation. I hope you’ve enjoyed it and maybe you know a bit more about one of the most influential physicists ever. Thank you