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Qin and han
 

Qin and han

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    Qin and han Qin and han Presentation Transcript

    • China in the Qin and Han Dynasty
      China Unifies and gets on with life
    • Legalist Thinkers
      Shang Yang (390-338 BCE), The Book of the Lord Shang
      Han Feizi (280-233 BCE)
      Forced to commit suicide by Li Si
      Li Si was his partner in philosophy and became the advisor to the first Emperor of the Qin.
      He didn’t want a rival out there, so he “took care of it”
      Two strengths of the Legalist state
      Agriculture
      Military
      Emphasized development of peasant, soldier classes
      Distrust of pure intellectual, cultural pursuits
      Historically, often imitated but rarely praised
    • Qin (Chin) Dynasty
      Founded by Qin Shihuangdi (QSHD); base was land grants from Lord Shang Yang
      Lasts from 221-206 BCE
      Short, but sets precedents and has massive impact
      Creates centralized bureaucracy
      Government is run by a web of civil servants, each with a supervisor. At the center of the web is the Emperor who makes all final decisions. Paranoia rules.
    • Image of Qin Shihuangdi
    • China under the Qin
    • Standardization under the Qin
      Mandated the following be the same throughout the empire:
      Axel lengths
      Weights and Measures
      Writing system
      Monetary system
      Thought
      Why? What benefits come to a leader for doing these things? A country? Would China have unified long term without them?
    • People don’t go along always
      Resistance to the Qin is futile…
      Emperor orders the execution of all critics
      Hates, hates, H8s Confucians
      All books are to be burned, except for
      Agricultural texts
      Metallurgical texts
      The loss of culture is huge!
    • Massive Public Works projects
      Roads, bridges and a rather important Great Wall
      Begun during the Qin to protect the kingdom against barbarians.
      Was a series of walls that were connected
      Built using conscript labor
      Over 100,000 died during the construction project and were buried in the wall.
    • Obsessed with his own tomb
      700,000 workers conscripted to work on it
      His slaves, concubines and craftsmen were sacrificed and buried with him and the terra cotta army he ordered to be built to protect him in the after life.
      Buried from 207-ish BCE until a farmer digging a well in 1974 pulled up a terra cotta head…
    • End of the Qin
      Emperor QSHD dies.
      Likely due to ingesting large quantities of mercury
      But Li Si covers it up while he tries to dispose of the son.
      Army revolts, Li Si and son both killed, and chaos breaks out.
    • Han (Hahn) Dynasty forms
      Army general Liu Bang forms new government
      Takes as his family name the name of the river in his village: Han
      Dynasty runs from 206 BCE-220 CE
      Brief interruption from 9-24 CE
      So there is an Early Han and a Later Han…
    • Early Han
      Relaxes Qin rules/restrictions, but keeps things orderly—no chaos
      Set up another bureaucracy, but de-centralized it at first to regional government
      Quickly re-centralizes once there is a rebellion.
    • Expansion time
      Han Wudi (third emperor, rules 141-87BCE) decides to grow the empire’s territory
      Raises taxes to fund military and other public works.
      Sets up imperial university for educated civil servants
      3,000 grows to 300,000 by end of Han Dynasty
      A military guy, but supports Confucians
    • Two different images of Han Wu Di
    • HWD Expansion
      Invasions of Vietnam, Korea
      Constant attacks from Xiongnu
      Nomads from Central Asia
      Horsemen
      Brutal: Maodun (210-174 BCE), had soldiers murder his wife, father
      Han Wudi briefly dominates Xiongnu; abandons policy of appeasement
    • Han expansion at the time of HWD, ca 87 BCE
    • Population change in Han Dynasty
      Population grows rapidly, tripling to 30 minutes
      Agricultural production takes off
      Actually grows more than the people can consume.
    • The end is nigh
      Overstretch starts out
      Military is spread along a very long border
      Costs lots of money to field this army
      Taxes go up and up
      To pay for the above.
      Land confiscated when taxes not paid
      Gap between haves and have nots grows
      Slavery increases
      Banditry and rebellions increase
    • Wang Mang (9-23 CE)
      Starts off as a regent for the Han emperor who was a 2 year old child.
      Kills the kid and takes power for himself.
      Attempts to enact land reform
      Resolve some rebellions through redistribution of land on an equal basis.
      Made things worse.
      He is killed and eaten by his own troops in 23, Han cousin “restores” Han Dynasty
    • Later Han Dynasty
      Later Han emperors crack down on rebellions with varying degrees of success.
      Yellow Turban Uprising is a big one that nearly ends the dynasty.
      Royal court gets distracted by internal intrigue
      Barbarians invade and Han can’t respond
      Han Dynasty formally ends in 220CE
      Next 4 centuries, China consists of three kingdoms, each maintaining the traditions of the Han. So they are mini-Han-style Dynasties