Nationalism and  IndustrializationEurope moves ahead faster; the -isms begin
National identity• Europeans begin to think of themselves as  nations of people  •   People used to think of themselves in...
Nationalism• With this identity, competition comes. • My nation is better than yours.• Loyalty stressed• Leaders (the stat...
Cultural and Political• Cultural accomplishments stressed: Jakob  and Wilhelm Grimm collect German  stories as expressions...
Political nationalism• Italy sees the formation of Young Italy, to  promote independence from Spain and  Austria• A sense ...
Napoleon helps• The French were psyched with their  revolution.• Austrians, Russians, Spanish, Dutch, British  and Prussia...
Modern Europe• Revolutions in Belgium, Italy, Poland, Spain,    Portugal, German Principalities, Prussia.    •   Italy is ...
Industrial RevolutionNow that the political realm is in order, welcome to       the biggest thing since agriculture
http://youtu.be/zhL5DCizj5   Crash Course video on Industrialization
Industrialization• A process that transformed agrarian and  hand-crafted economies into machine  driven, factory based for...
It coulda happened• Yangzi Delta in China• Japan• Great Britain• All have: High Agricultural production, high  population ...
Coal, colonies & Calico• Britain is running short of wood, so it turns  to coal• colonies provide ready access to raw  mat...
QuickTime™ and a                decompressor      are needed to see this picture.The Spinning Mule
• A child can work it• It produces up to 15 times as much cloth as  the fastest hand weaver per day• First powered by wate...
Innovation takes off• New forms of iron and steel• Steam engines attached to everything that  moves--ships, railroads espe...
The Factory• People made stuff in the home to avoid  guild restrictions (called the “putting out  system”)• But the new ma...
The Factory Continued• labor is divided into stages--workers  perform a single task over and over again• strict work disci...
Industrialization spreads• Britain tries to keep all this secret; no  chance• Spreads to Germany, France, Belgium and  the...
IndustrIES• Textiles go first, then Coal, Iron, Steel, Glass  production• Then more refined goods: weapons, shoes,  tools,...
Interchangeable parts• Benefits: Anyone can assemble it• parts are cheaper to make• Repairs are cheaper• Assembly is faste...
Enter the corporation• Britain and France lay legal foundation for  Corporations to form• a private business owned by many...
Demographics• Population soars • 1700-1800   • Europe: 105 million to 180 million;      Americas 13 million to 24 million ...
Demographic Transition• In the short run, industrialization leads to  longer life spans, so population jumps• But fertilit...
Demographics:          migration• People move to urban areas for work • 1800s: 1/5 of people live in towns and    cities o...
Migration• People also migrate trans-continentally • first time since original migration• Americas are the prime destinati...
and the monopoly• corporations act to take full control of  industry, outperform and smother  competitors• Some work verti...
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Nationalism and industrialism

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Nationalism and industrialism

  1. 1. Nationalism and IndustrializationEurope moves ahead faster; the -isms begin
  2. 2. National identity• Europeans begin to think of themselves as nations of people • People used to think of themselves in terms of families, clans cities, regions and religious faith.• Start to identify as people born into a unique community, with a common language, custom, values and history = a nation
  3. 3. Nationalism• With this identity, competition comes. • My nation is better than yours.• Loyalty stressed• Leaders (the state) play on this, and incorporate the government into the national identity.• The nation-state is the best protector of the people.
  4. 4. Cultural and Political• Cultural accomplishments stressed: Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm collect German stories as expressions of German Volk (“people”)• Cultural activities stress uniqueness and historical scholarship
  5. 5. Political nationalism• Italy sees the formation of Young Italy, to promote independence from Spain and Austria• A sense of “other” is bad emerges• Anti-Semitism rises, as does Jewish nationalism• Theodor Herzl organizes the first Zionist Congress to establish a home for the Jewish people in Palestine
  6. 6. Napoleon helps• The French were psyched with their revolution.• Austrians, Russians, Spanish, Dutch, British and Prussian identity solidifies in response to Napoleon’s threat• Congress of Vienna meets to try to re- establish order after Napoleon is defeated • Klemens von Metternich is the architect; he tries to suppress nationalism--fail, so he embraces it
  7. 7. Modern Europe• Revolutions in Belgium, Italy, Poland, Spain, Portugal, German Principalities, Prussia. • Italy is unified removing Spain guided by Camilo Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi• Germany, guided by Otto von Bismark, deliberately provokes wars and wins.• “The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches or majority votes...but by blood and iron.”• 1871 the Second Reich is proclaimed (HRE is First Reich) under Kaiser Wilhelm I
  8. 8. Industrial RevolutionNow that the political realm is in order, welcome to the biggest thing since agriculture
  9. 9. http://youtu.be/zhL5DCizj5 Crash Course video on Industrialization
  10. 10. Industrialization• A process that transformed agrarian and hand-crafted economies into machine driven, factory based forms of production• Technology takes a leap, energy forms advance, labor systems change, economics evolves, people migrate
  11. 11. It coulda happened• Yangzi Delta in China• Japan• Great Britain• All have: High Agricultural production, high population density, navigable rivers, cities, banking.• Britain has ready access to coal and that makes the difference
  12. 12. Coal, colonies & Calico• Britain is running short of wood, so it turns to coal• colonies provide ready access to raw materials• Cotton kicks it off. Demand for calicoes-- cheap, brightly printed cotton textiles from India.• so spinning & weaving has to speed up
  13. 13. QuickTime™ and a decompressor are needed to see this picture.The Spinning Mule
  14. 14. • A child can work it• It produces up to 15 times as much cloth as the fastest hand weaver per day• First powered by water wheel, then by steam powered engine built by James Watt
  15. 15. Innovation takes off• New forms of iron and steel• Steam engines attached to everything that moves--ships, railroads especially• Britain has a lock on this--does it faster than any other country
  16. 16. The Factory• People made stuff in the home to avoid guild restrictions (called the “putting out system”)• But the new machines are too big for the home, so buildings are built to house them.• Larger machines incorporate more of the process; production is centralized in one place
  17. 17. The Factory Continued• labor is divided into stages--workers perform a single task over and over again• strict work discipline and high standards of production enforced• emergence of owner class, workers, artisans begin to die off.• work becomes repetitious and boring, 14- 16 hours a day 6 days a week, men women and children involved.
  18. 18. Industrialization spreads• Britain tries to keep all this secret; no chance• Spreads to Germany, France, Belgium and the US • Smuggling, theft, and espionage• Germany goes slowest, but comes on strong, Bismark sees power and goes for it
  19. 19. IndustrIES• Textiles go first, then Coal, Iron, Steel, Glass production• Then more refined goods: weapons, shoes, tools, clocks• Transportation becomes needed: trains, track, engine parts = Assembly Line• Hello Eli Whitney and Henry Ford
  20. 20. Interchangeable parts• Benefits: Anyone can assemble it• parts are cheaper to make• Repairs are cheaper• Assembly is faster• Assembly line needs a larger space• Prices plummet, yet profits soar
  21. 21. Enter the corporation• Britain and France lay legal foundation for Corporations to form• a private business owned by many many individual investors who finance the business by purchasing stocks.• When business is good, investors get dividends-shares of the profits. If it goes under, the individual is protected through bankruptcy.
  22. 22. Demographics• Population soars • 1700-1800 • Europe: 105 million to 180 million; Americas 13 million to 24 million • 1800-1900 • Europe: 180 million to 390 million; US alone 6 million to 76 million
  23. 23. Demographic Transition• In the short run, industrialization leads to longer life spans, so population jumps• But fertility rates begin to drop • voluntary birth control available • non-agrarian = less need for children• population begins to stabilize
  24. 24. Demographics: migration• People move to urban areas for work • 1800s: 1/5 of people live in towns and cities of fewer than 10,000 people • 1900s: 3/4 of people live in cities• London at 6.5 million in 1900--largest city in the world; NY had 4.2 million • infrastructure not designed for this
  25. 25. Migration• People also migrate trans-continentally • first time since original migration• Americas are the prime destination • Most don’t intend to stay but do • British 1st wave, then Germans, Scandinavians, Irish next, Eastern and Southern Europe third, Russian Jews 4th
  26. 26. and the monopoly• corporations act to take full control of industry, outperform and smother competitors• Some work vertically to control all parts of production and distribution.• Some work horizontally to consolidate all independent companies under one leadership.• owners make $$, govt. largely ignores this

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