Nationalism and IndustrializationEurope moves ahead faster; the -isms begin
National identity• Europeans begin to think of themselves as nations of people • People used to think of themselves in terms of families, clans cities, regions and religious faith.• Start to identify as people born into a unique community, with a common language, custom, values and history = a nation
Nationalism• With this identity, competition comes.• My nation is better than yours.• Loyalty stressed• Leaders play on this, and incorporate the government into the national identity.• The nation-state is the best protector of the people.
Cultural and Political• Cultural accomplishments stressed: Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm collect German stories as expressions of German Volk (“people”)• Cultural activities stress uniqueness and historical scholarship
Political nationalism• Italy sees the formation of Young Italy, to promote independence from Spain and Austria• A sense of “other” is bad emerges• Anti-Semitism rises as does Jewish nationalism• Theodor Herzl organizes the ﬁrst Zionist Congress to establish a home for the Jewish people in Palestine
Napoleon helps• The French were psyched with their revolution.• Austrians, Russians, Spanish, Dutch, British and Prussian identity solidiﬁes in response to Napoleon’s threat• Congress of Vienna meets to try to re- establish order after Napoleon is defeated • Klemens von Metternich is the architect; he tries to suppress nationalism--fail, so he embraces it
Modern Europe• Revolutions in Belgium, Italy, Poland, Spain, Portugal, German Principalities, Prussia. • Italy is uniﬁed removing Spain guided by Camilo Cavour and Giuseppe Garibaldi• Germany guided by Otto von Bismark deliberately provokes wars and wins.• “The great questions of the day will not be settled by speeches or majority votes...but by blood and iron.”• 1871 the Second Reich is proclaimed (HRE is First Reich) under Kaiser Wilhelm I
Industrial RevolutionNow that the political realm is in order, welcome to the biggest thing since agriculture
Industrialization• A process that transformed agrarian and hand-crafted economies into machine driven, factory based forms of production• Technology takes a leap, energy forms advance, labor systems change, economics evolves, people migrate
It coulda happened• Yangzi Delta in China• Japan• Great Britain• All have: High Agricultural production, high population density, navigable rivers, cities, banking.• Britain has ready access to coal and that makes the difference
Coal, colonies & Calico• Britain is running short of wood, so it turns to coal• colonies provide ready access to raw materials• Cotton kicks it off. Demand for calicoes-- cheap, brightly printed cotton textiles from India.• so spinning & weaving has to speed up
• A child can work it• It produces up to 15 times as much cloth as the fastest hand weaver per day• First powered by water wheel, then by steam powered engine built by James Watt
Innovation takes off• New forms of Iron and steel• Steam engines attached to everything that moves--ships, railroads especially• Britain has a lock on this--does it faster than any other country
The Factory• People made stuff in the home to avoid guild restrictions (called the “putting out system”)• But the new machines are too big for the home, so buildings are built to house them.• Larger machines incorporate more of the process; production is centralized in one place
The Factory Continued• labor is divided into stages--workers perform a single task over and over again• strict work discipline and high standards of production enforced• emergence of owner class, workers, artisans begin to die off.• work becomes repetitious and boring, 14-16 hours a day 6 days a week, men women and children involved.
Industrialization spreads• Britain tries to keep all this secret; no chance• Spreads to Germany, France, Belgium and the US • Smuggling, theft, and espionage• Germany goes slowest, but comes on strong, Bismark sees power and goes for it
Enter the corporation• Britain and France lay legal foundation for Corporations to form• a private business owned by many many individual investors who ﬁnance the business by purchasing stocks.• When business is good, investors get dividends-shares of the proﬁts. If it goes under, the individual is protected through bankruptcy.
and the monopoly• corporations act to take full control of industry, outperform and smother competitors• Some work vertically to control all parts of production and distribution.• Some work horizontally to consolidate all independent companies under one leadership.• owners make bank, govt. largely ignores this