Motives for exploring visuals
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Motives for exploring visuals Presentation Transcript

  • 1. “Explorations”• From 1400-1800• Global scope• Set up networks of commerce, communication and transportation. The world got smaller.• Motives: God (convert to Christianity), Gold (find new sources of wealth) and Glory (the thrill of discovery and exploration with your name attached to it.)
  • 2. Technology Made it Possible• Rudders on boats (from the Chinese)• Triangular Lateen Sails (from the Indians)• Compass (from the Chinese)• Latitude (from the Arabs)• Understanding current and prevailing winds.
  • 3. European explorers and destinations• Christopher Columbus—Caribbean Islands• Vasco DeGama and Bartolomeo Diaz—West Africa• de Balboa “finds” the Pacific while exploring Panama• Ferdinand Magellan sets out to circumnavigate the globe – Only 35 of 250 sailors survive. – Magellan dies in Philippines.
  • 4. Euro Conquest 1• Portugal – By mid 16th Century, have more than 50 trading posts in Indian Ocean region. – Can overpower other ships with their artillery – Alfonso d’Alboquerque commands Portuguese fleet. – Takes Hormuz, Goa and Melaka by force. – Forces ships into port for search and seizure. – Executes natives and cuts off hands liberally
  • 5. Euro Conquest 2• English and Dutch – Portugal’s navy is too small to monopolize IOB – E and D set up parallel trading posts – Compete, but not too violently – Avoid Portuguese violence, and trade instead – Use Joint Stock companies well – Rake in big $ after a slow start
  • 6. Euro Conquest 3• SE Asia – Both Philippines and Indonesia ignored by both China and India – Both are also weak militarily – Spain conquers Philippines by 1575—faces little organized resistance • Focus of Spain is on trade and Christianity; trade with China despite poor relations with Chinese in Manila – Dutch take over Indonesia. Focus on trade, not religion • Establish alliances to maintain their monopoly over the islands
  • 7. Euro Fail• China and India do not fall under European control – At first• Populations are too big.• China’s government centralized and organized• BUT – Neither is ready to face a concerted European conquest effort…
  • 8. Russian Expansion in Asia• Russians take over Mongol khanates, 16thc.• Astrakhan becomes major trading city• Caucasus absorbed in 18th century• Siberian expansions in 16th-17th centuries• Trade with indigenous Siberian peoples – Little success with missionary efforts – Some local rebellions 13
  • 9. Russia
  • 10. Russian Occupation of Siberia• Criminals, prisoners of war exiled to Siberia• Disgruntled peasants migrate east• Trading posts develop• Russian population expands dramatically – 1763: 420,000 Russians in Siberia, outnumber indigenous peoples 2:1 15
  • 11. Conquest of the “New World”• Suddenly flora and fauna and diseases that had been partitioned began to mix.• Smallpox kills 15% of population in American hemisphere.• Smallpox and influenza reduce Aztec population by 90% (from 17m to 1.3m) within a century.• Around 100 million worldwide die from diseases between 1500 and 1800.
  • 12. Effects• 1500: world population was appr: 425 million• By 1800: world population is at 800 million• By 1750, all parts of the world (except for Australia) participated in global networks of commercial relations led by European merchant mariners.