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Europe wakes up 1
Europe begins to wake up Chapter 24: The important information…
The Reformation • Martin Luther • In Germany (@ Wittenberg…) • Wrote the 95 Theses & challenged Roman Catholic Church. • That’s 95 theses, not 99 problems…but same sentiment.
What were his problems?• Church was selling “Indulgences”• Church was getting rich and acting powerful• Church was restricting people’s access to the Bible. Germans love Martin Luther. Just like they love…. David Hasselhoff
Anglican Church• King Henry VIII wants a divorce• Pope says no• Henry says “I’ll make my own church.” And does.• A fun video about Henry…http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=- fadCAHjN-s
Protestant Churches spring up• Bible printed in the • Lutheran vernacular • Anglican• Bible is the only source – British Church of religious authority • Calvinist – Founded by John Calvin; angry, strict God – Edward’s “Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God” • All this means the religious unity of Europe has dissolved.
Catholic Reformation• Council of Trent – A group of Bishops – defines Roman Catholic Theology, – Admits indulgences were wrong – Demands higher moral standards from priests• Society of Jesus forms – St. Ignatius Loyola founds it – Now known as Jesuits, advisors to kings, missionaries and founders of colleges…
Witches!• People need a • Ah, Monty Python. scapegoat in bad times Where would I be – Church needs a without you? distracter • http://www.youtube.co• 110,000 tried, 60,000 m/watch?v=zrzMhU_4 killed m-g – 95% women: poor, old, single or widowed• Spreads to New England…
Science!• Ptolemy said the Earth • Copernicus says…No was the center of the • Sun is at the center universe • Earth and others• Surrounded by 8 hollow, revolve around sun concentric spheres • Church not so happy – 1-7 have the observable with him… planets – #8 has stars – 9 is empty – Beyond is Heaven and Hell• Church agrees.
The Scientific Revolution will not be televised• Analytic thinking comes into vogue – Johannes Kepler and Galileo • Orbits are elliptical (JK) • Telescope shows moons around Jupiter, spots on the sun and mountains on the moon (G) – Galileo is excommunicated – Issac Newton • Mathematical Principals of Natural Philosophy • The universe has laws that are measurable and calculable…
One last thing about religion• Deism shows up—• Fairly simple: There is a God (only one) – But Christianity is too supernatural for a rational thinker to accept. – God set the universe in motion (like assembling and winding a watch) and then takes no personal interest in earthly matters. – He doesn’t need to, as the universe functions according to natural laws that make sense.
And now we have Capitalism taking shape:• Banking! – people need a place to keep money safely – Businesses need money – So the “banking bargain” is struck and banks flourish• Joint-Stock Companies/corporations – As a way to raise revenue, spread out risk• Insurance companies form – Loss mitigation for corporations
Government makes it possible• English and Dutch states – Recognize individual rights to own private property – Enforce legal contracts – Arbitrate business disputes – Sponsor/buy into corporations that bring benefits back to the home country – Protect claims made abroad by home country businesses