Chemistry hl human biochemistry option self study guideDocument Transcript
Chemistry HL Human Biochemistry Option Self – Directed Study GuideBy the end of this unit you should be able toB.1.1 Calculate the energy value of a food from enthalpy of combustion data.B.2.1 Draw the general formula of 2-amino acids.B.2.2 Describe the characteristic properties of 2-amino acidsB.2.3 Describe the condensation reaction of 2-amino acids to form polypeptides.B.2.4 Describe and explain the primary, secondary (α-helix and β-pleated sheets), tertiary and quaternary structure of proteins.B.2.5 Explain how proteins can be analysed by chromatography and electrophoresis.B.2.6 List the major functions of proteins in the body.B.3.1 Describe the structural features of monosaccharides.B.3.2 Draw the straight-chain and ring structural formulas of glucose and fructose.B.3.3 Describe the condensation of monosaccharides to form disaccharides and polysaccharides.B.3.4 List the major functions of carbohydrates in the human body.B.3.5 Compare the structural properties of starch and cellulose and explain why humans can digest starch but not cellulose.B.3.6 State what is meant by the term dietary fibre.B.3.7 Describe the importance of a diet high in dietary fibre.B.4.1 Compare the composition of the three types of lipids found in the human body.B.4.2 Outline the difference between HDL and LDL cholesterol and outline its importance.B.4.3 Describe the difference in structure between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids.B.4.4 Compare the structures of the two essential fatty acids linoleic (omega-6 fatty acid) and linolenic (omega-3 fatty acid) and state their importance.B.4.5 Define the term iodine number and calculate the number of C=C double bonds in an unsaturated fat/oil using addition reactions.B.4.6 Describe the condensation of glycerol and three fatty acid molecules to make a triglyceride.B.4.7 Describe the enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of triglycerides during digestion.B.4.8 Explain the higher energy value of fats as compared to carbohydrates.B.4.9 Describe the important roles of lipids in the body and the negative effects that they can have on health.B.5.1 Outline the difference between micronutrients and macronutrients.B.5.2 Compare the structures of retinol (vitamin A), calciferol (vitamin D) and ascorbic acid (vitamin C).B.5.3 Deduce whether a vitamin is water- or fat-soluble from its structure.B.5.4 Discuss the causes and effects of nutrient deficiencies in different countries and suggest solutions.B.6.1 Outline the production and function of hormones in the body.B.6.2 Compare the structures of cholesterol and the sex hormones.B.6.3 Describe the mode of action of oral contraceptives.
B.6.4 Outline the use and abuse of steroids.B.7.1 Describe the characteristics of biological catalysts (enzymes).B.7.2 Compare inorganic catalysts and biological catalysts (enzymes).B.7.3 Describe the relationship between substrate concentration and enzyme activity.B.7.4 Determine V max and the value of the Michaelis constant (K m) by graphical means and explain its significance.B.7.5 Describe the mechanism of enzyme action, including enzyme substrate complex, active site and induced fit model.B.7.6 Compare competitive inhibition and non-competitive inhibition.B.7.7 State and explain the effects of heavy-metal ions, temperature changes and pH changes on enzyme activity.B.8.1 Describe the structure of nucleotides and their condensation polymers (nucleic acids or polynucleotides).B.8.2 Distinguish between the structures of DNA and RNA.B.8.3 Explain the double helical structure of DNA.B.8.4 Describe the role of DNA as the repository of genetic information, and explain its role in protein synthesis.B.8.5 Outline the steps involved in DNA profiling and state its use.B.9.1 Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration of glucose in terms of oxidation/reduction and energy released.B.9.2 Outline the role of copper ions in electron transport and iron ions in oxygen transport.Part 1: EnergyResources: the following files are located on managebac and provide relevant information to allow youto complete the study guide. The file names are Options_B.pdf and Chapter-13_biochemistry.pdf 1. What are the six nutrients required by all humans for life? 2. Describe, in general terms, the process of cellular respiration (we will look at it in more detail later in the unit) 3. What are the average male and female energy requirements/day? 4. Compare the amount of energy stored in carbohydrates and fats, and explain the difference
5. Explain how a bomb calorimeter can be used to determine the energy stored in foodObtain the worksheet “energy problems” from Managebac and complete the problems. Check youranswers with the markscheme when you are donePart 2: Proteins 1. Draw the basic structure of an -amino acid, labeling each functional group and identify the chiral carbon atom. Which amino acid does not have a chiral center.Link to organic chemistry: The remaining 19 naturally occurring amino acids have two differentenantiomers – what does this mean? Research to determine which enantiomers are found in thehuman body? Why?Extra: for those of you thinking of pursuing a career in medicine, pharmacy, physiology, biochemistry etcit would be worth your while to spend some time memorizing the structures of the 20 naturallyoccurring amino acids used in proteins. Make yourself some flashcards to practice with 2. How is an amino acid related to a 2-amino acid?
3. Define “zwitterion” and explain it’s significance with respect to amino acids. Use diagrams and equations to show how an amino acid can act as a buffer to both strong acids and strong bases.This is a good opportunity to review your acid/base chemistry and make some strong connections –take your time here and do this well. You may have to use extra pages to do this.4. Define peptide bond and dipeptide5. Use diagrams to outline the condensation reaction that produces a peptide bond between amino acids
Math Link: If each of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids is used only once, how many differentproteins could be made? 6. Proteins can have primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structures. Explain what this means. Use diagrams, and be sure to include reference to helix, sheet, and the various types of inter and intra molecular bonding that is taking placeThis is a great chance to review bonding. Take your time and do this well
Watch the videos “thin layer chromatography” and “gel electrophoresis:basics” found onmanagebac. 7. Describe the processes of chromatography and electrophoresis and explain how they can be used to analyze the amino acid composition of a protein. Compare and contrast the two processes.
Complete the paper chromatography experiment in the chemistry lab 8. Outline the major uses of proteins in the human bodyObtain the worksheet “protein problems” from Managebac and complete the problems. Check youranswers with the markscheme when you are donePart 3 Carbohyrdates 1. Differentiate between the following terms by creating a concept map to show their relationship to each other Monosaccharide, polysaccharide, hexose, pentose, glucose, fructose, ribose, aldose, ketose
2. Draw and describe the structures of fructose and glucose, clearly showing the straight chain and cyclic isomers3. Use diagrams to show the formation of a disaccharide from two monosaccharide4. Compare and contrast the following: starch, glycogen, cellulose, maltose, lactose, sucrose, amylose, amylpectin
5. What is dietary fibre and why is it important?Obtain the worksheet “carbohydrate problems” from Managebac and complete the problems. Checkyour answers with the markscheme when you are donePart 4: Lipids 1. Define the term lipid 2. Compare and contrast the three types of lipids found in the human body
3. What are the two types of cholesterol found in the body? How are they different? Why is it important to distinguish between the two?4. Use diagrams to explain the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fat5. What is the difference between linoleic acid and linolenic acid? Why does it matter?
6. Explain, using an example, how to determine the number of double bonds in an unsaturated fat. Use the term iodine number in your explanation. 7. Use diagrams to outline the formation of a triglyceride from glycerol and three fatty acidsThis is a good time to go back and review the different reaction mechanisms covered in organicchemistry
8. What is an enzyme? What enzyme is involved in the breakdown of triglycerides? 9. Explain the hydrolysis reaction involved in the breakdown of triglycerides? Why is it important? 10. Why are lipids important in the human body? What are some of the health problems associated with too much lipids in your diet?Obtain the worksheet “lipid problems” from Managebac and complete the problems. Check youranswers with the markscheme when you are done
Part 5: Micro and Macro nutrients 1. What is the difference between a micronutrient and a macronutrient? 2. For each of the following vitamins, draw their structure, give it’s correct chemical name, identify it as water or fat soluble, explain it’s importance and suggest dietary sources a. Vitamin A b. Vitamin C
c. Vitamin D 3. Make a table (in a separate document) of micro and macronutrients that describes the results of deficiencies and/or excesses of the nutrient in your diet. As an extension you may want to research what a healthy daily intake should be 4. Explain some of the causes of nutrient deficiencies around the world. What solutions are available?TOK link: Why is it important for us to be concerned about this? Would differentcultures/worldviews approach this problem differently? Would they even see it as a problem?
Obtain the worksheet “micro and macro nutrient problems” from Managebac and complete theproblems. Check your answers with the markscheme when you are donePart 6: Hormones 1. Create a flow chart showing how a negative feedback mechanism is utilized in the human body to regulate production of hormones 2. Create a chart showing the role and production location of the following hormones: estrogen, progesterone, insulin, epinephrine, ADH, testosterone, thyroxineExtension: the list of hormones in the question is only a representative sample. Research someadditional hormones, especially if you are thinking about the life sciences as a career
3. Use diagrams to compare and contrast the structures of the sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, testosterone) and cholesterol4. Explain how an oral contraceptive works5. Why is steroid abuse so prevalent in sport?
Obtain the worksheet “hormone problems” from Managebac and complete the problems. Check your answers with the markscheme when you are donePart 7: Enzymes This is a good opportunity to review your reaction kinetics chemistry and make some strong connections – take your time here and do this well. You may have to use extra pages to do this. 1. Describe the mechanism of an enzyme in catalyzing a reaction. Include the terms activation energy, substrate, enzyme, tertiary, quaternary, active site, enzyme-substrate complex, induced fit model 2. Compare and contrast inorganic catalysts with enzymes
3. Sketch graphs showing reaction rate vs enzyme concentration when the substrate concentration is low as well as reaction rate vs substrate concentration. Explain the significance of each graph4. State the Michaelis-Menten equation and explain it’s significance. Show how Vmax and an average value of Km can be determined from a graph of the equation (or a variation)
5. Compare and contrast the mechanisms of competitive and non-competitive inhibition with respect to enzyme activityComplete the virtual lab on enzyme activity found athttp://www.mhhe.com/biosci/genbio/virtual_labs/BL_11/BL_11.html 6. Explain the effects of heavy metal ions, temperature and pH on enzyme activity Obtain the worksheet “enzyme problems” from Managebac and complete the problems. Check your answers with the markscheme when you are done
Part 8: Nucleic Acids 1. Describe the structure of nucleotides and their condensation polymers (nucleic acids or polynucleotides). 2. Compare and contrast the structures of DNA and RNA. 3. Explain the double helical structure of DNA.
4. Describe the role of DNA as the repository of genetic information, and explain its role in protein synthesis.Extension: many Christian scientists and philosophers point to DNA as evidence of intelligentdesign. The argument goes that DNA is data; it is not random, neither is it repetitive. Each strandof DNA is unique and carries information, but that information requires knowledge of the languagethat it is coded in. This implies intelligence. Research intelligent design and contrast it withevolution 5. What is DNA profiling and how does it work? Why is it important?TOK link: How certain can we be that DNA profiling is accurate? What assumptions are being made? Obtain the worksheet “Nucleic acid problems” from Managebac and complete the problems. Check your answers with the markscheme when you are done
Part 9: Respiration 1. Compare aerobic and anaerobic respiration of glucose in terms of oxidation/reduction and energy released. 2. Outline the role of copper ions in electron transport and iron ions in oxygen transport. Obtain the worksheet “Respiration problems” from Managebac and complete the problems. Check your answers with the markscheme when you are done