The expectation effect

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The expectation effect

  1. 1. Expectation Effect
  2. 2. Who is this man?  Describe your impressions.  Is he friendly or unfriendly?  Is he smart or uneducated?  What is his profession?  What aspects influence your impressions?
  3. 3. What is Expectation Effect?  A phenomenon in which perception and behavior change as a result of personal expectations or the expectations of others
  4. 4. Halo Effect  Rating the performance of someone based on an overall impression of them.
  5. 5. Pygmalion Effect  People perform better or worse based on expectations of their supervisors/teachers  Also called “Self- Fulfilling Prophecy”  Rosenthal and Jacobsen study
  6. 6. Rosenthal Effect  Similar to Pygmalion effect, but in reverse  Teachers treat students differently based on their expectations of how students will perform
  7. 7. Placebo Effect  Patients experience treatment effects based on their belief that a treatment will work
  8. 8. Hawthorne Effect  Any change in the environment produces a temporary gain in productivity.  Hawthorne Works electric company study using different levels of lighting.
  9. 9. Demand Characteristics  Similar to Hawthorne effect  Participants of an experiment or interview provide responses and act in ways they believe are expected
  10. 10. Implications:  When trying to persuade, leverage the effect by setting expectations in a credible fashion to guide the audience to the desired conclusion rather than letting them form their own.  When evaluating, aim to avoid biases.
  11. 11. Implications: When teachers expect students to do well and show intellectual growth, they do! When teachers do not have such expectations, performance and growth are not so encouraged and may in fact be discouraged in a variety of ways.
  12. 12. Implications: 1. Avoid forming inaccurate expectations. Frequent sources of inaccurate expectations are:  performance of siblings  information from other teachers  social stereotypes (based on race, sex, or ethnic variables)  labeling (e.g., learning disabled).
  13. 13. Implications: Isolated students vs. Stereotyping
  14. 14. Implications: 2. Periodically reassess expectations. Student's potential for performance may change without your knowing it. 3. Reward the effort and initiative of low- performing students.  not the same as accepting substandard performance  praise legitimate effort!  if students believe their effort will pay off, they will eventually experience success
  15. 15. Implications: 4. Be aware of the problems that are likely to arise because of teacher expectancy, and take direct steps to contradict their negative impact.  Wait longer for slower students  Smile at and create a positive socioemotional environment for students you think are weak  Look for weak students to initiate contact with you, and reward them for doing so  Call on weaker students. (It is OK to ask them easier questions!)
  16. 16. What is Expectation Effect?  A phenomenon in which perception and behavior change as a result of personal expectations or the expectations of others
  17. 17. “It is the nature of man to rise to greatness if greatness is expected of him.” -John Steinbeck

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