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Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
Behaviorism[1]
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Behaviorism[1]

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  • 1. Behaviorism What role does technology play in this? Karen Bruce, Larry Bruce, Jesse Cogswell, Pam Losinski, Carrie Webb
  • 2. Basic Behaviorism • Behavior and content can be learned through reinforcements, associating new material to old stimuli, and modeling (social learning) • Early behaviorists based learning modules around contingencies of reinforcement: – What are the circumstances surrounding reinforcement? – What conditions are reinforcing behaviors (good or bad)? – If the learning is not the desired outcome, how we can change the reinforcer?
  • 3. Basic Behaviorism • As soon as behaviorism was developing, so was the use of technology to prove the power of the theory • Sydney L. Pressey, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, pioneered techniques leading to computer assisted instruction (CAI)
  • 4. Computer Assisted Instruction • Programmed instruction where material is broken into “frames” • When the learner proves that the material has been learned, he or she is given positive reinforcement • New material is presented that builds upon the old • Several Principles at Work: – Immediate feedback – Complex learning through response chains – Dialogue with instructor at every point
  • 5. History of Technology As It Pertains to Behaviorism • 1925 Multiple Choice Machine (S.L. Pressey) • 1950s Program created by Norman Crowder trains troubleshooters in US Air Force to find malfunctions in electronic equipment • 1958 Skinner’s Rote-and-Drill Teaching Machine
  • 6. More Recent Uses of Technology As It Pertains to Behaviorism • Computer Assisted Instruction Practices – Accelerated Math: personalized assignments printed, bubble score sheets are scanned, computer prints immediate scores, reports, and feedback – Educational Online Games (e.g. www.brainPOP.com)
  • 7. More Recent Uses of Technology As It Pertains to Behaviorism • Training or StAIR modules – MIOSHA Bloodborne Pathogen training – Classroom Instruction StAIR (e.g. Solving Systems of Linear Equations) – Microsoft Flight Simulator for Educational Use …are just a few examples!
  • 8. Which of the following scenarios is missing a step in a behaviorist teaching approach? Teacher lectures a topic, asks a question, student answers correctly and receives candy from the teacher. Phys. Ed. Teacher covers unit on baseball and takes all students who hit a homerun to a Tigers game. Coach asks players to work hard in the big game, they all do, and coach cancels sprints at the next practice. Mom talks to young child about importance of picking up his toys after he finishes playing with them, child picks up after himself, and mom hugs child.
  • 9. What is Behaviorism? Is this presentation an example of using technology for behaviorist principles? YES NO
  • 10. Oh Yeah!
  • 11. Bummer, remember... Computer Assisted Instruction •Programmed instruction where material is broken into “frames” •When the learner proves that the material has been learned, he or she is given positive reinforcement •New material is presented that builds upon the old •Several Principles at Work: –Immediate feedback –Complex learning through response chains –Dialogue with instructor at every point
  • 12. Congratulations! You’re right! Moving on… There are several reasons this scenario doesn’t fit: • Students may not find a trip to a Tigers baseball game rewarding. • The baseball unit probably covered batting strategies, but hitting a homerun isn’t a skill that can be taught.
  • 13. Recall that Behaviorism is… • Behavior and content can be learned through reinforcements, associating new material to old stimuli, and modeling (social learning) • Early behaviorists based learning modules around contingencies of reinforcement: – What are the circumstances surrounding reinforcement? – What conditions are reinforcing behaviors (good or bad)? – If the learning is not the desired outcome, how we can change the reinforcer? • As soon as behaviorism was developing, so was the use of technology to prove the power of the theory • Sydney L. Pressey, John B. Watson, B.F. Skinner, pioneered techniques leading to computer assisted instruction (CAI)
  • 14. References • Early CBI Systems and Their Antecedents Timeline, http://argyll.epsb.ca/mkarstad/timeline/ • Learning Theories of Instructional Design, http://www.usak.ca/education/coursework/802papers/mergel/brenda.htm • Scheepers, Detken, Learning Theories: Behavorism, April 8, 2000, http://hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/2000/scheepers_md/projects/loo/theo ry/behavior.html • Yovits, M.C. (Ed.), Advances in Computers, Vol. 18. New York: Academic Press, 1979, pp. 173-229. End Show

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