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Week 1 Deaf Culture Online PPT #7
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Week 1 Deaf Culture Online PPT #7



If you want all my Powerpoint files, email me at twelch07@gmail.com.

If you want all my Powerpoint files, email me at twelch07@gmail.com.



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Week 1 Deaf Culture Online PPT #7 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Deaf Culture Online Week 1 – PPT #7Toby Welch | ASL Professor
  • 2. Content Deafhood Audism EYEth, -Isms within the Deaf Community, Deaf Identity & Deafhood Lipreading, Oralism & A.G. Bell Last slide: Information (make sure you see all slides until end of slide.)
  • 3. Deafhood On looking more closely, they will be puzzled to learn that across the world for the last 120 years, Deaf children and their parents have been subjugated to an all-encompassing set of policies and discourses aimed at preventing them from learning or using sign languages to communicate, referred to hereafter by the term ‘Oralism’. Paddy Ladd (2011-10-21). Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood (Kindle Locations 964-967). Channel View Publications. Kindle Edition.
  • 4. Information Remember I mentioned about 1880 Milan. That’s where oralism movement started. However, who started the idea oralism? Alexander Graham Bell (AGBell), the father of Audism. See next slide for the definition of Audism. It may a new term to some of you. I will discuss on Audism next PPT #8. I added two powerpoints from ASL Rose to this. Some of it already covered but want you to see it again.
  • 5. Audism DefinedAudism describes the mentality that to be able to hear and to speak is necessarily better and leads to a higher quality of life. On this basis, different forms of discriminating behavior against deaf and hard of hearing people may arise. Audism can manifest in different areas of life, done mostly by hearing people. It can also occur within the Deaf Community as some deaf or hard of hearing person attempts to shares the attitude of being hearing is better. It is this mentality that led Tom L. Humphries to coin the term in his doctoral dissertation in 1975. He defined it as the attitude that people who hear and speak (or hear and speak better) or have excellent English skills, are superior to others. The definition has since expanded to include discriminating behaviors. (Source: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Audism)
  • 6. Audism LinksSo many links on Audism:http://audismfreeamerica.blogspot.com/http://www.gallaudet.edu/library/research_help/re search_help/frequently_asked_questions/cultural _social_medical/audism.htmlThere is a few links relate to Audism, Deaf and others in next slides.
  • 7. SlidesI added two Powerpoints from ASL Rose. It is good information. I will make some comments in some slides.I do encourage you to check some links in this PPT and learn more info from it.
  • 8. PowerPoint #42 HYES Pages 62-63EYEth, -Isms within the DeafCommunity, Deaf Identity & Deafhood
  • 9. Key Points• Historical Views of Being Deaf• EYEth• EYEth: HYES Version• -Isms• Audism• Fun Benefits of ASL on EARth• Linguicism Within the Deaf Community• Deaf Culture and Identity• Deafhood
  • 10. Historical Views of Being Deaf• Historical discrimination: hearization, audism and lingucism • Many were not aware of ongoing discrimination against them because they were never taught otherwise • Viewed as incapable of abstract thinking since they lacked speech to express thought• Two major schools of thought emerged: • manualism and oralism• Through Deaf Eyes • Book and video documentary about conflicts, prejudice, and affirmation
  • 11. Through Deaf EyesYou can rent it from somewhere when they have it in their stock. I am trying to figure out how to put all DVDs and Videos to here for you to view it. I will let you know if you are not able to find it somewhere. You can buy it from Amazon for a good price. There is a info about Through Deaf Eyes: http://www.pbs.org/weta/throughdeafeyes/.
  • 12. EYEth• An imaginary planet inhabited by Deaf people and people who communicate in ASL• Eyes and hands are valued above everything else• Ruled by Deaf people• A utopia for Deaf people• Earth: Filled with hearizstion, audism and linguicism
  • 13. EYEth: HYES Version - 1• A rocket is leaving the oppressive, hearing-focused EARth for EYEth• EYEth’s population consists mostly of Deaf people, who use their eyes and hands to communicate• The established laws reflect Deaf cultural norms and visual access to information and events is maximized
  • 14. EYEth: HYES Version - 2• When children are born hearing on EYEth, ASL therapists and specialists are immediately brought in • These children are tested in order to diagnose their tragic hearing disability – which has no cure • However, Deaf scientists and doctors have been working on a new medical technology – the Ulna Channel-44 implant• Although the above is written humorously, it is an analogy to the experiences that some Deaf people have recounted for decades
  • 15. Critical Problems Requiring Attention• Blatant discrimination: • Deaf teacher teaches Deaf children in a mainstreamed setting where ASL and Deaf culture are not supported • Deaf school with hearing administrations that do not promote nor practice the bilingual approach • Deaf students cannot obtain high school diplomas because of biased testing or inappropriate testing • Unqualified interpreters or teachers working with Deaf learners
  • 16. -Isms• EEOC • Equal Opportunity Employment Commission • Includes: • Sexism • Gender •But not • Racism • Ethnocentrism audism and • Ageism lingucism • Discrimination • Disabilities • Genetics • Complaint/filer/witness to a discrimination case
  • 17. AudismAudism is now in dictionary. See: http://www.urbandictionary.com/define.php?ter m=audism.
  • 18. -Isms Within the Deaf Community• Audism and linguicism• Even within the Deaf community itself • Dysconscious audism
  • 19. Audism within the Deaf Community• Has existed forever• Creates division in the Deaf community • “Oralism is the best” • “ASL is “broken English” and not equal to English”• Jane Fernandes’ “Not Deaf Enough” claim• “The segregation of deaf mutes, the use of ASL, and the employment of deaf teachers produce an environment that is unfavorable to the cultivation of articulation and speech reading and that sometimes causes disuse of speech by speaking pupils who are only deaf” • Alexander Graham Bell as cited in Lapiak, 2003
  • 20. Audism Unveiled: A Must-See • Audism Unveiled documents real-life experiences exploring lasting damage from audism • Should be seen by medical professionals, Deaf education trainers and students, teachers, those working within the Deaf community, interpreters, ASL and interpreting students, parents, and also by Deaf people • Can happen within the Deaf community!
  • 21. Audism Unveiled DVDI really want to show you this video. I have a Audism Unveiled. It is a very good video. If I find a way for you to watch it, I will let you know.
  • 22. Audism Free America• A grassroots Deaf activist organization • Mission: To promote and protect the civil liberties of Deaf people and their linguistic birthrights• Educates people not to be audists• Protects ASL and Deaf culture
  • 23. Audism Free America - 2• Often challenges and confronts AGB Association • Reminds AGB Association administrators and members that Bells mission was to advocate that Deaf infants and children learn how to speak and hear without the use of ASL • Perfect example of audism• Audism: Let Freedom Roll• See http://www.audismfreeamerica.blogsp ot.com/ for more information
  • 24. Still Happening Today: AFA is Concerned• In Seattle, Washington on September 19, 2010, a Deaf Native American, John T. Williams was shot by a police officer who drove by and saw him carrying a knife. The officer yelled at John to drop the knife three times and when he did not cooperate, he was shot four times in the chest. He died instantly• Video shows the incident’s early minutes, then the shooting can be heard off-camera• AFA circulated a petition protesting this incident and asked the Seattle Mayor and city officials to investigate• Deaf people’s reactions: “Nothing new about police”
  • 25. Buildings Named After Audists• Gallaudet and Deaf schools often name buildings after hearing people who were renowned audists• Shouldn’t all buildings be named after Deaf people, or at least a majority of buildings?• By recognizing Deaf people through buildings, Deaf people—especially children—will know, understand, and respect their Deaf ancestors and history • Additionally provides a relation between Deaf children and their potential to achieve anything they put their minds and hearts to!
  • 26. Fun Benefits of ASL on EARth Air Sea LandASL users can ASL users can ASL users can sign to each sign to each sign to each other while other while other while skydiving! swimming under standing on the water! opposite sides of a closed window! http://historyday.crf-usa.org/1801/id22.html
  • 27. Linguicism within the Deaf Community - 1• Oppression of language in favor of another language• ASL research flourishes but is largely ignored by administrators• Deaf teachers at Deaf Schools sometimes sign using MCE to match administrators’ skills• Many have accepted or are required by law to accept the Total Communication philosophy at Deaf schools• Many Deaf choose to speak instead of signing for hearing audiences
  • 28. Linguicism within the Deaf Community - 2• Often, when given a choice between a teacher who is fluent in ASL but not necessarily English, or a teacher fluent in English but not ASL, Deaf students will: • Choose the Deaf teacher so they can learn a second language through their first language• AGB is the perfect linguicist: fluent in ASL, but refuses to accept its value or even use it in educational settings
  • 29. Deaf Identity:Core of ASL/Deaf Culture • Deaf Identity Upside-Down • Oppression • Linguicism • Audism • Discrimination • Very important to have Deaf identity on EARth to withstand all these attacks against Deaf identity! • ASL/Deaf Culture
  • 30. Cultural Identity: Identity Center• Deaf Worldview • deaf (Hearing) • Deaf Activist Worldview • Deaf Power • Late-deafened • Deaf Advocate • Oral deaf • Deaf Pride • Some: “Hearing- minded” Deaf• Hard of Hearing • CODA Worldview Worldview • Many: ASL users • Sometimes confusing • Grew up in the culture and • Some: “Hearing- community minded” Deaf • Ally
  • 31. Deafhood: Cultural View - 1• Term coined by Paddy Ladd in Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood• The process to an affirmative and positive acceptance of being deaf• The opposite of deafness, which describes deaf people only in terms of hearing loss• Recognizes that being Deaf has a positive value for humankind and does not need to be cured like a disease
  • 32. Deafhood: Cultural View - 2 • Requires Deaf people to evaluate and liberate themselves from the oppression they have faced historically from the majority of hearing society • A different journey for each and every Deaf person
  • 33. Two Approaches to Deafhood• The first approach is • The second approach is based on the effort in focused on trying to do maintaining Deafhood the opposite: within the boundaries • Enlarge the idea of what of the oppressive Deaf Deafhood could mean world as it was • Taking ideas from historically anywhere and adapting them to Deaf life
  • 34. Re-defining D-E-A-F – 1• Groundbreaking film by Ryan Commerson• Film came out of Commerson’s 2008 master’s thesis – Film is a public proposal to establish a media center to produce Deaf-centered TV shows/movies – Asks viewers to consider changing the way they think of “Deaf” – Identifies ideology as the problem and challenges viewers to change it – http://vimeo.com/12817361 (Length: 30 minutes)
  • 35. Re-defining D-E-A-FThere is a folder for you to watch it and follow the instruction.
  • 36. Re-defining D-E-A-F – 2• Set up Project Humanity, a full feature film designed to help change ideology – http://www.facundoelement.com/projecthumanity/vision.php• Commerson and Aubrecht jointly wrote series of articles under “Butterfly Effect” – These articles also challenge ideology and suggests ways to change it – http://www.facundoelement.com/articles/Butterfly_Effect_Seri es/TO3.html• Commerson established a non-profit foundation, Facundo Element
  • 37. Reflective Questions• How can reframing the concept of Deafhood, deafness, Deaf gain, etc., change society’s perspectives of Deaf people?• Have you been audist and/or practiced linguicism? How so?
  • 38. References - 1• Audism Free America. (n.d.). Audism free America. Retrieved from http://www.audismfreeamerica.blogspot.com/• Bahan, B., Bauman, H., & Montenegro, F. (Producers). (2008). Audism unveiled [online video]. San Diego: DawnSignPress. Retrieved July 16, 2011, from http://dawnsign.com/product_details.php?item_id=150• Bayton, D., Gannon, J. & Bergey, J. (2007). Through deaf eyes: A photographic history of an American community. Washington, DC: Galladuet University Press.• Bullard, D. (1986). Islay: A novel. Silver Spring, MD: TJ Publishers.• Commerson, R. (2008). Re-defining D-E-A-F [online video]. Retrieved from http://vimeo.com/12817361
  • 39. References - 2• Deafhood Foundation. (n.d.). Deafhood foundation. Retrieved from http://www.deafhoodfoundation.org/Deafhood/Home.html• Facundo Element. (2012). Project humanity. Retrieved from http://www.facundoelement.com/projecthumanity/vision.php• Facundo Element. (2010). Butterfly effect series. Retrieved from http://www.facundoelement.com/articles/Butterfly_Effect_Series/TO3.ht ml• Jacobowitz, E. L. (1996). Deaf humor and positive political skills in communication. In V. Walters (Ed.), Deaf Studies IV: Visions of the Past- Visions for the Future (pp. 97-109). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University College of Continuing Education.• Jacobowitz, E. L., & Smith, A. K. (2009, July). The ASL revolution: Stop weakening ASL by linguicism. ASL Rose E-Newsletter. Retrieved from http://www.aslrose.com/nlv3n4a.php
  • 40. References - 3• Ladd, P. (2003). Understanding deaf culture: In search of deafhood. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, Ltd.• PBS. (2007). Through deaf eyes (DVD). Retrieved from http://www.shoppbs.org/product/index.jsp?productId=2608158#Details• Ryan, S. (1991). Planet way over yonder (videotape). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Department of Sign Communication.• Smith, A. K., & Jacobowitz, E. L. (2005). Have you ever seen…? An American sign language (ASL) handshape DVD/book. Frederick, MD: ASL Rose.• U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission. (n.d.). About the EEOC: Overview. Retrieved July 18, 2011, from http://www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/
  • 41. Copyrighted by
  • 42. PowerPoint #22 HYES Pages 32-33Lipreading, Oralism & A.G. Bell
  • 43. Key Points• The Problems with Lipreading• Quick Glimpse of Some Major Events• 1965 Congressional Babbidge Report• Who Was the Real Alexander Graham Bell?• Two Very Different Approaches of Educating Deaf Children
  • 44. The Problems with Lipreading• Is not a means to fully • Can cause serious problems access spoken English in educational, legal, and• Understand only 30%-40% medical settings of spoken English on the • Limits the ability to develop lips (best lipreader) accurate, written English• Catch only certain words, skills leading to broken-English • Remember environmental phrasing and guesswork factors: lighting, stress, physical appearance, etc.
  • 45. Examples of Lipreading Problems• “Bat,” “mat,” and “pat” look alike on the lips• Out of context• Environmental and physical factors• Strain on the eyes
  • 46. LipreadingOh boy! Too many people misunderstood that if we can lipreading, it means we understand everything. WRONG! See past slides there are only 30-40% information we get through lipreading. I often misreading because when a person speaks one word, I think there is two to four words. Not sure which one he/she says it and I ask to repeat say it a few times but when I couldn’t figure out, ask him/her to write down. When a hard of hearing is an expert in speaking and hearing, it does not mean they understand everything.
  • 47. My Oral School Told Me…• I am qualified• I am smart• I do not need a sign language interpreter• I am independent• I am pro at lipreading• I will be a solider somedayBUT when she goes to other places…
  • 48. “Can You Lipread?”• Most common and most annoying question• If yes, then signing or writing is abandoned• If no, then they are perceived as unintelligent• Either way, there is no communication access What, then, to do?
  • 49. LipreadingPeople often refer d/Deaf people able to lipreading because it is easy on them. If they couldn’t lipreading, then they feel they have to work more time on giving clear message through spoken. If a person can do lipreading, they will say “Whew, I am glad that I don’t have to worry about writing a note method; or, have to speak slow for them; or, whatever.” It is unfortunately for some hearing people.
  • 50. Glimpsing Some Major Events• 1840 – 1880: “Golden Age of Deaf Education” • ASL flourishes • 40% of all teachers are Deaf • Deaf graduates from Deaf schools choose higher-level professions• 1876: AGB had patented a telephone•1870s: Alexander Graham Bell promotes oralism in deaf education •Concentrates on oral methods of instruction •Takes control of Deaf schools, forcing Deaf teachers out •Refuses to hire Deaf persons •Tries to eradicate sign language by outlawing it; punishes users •Signers perceive oralism as a form of a child abuse and neglect
  • 51. Glimpsing Some Major Events - 2• 1880: Milan conference bans sign language in deaf education • National Association of the Deaf (NAD) is founded in Cincinnati • Original purpose: rebel against oralism and protect ASL• 1880-1957: Dark Age of Deaf Oralism • Deaf children suffer from traumatic disciplinary methods, such as: slapping hands with rulers or tying hands behind backs, putting soap in mouths, and standing in corners • Speech is praised and rewarded, while signing is not
  • 52. Glimpsing Some Major Events - 3• 1927: Rise of Oralism • Only 15% of teachers are Deaf • Oralism flourishes• 1965: Congressional Babbidge Report • Pronounces oralism "dismal failure” • Recommends alternative methods, although speech is still considered by most as superior to signing • Deaf community applauds this report • Long-overdue acknowledgement• 2000s: Auditory-Verbal Therapy (AVT) is invented; history is repeated
  • 53. 1965 Congressional Babbidge Report• Investigated oral deaf education• Pronounced oralism a "dismal failure” • Found that children identified later in life with hearing loss were far poorer educationally than those identified early on• Instrumental in advocating for early identification• Dismissed the decision in Milan• Led to Total Communication philosophy/movement • Allowed deaf people the right to any information through all possible means • Yet speech continued to be perceived as superior to signing • Total Communication later became Sim-Com, and method was confused with philosophy
  • 54. Research Showing Ineffectiveness of Oralism• Babbidge Report (1965)• COED (1988)• Unlocking the Curriculum (1989)• Baynton “Forbidden Signs” (1998)• Wilbur (2000)• Moores (2001)• Racyhelle Harris (2010)• VL2 (2011)
  • 55. Who was the Real Alexander Graham Bell?• Credited with inventing the • Believed deaf people needed phone to be fixed • Intended to find a way to • Shared a common interest assist his deaf wife and deaf with Hitler: eugenics mother to hear • Believed deaf people should be • Accidentally created the prohibited from marrying telephone • Wanted to prevent the• Very wealthy and famous reproduction of deaf children with powerful influence • Caused traumatic experiences• Ironically, a very fluent for deaf learners signer• Promoted oralism in deaf education
  • 56. Alexander Graham BellEven though he invented telephone for us to communicate with anyone. However, he is the father of Audism. Did you know that AGBell was an extermination against Deaf people? Yes, he is. “Although he drew the line at extermination, as Winefield (1987: 83) points out, his ‘chilling words’ were not based on positive reasons, but rather on doubt that ‘this would not lead to an increase in the quantity or quality of the desirable [races]; it would simply prevent deterioration’.” (Paddy Ladd (2011-10- 21). Understanding Deaf Culture: In Search of Deafhood (Kindle Locations 3820-3822)). Channel View Publications. Kindle Edition. He realized he doesn’t want to kill Deaf people because he had some Deaf friends.
  • 57. Two Very Different Approaches of Educating Deaf Children• Oral Approach (AGBell) • Signing Approach (Clerc/Gallaudet)
  • 58. Oral Approach (AGBell) • Helped legitimize oralism, influenced public opinion and invested money into this approach • Sought to train deaf students to use hearing, speech, and lipreading to understand spoken language and to develop proper speech skills • Pushed to assimilate deaf children into hearing society and be like hearing people • Neglected the natural and first language of deaf children, DeafAlexander Graham Bell culture and deaf community • Dark Age of Oralism
  • 59. Signing Approach (Clerc/Gallaudet)• They brought signed language instruction from France where Clerc taught at the first public school for the deaf in Paris• Taught successfully in signed language instruction at American School for the Deaf• Helped acquire deaf children’s natural and first language (ASL) and transfer/build their second language (English)• Immersed in both cultures and can interact with both deaf and hearing people Edward Miner Gallaudet• Golden Age of Deaf Education
  • 60. Through the Eyes of Young Deaf Children… Lipreading...misunderstanding signals The Oral Method...weak signals MCE...confusing signals ASL…perfect signals
  • 61. Reflective Questions• What should people ask instead of, “Can you lipread?”• Why do people insist on oralism without sign language even though research has consistently shown its drawbacks?
  • 62. References - 1• Anderson, R. (1994). Second language literacy in deaf students. In I. Ahlgren & K. Hyltenstam (Eds.), Bilingualism in deaf education (pp.91-101). Hamburg, Germany: Signum.• Babbidge, H. D. (1965). Education of the deaf in the United States: A report to the secretary of health, education and welfare by his advisory committee of education of the deaf. (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED 014 188). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office.• Branson, J., and Miller, D. (2002). Damned for their difference: The cultural construction of deaf people as disabled. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.• Department of Education. (1992, October 30). Deaf students education services; Policy guidance. Federal Register. Retrieved August 31, 2011, from http://www.listen-up.org/rights/policy.htm
  • 63. References - 2• Gallaudet University. (2011, February 21). Early sign language acquisition helps deaf children learn spoken and written languages. On The Green: Gallaudet University News. Retrieved from http://clerccenter.gallaudet.edu/News/MR_Benefit_Early_Sign_Language_ Acquisition.ht ml• Gannon, J.R. (1981). Deaf heritage. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf.• Harris, R. (2010). A case study of extended discourse in an ASL/English preschool classroom. (Unpublished doctoral dissertation,). http://videocatalog.gallaudet.edu/player.cfm?video=14578• Johnson, R. E. (1989, January). Unlocking the curriculum: Principles for achieving access in deaf education. Education Resources Information Center. Retrieved August 31, 2011, from Education Resources Information Center (ERIC).
  • 64. References - 3• Jones, B. E. (n.d.). Competencies of K-12 educational interpreters: What we need versus what we have. In E.A. Winston (Ed.) Educational Interpreting: How It Can Succeed. Retrieved August 31, 2011, from http://gupress.gallaudet.edu/excerpts/EIsix.html• Ladd, P. (2003). Understanding deaf culture: In search of deafhood. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.• Moores, D.F. (2001). Educating the deaf: Psychology, principles, and practice. (5th ed.) Boston, MA: Houghton Mifflin.• Wilbur, R. B. (2000, Winter). The use of ASL to support the development of English and literacy. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 5(1), 81- 104.
  • 65. Copyrighted by
  • 66. InformationI will have one more ppt for you. I should upload tonight or tomorrow. Then tomorrow I will create a review discussion forum to prepare for exam #2. The exam will be the same as exam #1.After you read this, discuss in discussion forum. If you have any question, please do ask!