DEAF CULTURE ONLINE WEEK 1 – PPT #5 Toby Welch | ASL Professor
SEVERAL NOTESI want you see some pptsfrom ASLRose. Those arecopyrights. You can seesome slides. If you have anyquestion about this, pleasedo feel free to discuss andask. I need to warn you thatsome ppts may not clear toyou. I have to explain moreabout those slides.
PowerPoint #10 HYES Pages 14-15Deaf Families & Myths about Deaf
Key Points• Deaf Families• Deaf Power• Interesting Facts• Deaf Family House• Myths about Deaf Culture
Deaf Families• Tightly knit bonds • Culture without a physical between members territory• Often span several • No communication generations barriers • even as many as seven!• Over 400 genes linked to • Have diverse upbringings, hereditary deafness just like any other family• Most common genetic • Often have deaf-friendly cause in U.S. • Connexin 26 homes• Access to language, • People visit often because culture and traditions of accessibility
DEAF FAMILIESWelch’s Note: this talkedabout Deaf families alongwith Deaf children. It isdifferent than d/Deafchild(ren) with hearingparents.
Deaf Power • Originates in: • Pride of Deaf people and families • Last name(s) and how many generations they persist • Does not mean rejection of other cultures • It is a sense of cultural history • Not all families are the same!
DEAF POWERWelch’s Note: Deaf Power isvery important to Deafpeople because they arepride being Deaf people.Not ashamed of it.
Interesting Facts• Past nine National Association of the Deaf presidents come from Deaf families• All student leaders of Deaf President Now, which took place in 1988, are from Deaf families• The National Theatre of the Deaf was founded by mostly Deaf people from Deaf families• A Deaf lesbian couple wanted a deaf donor from a sperm bank but were denied because deaf genes were considered “deformed”• Many Deaf families from Martha’s Vineyard brought their language and culture to American School for the Deaf• At Deaf schools, students of Deaf families often become “mentors” for students who have hearing families
Myths about Deaf Culture• Deaf people are isolated • All deaf people know and from larger society support ASL• All deaf people can read • Deaf people cannot read lips and write because they sign• All deaf people can hear using hearing aids and • Deaf people lead cochlear implants different lives from other people• Deaf people/families will always have deaf • Deaf people are not children allowed to drive
References - 1• Baker, C. (3rd ed.). (2001). Foundations of bilingual education and bilingualism. Clevedon, England: Multilingual Matters.• Bangs, D. (1995). A deaf family diary. Washington, DC: SignRise Cultural Arts.• California Ear Institute. (2011, August 10). Connexin 26. Retrieved June 8, 2011, from http://www.californiaearinstitute.com/ear-disorders-connexin- 26-bay-area.php• Carpenter, D. (1994, April 13). Signer of the declaration. The Indianapolis Star, pp. A1, A6.• Gallaudet University. (2011). Profiles and viewpoints. Deaf President Now Protest. Retrieved June 8, 2011, from http://www.gallaudet.edu/Gallaudet_University/About_Gallaudet/History _of_the_University/DPN_Home/Profiles_and_Viewpoints.html
References - 2• National Association of the Deaf. (2010). Bylaws. Retrieved June 8, 2011, from http://nad.org/about-us/bylaws• Schneider, J. (2000, Spring). The best of all worlds. Careers & the Disabled, 14(3), 24-26.• Seattle Diversity Works!. (2003, October 23). Lip reading facts. Law, Health Policy & Disability Center. Retrieved June 8, 2011, from http://lhpd.law.uiowa.edu/media2/dpn200411/dpnc09/Lip_Reading_Fact s.doc• Teather, D. (2002, April 8). Lesbian couple have deaf baby by choice. The Guardian. Retrieved June 14, 2011, from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2002/apr/08/davidteather
PowerPoint #19 HYES Page 28ASL Linguistics & William Stokoe
Key Points• Natural Language of the Deaf Community• Father of ASL Linguistics• Spoken vs. Signed: Differences• Study of Language
Natural Language of the Deaf Community• American Sign Language (ASL)• Used by two million people in the U.S., and more in Canada• Often considered as dominant in signed language• First recognized as a true language by Dr. William Stokoe• Other signed languages • Need recognition • Follow research findings based on ASL
Father of ASL Linguistics• Dr. William C. Stokoe (name sign: C on head) • signed that way because of his thick, bowl-like hair • many think his name sign was because of his Scottish hat, not his hair• Professor at Gallaudet University• Analyzed ASL using linguistic principles (first-ever)• Coined the term, cherology (the equivalent of phonology for sign language)• Proved that ASL is a true, fully formed, human language with its own syntax, semantics and William Stokoe, Jr. 1919-2000 grammatical structures• Wrote many professional articles and gave numerous presentations internationally
Stokoe’s Background• Hearing; not fluent in sign language• Persistent, even with no support from anyone -- especially Deaf people• 1950s: ASL = Broken English• ASL prohibited in many schools and hidden from public• Small corner office with leaking water; chair of Dept. of English for Gallaudet University 1955• Lack of fluency in ASL led him to recognize that his signs were not similar to the smooth, easy signing styles of Deaf people• “People say it was a bombshell,” Dr. Oliver Sacks, the author and neurologist, said of Dr. Stokoes work. But he added: “It was a rather slow bomb. The recognition he encountered was by no means immediate, because of very entrenched sort of attitudes, even among the deaf themselves.”
Stokoe’s Work• Invented a written notation for sign language (known as Stokoe Notation)• No written form of ASL• ASL writing systems now emerging; influenced by Stokoe’s work• Discovered linguistic findings in ASL: cherology, morphology, semantics, syntax, and pragmatics• Native vs. natural language
Stokoe’s Accomplishments• Groundbreaking Sign Language Structure in 1960• Co-authored the Dictionary of American Sign Language on Linguistic Principles in 1965• Founded Journal of Sign Language Studies in 1972• Received a honorary degree from Gallaudet University, May of 1988• Received an honorary doctorate from the University of Copenhagen in Denmark and Madonna University in Michigan
Remembering William Stokoe• Honoring Stokoe: • In 1980, the National Association of the Deaf (NAD) published Sign Language and the Deaf Community: Essays in Honor of William C. Stokoe • The NAD also established the William C. Stokoe Scholarship Fund to encourage sign language research • Sign Language Studies honored Stokoe with Sign Language Studies 1.4, Summer 2001, a Stokoe retrospective reprinting five articles and an editorial by Stokoe, including: • "The Study and Use of Sign Language" • "Sign Language versus Spoken Language" • Stokoe was also made Professor Emeritus at Gallaudet University • In 1988, he received an honorary doctorate from Gallaudet • For his advocacy of the linguistics of American Sign Language
Spoken vs. Signed: Differences Spoken Languages Signed Languages• Are produced by the vocal • Use constantly changing cords only movements and orientations • Hands• Can be easily written in • Head linear patterns • Body• Uses linear patterns either • Are three-dimensional (3D) backward (Arabic) or • Simultaneous, linear use of: forward (English) • Space• Have many written forms • Facial expression • Hands• Use phonics to decode the • Head and body reading
ASL Writing Systems • si5s - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UZmh4deF9z8 • SignWriting - http://www.signwriting.org/ • Nothing is formalized yet“TODAY IS A BEAUTIFUL DAY” in ASL by SignWriting
All Languages Include:• Phonology/Cherology• Morphology• Semantics• Syntax• Pragmatics
A Unique Part of ASL: Cherology• Interdependent• Example: • Handshape: 5 • Location: forehead • Movement: small side to side movement • PO: face sideway • One of those parameters makes a What sign is it? different meaning.
Comparison of English and ASLPhonology/Cherology Morphology smallest unit without smallest unit with meaning meaning English: a, e, gh English: cat, sit ASL: Four parameters ASL: CAT, LOUSY 1. handshape English: plural –s 2. location (cats), third-person –s 3. movement (sits) 4. palm orientation ASL: THREE-WEEKS, Every sign requires the THREE-MONTHS four above parameters! ‘THREE’ is a bound morpheme
LINGUISTICS OF ASLWelch’s Note: It is very If you take my ASL, you mustimportant you to know the know five parameters. Somefive parameters in linguistics of you already took my ASLof ASL: and familiar this one.1. Handshape2. Location3. Movement4. Palm Orientation5. Non-Manual Signals
Comparison English and ASLSemantics – study of Syntax – study of formation meaning at all levels of a sentence (grammar) English: the definite article - the English: S V O In Spanish, there are four definite articles and they all mean "the" ASL: 8 rules of structure ASL Masculine/singular: El – Ex: Yes/ No Question (^^) Masculine/plural: Los Picture here of BOY HOME? Feminine/singular: La Feminine/plural: Las ASL: The combination of features that in ASL is glossed as NAME is glossed as ROME (the name of the Nonmanual signals as part of a capital city) in Italian Sign Language yes-no question (LIS).
Comparison English and ASL Pragmatics – Discourse (the role of context plays on the interpretation of meaning)English: “It’s hot in here.” •Interpreted as a request for someone to open the windowASL: DEAF DEAF with puffed cheeks • Interpreted as person who is Culturally Deaf
References - 1• Baker, C., & Battison, R. (1980). Sign language and the deaf community: Essays in honor of William C. Stokoe. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf.• Gannon, J.R. (1981). Deaf heritage. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf.• Handspeak.com. (n.d.). Dr. William Stokoe, Jr. Retrieved August 18, 2011, from http://www.handspeak.com/byte/s/index.php?byte=stokoe• Maher,J. (1996). Seeing language in sign: The work of William Stokoe. Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.• Stokoe, W. (1960). Sign language structure: An outline of visual communication systems of the American deaf. Burtonsville, MD: Linstok Press.
References - 2• Valli, C., & Lucas, C. (2000). Linguistics of American sign language: An introduction (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University Press.
Key Points• History of Clerc, Gallaudet & Cogswell• ASL on Mary Augusta• Deaf Schools in America• Deaf Studies Curriculum
History of Clerc, Gallaudet, & Cogswell In 1816:• Thomas H. Gallaudet visited Europe to study Deaf education• Gallaudet met Laurent Clerc at INJS (Deaf school) in Paris• They agreed to establish a Deaf school for Alice Cogswell • Eventually became the American School for the Deaf• Clerc, Gallaudet & Cogswell’s roots in Deaf education are considered “Deaf-centric ASL-English bilingualism” • ASL instruction • Strong first language base to then build a second language
Profile of Laurent Clerc • Born on December 26, 1785 in La Balme-les- Grottes, France • Name sign is for a scar on his face from a fall at one year of age • Graduated from and taught at the Institut National de Jeunes Sourds de Paris • A student of Sicard and colleague of Gallaudet
Life of Laurent Clerc• Married Eliza Crocker- Boardman, the third graduate of the American School for the Deaf• Retired in 1858, when he was 73 years old• Died July 18, 1869, at 84 years old; two months after his 50th wedding anniversary• He is buried in Spring Rove Cemetery in Hartford, Connecticut• Has been called “the Apostle of the Deaf in America”
Profile of Thomas H. Gallaudet• Born in Philadelphia on Dec. 10, 1787• Yale-educated lawyer who became a preacher• Married ASD’s second graduate, Sophia Fowler• Son, Edward Miner Gallaudet, was Gallaudet University’s first president• Often interpreted for Laurent Clerc• Just days before his death, received an honorary Doctor of Laws degree from the Western Reserve College of Ohio• Died Sept. 10, 1851, at the age of 63
Gallaudet Stamp • 1981: Great Americans series 20¢ postage stamp issued • 1983: Stamp is released featuring a drawing by a hearing artist • William Sparks, a deaf artist, had submitted a drawing but was not selected
Profile of Alice Cogswell• Born on August 31, 1805• The only known portrait of Alice is a profile silhouette displayed in the ASD museum• The first graduate of the American School for the Deaf• Graduated in 1824 at the age of 19
Life of Alice Cogswell • The inspiration for L. Clerc and T.H. Gallaudet to create the now-named American School for the Deaf in Hartford, Connecticut • Had a lively intelligence and spirited personality • Died at the age of 25 on December 30, 1830; thirteen days after the death of her father from pneumonia
Mary Augusta & Signed Language• Clerc and Gallaudet: 52 days, as much as 15 hours per day, on board teaching "Every decent man, and each other language every real gentleman in • Compare this amount of particular, ought to apply time to time in ASL classes himself, above all things, to the study of his native• Immersion and education language, so as to express are crucial to language his ideas with ease and development gracefulness.“• ASL includes the most -Laurent Clerc, 1864 advanced pedagogical ideas for deaf education
Clerc’s Accomplishments• Established 41 Deaf schools in 50 years• Addressed the Connecticut Legislature with Gallaudet voicing for him; the first deaf person to ever this!• Received custom-designed coin-silver pitcher and tray from Deaf Connecticut residents in 1850• Received several honorary degrees for his pioneering work in deaf education• Retired and continued advocating for Deaf education• The guest of honor at the inauguration of the National Deaf-Mute College, now Gallaudet University, when he was 79 years old• Laurent Clerc National Deaf Center is named in his honor “There is no dress which embellishes the body more than science does the mind.” --Laurent Clerc, 1864
ASD: First School for the Deaf• Established in 1817• Used translation of French Sign Language for teaching• Clerc trained young ministers and Deaf graduates to be teachers; sent them to establish other schools for the Deaf• Led to the establishment of 41 other Deaf schools• Birth of ASL (Martha’s Vineyard Sign Language, French Sign Language, Indian Sign Language evolved into ASL)• Instructional language: signed language• Considered Deaf Centric ASL-English Bilingualism
Deaf Schools in America• Revolutionized American Deaf education• Second and third school establishments: NYSD (Fanwood, 1818); PSD (Philadelphia, 1820)• 1817-1880 • “Golden Age of Deaf Education” • More than 30 schools established by Deaf and hearing teachers • Approximately 40% of all teachers are Deaf • Many Deaf role models for Deaf children • Deaf children gathered for the first time; in the past, they were alone at home• 1864: Gallaudet University founded in Washington, DC • U.S. President Abraham Lincoln was the signer of the charter and its first patron • First Gallaudet President was Edward Miner Gallaudet, son of Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet and Sophia Fowler
Deaf Studies Curriculum If Deaf people are to get ahead in our time, they must have a betterimage of themselves and their capabilities. They need concrete examplesof what Deaf people have already done so they can project for themselvesa brighter future. If we can have African-American Studies, JewishStudies, why not Deaf Studies? —Frederick Schreiber• Provide a Deaf Studies curriculum for Deaf students • Is vital for valuable historical information about Deaf heritage • Enables Deaf students to learn about Deaf legacies and accomplishments • Helps Deaf students envision goals for themselves• Examples: • Not many Deaf people know Clerc’s or Gallaudet’s birthdays while they know Martin Luther King’s birthday • Not many Deaf people know the name of Clerc and Gallaudet’s boat while they know Columbus’ three boats’ names • Shows a very critical need for Deaf students to know Deaf heritage
Clerc’s and Gallaudet’s Garden • George Loring, Wilson Whiton & Abigail Dillingham: three of Clerc’s first seven students; they became teachers • Levi S. Backus: Clerc’s tenth student; taught at a private school for the deaf in Canajoharie, NY, and became editor of the Canajoharie Radii; was a pioneer in journalism among Deaf people • John Carlin: a miniature painter, a classical scholar, a poet, and a painter of biblical and historical studies; did at least two oil paintings of Clerc • William Willard: the first Deaf superintendent and founded the Indiana School for the Deaf • The list goes on…"If Clerc had been a lesser man, the social, economic, and educational history ofthe deaf in the United States would be considerably different from what it is.“–John Carlin
References - 1• Bienvenu, M. J. (1993). Deaf studies in the year 2000: New directions. In J. Cebe (Ed.), Deaf studies III: Bridging cultures in the 21st century (pp. 7-18). Washington, DC: Gallaudet University College for Continuing Education.• DeafPeople.com. (2010, December 31). Sophia Fowler Gallaudet. Retrieved August 24, 2011, from http://www.deafpeople.com/history/history_info/sophia_gallaudet.html• DeBee, J. R. (1995). Schools for the deaf (videotape). Pittsburgh, PA: DeBee Communications.• Gannon, J.R. (1981). Deaf heritage. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf.• Katz, C. (2002). A history of the establishment of the three bachelor of arts degree-granting deaf studies programs in America. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Lamar University, Beaumont, TX.
References - 2• Martinez, M.C. (2006, November 13). Laurent Clerc. Lifeprint. Retrieved August 24, 2011, from http://www.lifeprint.com/asl101/topics/clerc_larent3.htm• Naranjo, D. (2008, April 27). Laurent Clerc 1785 - 1869. Lifeprint. Retrieved August 25, 2011, from http://www.lifeprint.com/asl101/topics/clerc_laurent_7.htm• Schein, J. (1981). A rose for tomorrow: Biography of Fredrick C. Schreiber. Silver Spring, MD: National Association of the Deaf.• Young, B. (1997). The chain of love. Bloomfield, CT: P&S Services.
PowerPoint #26 HYES Pages 38-39 Deaf ASL-English Bilinguals &Cummin’s Linguistic Independence Theory
Key Points• A Fully Balanced Bilingual• Deaf Learners Are ASL/English Bilinguals No Matter What• Keys to Successful Bilingual Education• Cummins’ Linguistic Independence Theory
A Fully Balanced Bilingual• Needs to be… • Nurtured, respected, and supported • Competent in both ASL and written English • Promote and celebrate using first language, ASL, and Deaf Culture • No negativity about ASL and Deaf culture • Deaf bilinguals will be always be bilinguals, no matter how equal ASL and English are
Deaf of Hearing Parents• 90% of Deaf children have hearing parents• Parents usually have no knowledge about being Deaf• Deaf child is often viewed with uncertainty• Communication is typically more stressful• Parents frequently trust professionals/experts to know what is best for the child• They may also resist Deaf scholars and the Deaf community, even if they want only the best for deaf children
What a Home Needs to Provide…• Love, Love, Love!• Allow the child to acquire ASL as the first language and accept Deaf culture• Promote literacy by signing in ASL and writing in English• Develop psychologically in positive ways• Achieve academically to the fullest by valuing both languages equally• Integrate child into the family, accepting both Deaf and Hearing cultures
Deaf Learners are ASL/English Bilinguals No Matter What• ASL can serve as a deaf child’s first language with English as a second language• In cases where English is the deaf child’s first language, ASL can be introduced as a second language• Deaf bilinguals value the significance of both ASL and written English• Language suppression: not giving equal status to language used by a community• How are both languages supported?
Keys to Successful Bilingual Education• Both languages are respected, nurtured and supported equally• Deaf children often grow up to be successful Deaf adults if they have access to quality bilingual education using both ASL and English as languages of instruction• No access to negativity such as audism, linguicism, hearization or toward Deaf culture• Research proves that one language needs to establish a foundation before a child learns a second language• Early ASL acquisition is important to the goal of teaching English to deaf children
Two Studies Related to the Relationship Between ASL & English Skills• Geers & Schick, • Strong & Prinz, 1998 1997; Israelite, • Deaf children of Hoffmeister, & Deaf parents Ewoldt, 1992 often • A positive demonstrate a correlation exists significant between ASL linguistic competency and advantage in English literacy spoken English over Deaf children of hearing parents
Cummins’ Linguistic Independence Theory• Strong L1 (first language) transfers to L2 (second language)• Easier to learn L2 because basic concepts in L1 exist that can be learned in L2• Knowledge and skills learned in one language can be easily See how the ASL-English toddler acquires ASL and learns English: transferred to a second http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_emb language edded&v=UIPMLM9yuhg
Think English is Easy?1. The bandage was wound around the wound.2. The farm was used to produce produce.3. The dump was so full that it had to refuse more refuse.4. We must polish the Polish furniture.5. He could lead if he would get the lead out.6. The soldier decided to desert his dessert in the desert.7. Since there is no time like the present, he thought it was time to present the present.8. A bass was painted on the head of the bass drum.9. When shot at, the dove dove into the bushes.10. I did not object to the object.
Different Processes in Learning to Read/Write• Brain and eyes/hands are connected. But…how?• Reading/writing is a visual process as well as cognitive• ASL and written English can be transferred and build abilities/skills• Visual analysis of sign recognition is used, along with visual- based strategies• Whole meaningful concepts and information are presented, rather than bits and pieces• If fluent ASL is used in teaching, this is the best access to learn reading/writing in English
Languages of Friendship“The language of friendship is not words, butmeanings. It is an intelligence above language.” -By Jeremy Taylor“The language of friendship is not signs, butmeanings. It is an intelligence above language, too.” -Adapted by ASL Rose
Accessibility to ASL• Think about yourself: Your Introduction to Deaf Culture teacher is Deaf and uses ASL. What if you did not have access to your first language (English) because no voice interpreter was provided. How would you feel? Lost?• Now, imagine: you are a four-year-old Deaf child. You are forced to learn spoken and/or written English without accessibility to your first language (ASL).
What are We Waiting for?• 1960: ASL was proclaimed as a language by William C. Stokoe• 1968: Bilingual Education Act (P.L. 89-10) is passed. ASL is not included because it is not recognized as a language • 8 years later, ASL is recognized as a language• 2007: Gallaudet University finally is proclaimed a bilingual university, nearly 40 years after the Bilingual Education Act Is ASL a true language? Yes
Solution• Proposed doctor’s prescription for hearing parents of a Deaf child…. Rx: ASL.From Just a Deaf Person’s Thoughts II by Gil Eastman
References - 1• Andrews, J.F., Leigh, I.W., &Weiner, M.T. (2004). Deaf people: Evolving perspectives from psychology education and sociology. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.• Bailes, C. (1999). Deaf-centric teaching: A case study in ASL/English bilingualism. In L. Bragg (Ed.), Deaf world: A historical reader and primary resource book (pp. 211-233). New York: New York University Press.• Nover, S.M., Christensen, K.M., & Cheng, L.L. (1998). Development of ASL and English competence for learners who are deaf. In K. Butler & P. Prinz (Eds.), ASL proficiency and English language acquisition: New perspectives (Special Issues). Topics in Language Disorders, 18(4), 61-72.