DEAF CULTURE ONLINE WEEK 1 – PPT #4 Toby Welch | ASL Professor
BILINGUAL & BICULTURALI want to explain about why strongly belief in oralism andis bilingual effective. visual phonic method. I wantInteresting is that some you guys to understand whyschool districts (I will not bilingual is the mostname of school districts and effective. See a few slides thepersons’ name) with Deaf history of bilingual.program. They hate bilingualphilosophy. My philosophy isstrongly in bilingual &bicultural. That is onereason why I was not hiredby those school districts.Houston area has
CAPSULE HISTORY OF DEAF EDUCATION1771 – Established first Deaf School in Paris.1817 – American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb (changed to American School for the Deaf)1817-1850 – New York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, Ohio.1850 - total 13 Deaf schools1864 – Gallaudet College1880 – Milan Conference & NAD1900 – most states had at least one school for deaf students.1988 – Deaf President Now!
CAPSULE HISTORY OF DEAF EDUCATIONIf you took ASL 1 class, you You also will never learn ASL.should know about Laurent It is most important peopleClerc and Thomas Gallaudet. in Deaf people’s life. We areThey helped with establish exist because of them.Deaf schools and signlanguage for d/Deaf people.I am very grateful for thembecause if it is not for them,then you will never have meas your teacher.
STARTING ON THE RIGHT FOOT Laurent Clerc, studied under De LEppe and Sicard; met an American, Thomas Hopkins Gallaudet; Established the American School for the Deaf, 1817; Deaf teachers hired; oral + manual approach Abbe Roch Sicard, trained by De LEppe ; wrote a book "Theory of Signs," an elaborate dictionary of signs.Abbe Charles-Michel de l-EppeFirst Public School for the Deaf in Paris, 1760- First to recognizemanual language of the deaf as means for literacy
STARTING ON THE RIGHT FOOTParis, France is the first Believed in them. Treatedcountry to have a Deaf them equal with everyone.school. After that, it was They do not know aboutspreading to all over oral. But there is a fewcountries. Notice a line with schools taught speech. I havearrow displays up. It means no resource on it. I amthe most successful among interested in history ofDeaf people. Many of them oralism and ASL.had professional jobs andmany hearing people wereunder them, respectedthem, attracted them andtheir language, and
WHERE IT ALL WENT WRONG Congress of Milan, 1880- Oralism supported, signs forbidden CEASD, 1926, Accepted the Milan resolution; signs forbidden in U.S. deaf schools… deaf teachers fired Signs eliminated from the classroom; Oralism & extreme oppression reigns
WHERE IT ALL WENT WRONGThe Second International education and passed aCongress on Education of the resolution banning the use ofDeaf was (despite the name) sign language in school. Sincethe first international its passage in 1880, schools inconference of deaf educators European countries and theheld in Milan, Italy in 1880. It United States switched to usingis commonly known as "The speech therapy without signMilan Conference". After language as a method ofdeliberations from September education for the deaf. (source:6 to 11, 1880, the conference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sdeclared that oral education econd_International_Congresswas superior to manual _on_Education_of_the_Deaf)
WHERE IT ALL WENT WRONGAfter 1880, many Deaf people I will not accept you if youbecame bitter against hearing want to control us, destroy us,people and not trust hearing change us or whatever yourpeople. It is still today. intention against us. I knowHowever, more and more you would not do that. I hoped/Deaf people accept hearing ALL agree with me. I havewith Deaf heart. If you are experience with a few studentsworking as an interpreter, you with attitude against Deafwill see a few or some d/Deaf people in past but theypeople have terrible attitude changed it after they took ourto you because they hate ITP/ASL program. It is a goodhearing. Be preparing sign for us. whatever you see it. Don’tworry about me. I love youguys and accept you guys. BUT
OUR OWN “PLATEAU- EFFECT” Babbidge Report, 1965 TC is Ineffective, 1980s- GRI & Congressional Committee other research results show finds oral education a “dismal “plateau effect” failure” Total Communication Rubella Epidemic, Movement, 1970s, ASDC 1960s advocates for introduction of Exploding signs back into the classroom; population of deaf English-based systems favored children
OUR OWN “PLATEAU- EFFECT”Government declared thatoral programs are failed.More sign language allowedbut there are some schoolstill banned sign language.After 1960s, different typeof sign language. See myPPT #3 for names of signlanguage. But ASL wasdiscovered in 1965.
WORKING OUR WAY BACK UP AEBPD Project, 1999 (STAR Schools) Bi-Bi Movement, 1995, Indiana School becomes first Bi-Bi School, other follow Unlocking the Curriculum, 1989 Criticizes TC; advocates for “communicative access to curricular content,” “higher expectations,” and ASL to teach English Stokoe, 1950s-80s Establishes ASL as a language; advocates a bilingual approach to education
WORKING OUR WAY BACK UPAfter 1960s, it increased If we are on their reservationmore better education with area, we have to follow theirsign language. Bi-Bi law, not American law. They(bilingual/bicultural) is most hate white people so mucheffective. Several Deaf for what white people hadschools are starting to use done to them in 1700s. TheyBi-Bi method. often give my brother a dirtyWhen I went to Idaho for look when he passed themvacation recently, my on road. American Indiansbrother explained to me are watching the whiteabout American Indian people for if they arereservation. It is about a half planning to destroy them ormile from his house. not.
WORKING OUR WAY BACK UPMy brother also explained because it considered sacredthat if I rode a horse to their to their culture. They afraidproperty (reservation), I that if we would learn theirmust have a paper proof sign language, we wouldthat allowed me to ride a destroy them.horse on their property. I Since 1880 Milan destroyedfelt scary when I was in their most Deaf people, manyreservation. Deaf people hate hearingOne workshop gave by Ms. people. It is same parallel asMcKay on American Indian. American Indian. It is whiteOne person asked her if she culture I dislike the most.would teach us Indian signLanguage and she refused
NOTE!!!• Please do not take it personal. You need to know the Deaf culture more depth and understand us better when you learn something. Please also don’t get angry. We cannot go back and fix it. But only thing you can help us is to educate hearing people about Deaf culture and their language, etc.• It is very important that you learn and study Deaf culture. Don’t let your personal involve but be opening and learning from it.
QUESTION• What do you think?• Do you favor or not favor bilingual? Why and why not?• How do you feel when I stated some Deaf people hate hearing people?• Do you agree or disagree with 1880 Milan declaration on banned sign language? Why and why not?• Should we support or against bilingual? Why and why not?• NOTE: open discussion here. Be nice!!!