Sentence Structure
Sentence Types
Sentence Structure
Sentence Types
Sentence Types
• Simple
• Compound
• Complex
Basic Elements
of
Every Sentence
SUBJECT PREDICATE
Basic Elements
Mary plays tennis.
SUBJECT PREDICATE
SIMPLE SENTENCE
Mary plays tennis.
SUBJECT PREDICATE
one subject one predicate
Simple Sentence
play tennis.Tom and Mary
Compound Subject
&
Simple Sentence
play tennis and swim.Tom and Mary
Compound Subject Compound Predicate
&
&
SIMPLE SENTENCE
with compound subject
Tom and Mary play tennis.
SIMPLE SENTENCE
with compound subject
and
compound predicate
Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.
Hi,
I’m Punctuation Pete!
SIMPLE SENTENCE
with compound subject
and
compound predicate
No comma before “and”
in compound
subjects and predicates!
To...
Compound Sentence with
Coordinating Conjunctions
SUBJECT PREDICATE
SUBJECT PREDICATE
and
Compound Sentence
Tom swims,
Mary plays tennis.
and
COMPOUND SENTENCE:
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
FOR
AND
NOR
BUT
OR
YET
SO
Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.
COMPOUND SENTENCE:
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Clause 1 Clause 2
Independent Independent
COMPOUND SENTENCE:
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis.
Comma before “and”
in compound
sentences!
COMPOUND SENTENCE:
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
MOREOVER
HOWEVER
OTHERWISE
THEREFORE
COMPOUND SENTENCE:
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.
Clause 1 Clause 2
Independent Independent
COMPOUND SENTENCE:
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS
Note: Semicolon before conjunctive
adverb and comma after conjunctive adverb!
Bob i...
Conjunctive Adverbs “float”
• Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes
called “floating” adverbs because they
can be positioned a...
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:
AT THE BEGINNING
Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:
IN THE MIDDLE
Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:
IN THE MIDDLE
Note: Place commas before and
after a conjunctive adverb
in the middle!
Bob is handsome;...
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:
AT THE END
Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.
CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB:
AT THE END
Note: Place a comma before
a conjunctive adverb
at the end!
Bob is handsome; he is rich, mo...
Semicolons
• “If the relation between the ideas
expressed in the main clauses is very
close and obvious without a
conjunct...
COMPOUND SENTENCE:
SEMICOLON
Matt has benefited from his exercise
program; he is slim and energetic.
Complex Sentence
SUBJECT PREDICATE
SUBJECT PREDICATE
even though
Complex Sentence
Bob is popular
he is ugly.
even though
COMPLEX SENTENCE:
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
EVEN THOUGH
WHEN
BECAUSE
UNLESS
WHEREAS
ADVERB CLAUSES
COMPLEX SENTENCE:
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Bob is popular even though he is ugly.
Clause 1 Clause 2
Independent Dependent
COMPLEX SENTENCE:
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular.
Clause 1 Clause 2
Dependent Independe...
COMPLEX SENTENCE:
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
When the MAIN clause is first,
it is usually NOT
followed by a comma!
Bob is ...
COMPLEX SENTENCE:
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
When the ADVERB clause is first,
it is followed by a comma!
Even though Bob i...
Compound-Complex Sentence
Mike is popular
he is good looking,
because
he is not very happy.
but
COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE:
COMBINES BOTH TYPES
Punctuate each clause
according to its rules!
Mike is popular because he is...
Punctuation
Review!
No commas before “and” in
compound subjects and predicates!
My friends and I play tennis and go bowling
every weekend.
SIM...
Comma before coordinating
conjunction!
Men may exercise harder, but they may not
exercise as regularly as women do.
COMPOU...
Semicolon before conjunctive
adverb
Comma after conjunctive
adverb!
Native and nonnative English speakers have
different n...
Semicolon after first
independent clause--
Commas before and after conjunctive
adverb!
Native and nonnative English speake...
Semicolon after first
independent clause--
Comma before conjunctive
adverb!
Native and nonnative English speakers have
dif...
When main clause is first,
it is not usually followed by a comma!
People had continuous moderate
exercise when they had to...
When the adverb clause is first,
it is followed by a comma!
When people had to hunt for food, they had
continuous moderate...
References
Writing Academic English, Second Edition, by Alice
Oshima and Ann Hogue. White Plains: Addison,
Wesley, Longman...
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Sentence types

  1. 1. Sentence Structure Sentence Types
  2. 2. Sentence Structure Sentence Types
  3. 3. Sentence Types • Simple • Compound • Complex
  4. 4. Basic Elements of Every Sentence SUBJECT PREDICATE
  5. 5. Basic Elements Mary plays tennis. SUBJECT PREDICATE
  6. 6. SIMPLE SENTENCE Mary plays tennis. SUBJECT PREDICATE one subject one predicate
  7. 7. Simple Sentence play tennis.Tom and Mary Compound Subject &
  8. 8. Simple Sentence play tennis and swim.Tom and Mary Compound Subject Compound Predicate & &
  9. 9. SIMPLE SENTENCE with compound subject Tom and Mary play tennis.
  10. 10. SIMPLE SENTENCE with compound subject and compound predicate Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.
  11. 11. Hi, I’m Punctuation Pete!
  12. 12. SIMPLE SENTENCE with compound subject and compound predicate No comma before “and” in compound subjects and predicates! Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.
  13. 13. Compound Sentence with Coordinating Conjunctions SUBJECT PREDICATE SUBJECT PREDICATE and
  14. 14. Compound Sentence Tom swims, Mary plays tennis. and
  15. 15. COMPOUND SENTENCE: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS FOR AND NOR BUT OR YET SO
  16. 16. Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis. COMPOUND SENTENCE: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Independent
  17. 17. COMPOUND SENTENCE: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis. Comma before “and” in compound sentences!
  18. 18. COMPOUND SENTENCE: CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS MOREOVER HOWEVER OTHERWISE THEREFORE
  19. 19. COMPOUND SENTENCE: CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich. Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Independent
  20. 20. COMPOUND SENTENCE: CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Note: Semicolon before conjunctive adverb and comma after conjunctive adverb! Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.
  21. 21. Conjunctive Adverbs “float” • Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes called “floating” adverbs because they can be positioned at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a clause.
  22. 22. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB: AT THE BEGINNING Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.
  23. 23. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB: IN THE MIDDLE Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.
  24. 24. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB: IN THE MIDDLE Note: Place commas before and after a conjunctive adverb in the middle! Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.
  25. 25. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB: AT THE END Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.
  26. 26. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB: AT THE END Note: Place a comma before a conjunctive adverb at the end! Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.
  27. 27. Semicolons • “If the relation between the ideas expressed in the main clauses is very close and obvious without a conjunction, you can separate the clauses with a semicolon” (Little, Brown Handbook, 9th Edition, p. 361).
  28. 28. COMPOUND SENTENCE: SEMICOLON Matt has benefited from his exercise program; he is slim and energetic.
  29. 29. Complex Sentence SUBJECT PREDICATE SUBJECT PREDICATE even though
  30. 30. Complex Sentence Bob is popular he is ugly. even though
  31. 31. COMPLEX SENTENCE: SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS EVEN THOUGH WHEN BECAUSE UNLESS WHEREAS ADVERB CLAUSES
  32. 32. COMPLEX SENTENCE: SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Bob is popular even though he is ugly. Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Dependent
  33. 33. COMPLEX SENTENCE: SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular. Clause 1 Clause 2 Dependent Independent
  34. 34. COMPLEX SENTENCE: SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS When the MAIN clause is first, it is usually NOT followed by a comma! Bob is popular even though he is ugly.
  35. 35. COMPLEX SENTENCE: SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS When the ADVERB clause is first, it is followed by a comma! Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular.
  36. 36. Compound-Complex Sentence Mike is popular he is good looking, because he is not very happy. but
  37. 37. COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE: COMBINES BOTH TYPES Punctuate each clause according to its rules! Mike is popular because he is good looking, but he is not very happy.
  38. 38. Punctuation Review!
  39. 39. No commas before “and” in compound subjects and predicates! My friends and I play tennis and go bowling every weekend. SIMPLE SENTENCE
  40. 40. Comma before coordinating conjunction! Men may exercise harder, but they may not exercise as regularly as women do. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Coordinating Conjunction
  41. 41. Semicolon before conjunctive adverb Comma after conjunctive adverb! Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; however, some schools fail to distinguish between these groups. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Conjunctive Adverb
  42. 42. Semicolon after first independent clause-- Commas before and after conjunctive adverb! Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; some schools, however, fail to distinguish between these groups. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Conjunctive Adverb--in the middle
  43. 43. Semicolon after first independent clause-- Comma before conjunctive adverb! Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; some schools fail to distinguish between these groups, however. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Conjunctive Adverb at the end
  44. 44. When main clause is first, it is not usually followed by a comma! People had continuous moderate exercise when they had to hunt for food. COMPLEX SENTENCE: Adverb Clauses--Subordinating Conjunction
  45. 45. When the adverb clause is first, it is followed by a comma! When people had to hunt for food, they had continuous moderate exercise. COMPLEX SENTENCE: Adverb Clauses--Subordinating Conjunction
  46. 46. References Writing Academic English, Second Edition, by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue. White Plains: Addison, Wesley, Longman, 1999. The Little, Brown Handbook, by H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Pearson, 2004.
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