Sentence types
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Sentence types Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Sentence Structure Sentence Types
  • 2. Sentence Structure Sentence Types
  • 3. Sentence Types • Simple • Compound • Complex
  • 4. Basic Elements of Every Sentence SUBJECT PREDICATE
  • 5. Basic Elements Mary plays tennis. SUBJECT PREDICATE
  • 6. SIMPLE SENTENCE Mary plays tennis. SUBJECT PREDICATE one subject one predicate
  • 7. Simple Sentence play tennis.Tom and Mary Compound Subject &
  • 8. Simple Sentence play tennis and swim.Tom and Mary Compound Subject Compound Predicate & &
  • 9. SIMPLE SENTENCE with compound subject Tom and Mary play tennis.
  • 10. SIMPLE SENTENCE with compound subject and compound predicate Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.
  • 11. Hi, I’m Punctuation Pete!
  • 12. SIMPLE SENTENCE with compound subject and compound predicate No comma before “and” in compound subjects and predicates! Tom and Mary play tennis and swim.
  • 13. Compound Sentence with Coordinating Conjunctions SUBJECT PREDICATE SUBJECT PREDICATE and
  • 14. Compound Sentence Tom swims, Mary plays tennis. and
  • 15. COMPOUND SENTENCE: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS FOR AND NOR BUT OR YET SO
  • 16. Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis. COMPOUND SENTENCE: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Independent
  • 17. COMPOUND SENTENCE: COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Tom swims, and Mary plays tennis. Comma before “and” in compound sentences!
  • 18. COMPOUND SENTENCE: CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS MOREOVER HOWEVER OTHERWISE THEREFORE
  • 19. COMPOUND SENTENCE: CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich. Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Independent
  • 20. COMPOUND SENTENCE: CONJUNCTIVE ADVERBS Note: Semicolon before conjunctive adverb and comma after conjunctive adverb! Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.
  • 21. Conjunctive Adverbs “float” • Conjunctive adverbs are sometimes called “floating” adverbs because they can be positioned at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of a clause.
  • 22. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB: AT THE BEGINNING Bob is handsome; moreover, he is rich.
  • 23. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB: IN THE MIDDLE Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.
  • 24. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB: IN THE MIDDLE Note: Place commas before and after a conjunctive adverb in the middle! Bob is handsome; he is, moreover, rich.
  • 25. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB: AT THE END Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.
  • 26. CONJUNCTIVE ADVERB: AT THE END Note: Place a comma before a conjunctive adverb at the end! Bob is handsome; he is rich, moreover.
  • 27. Semicolons • “If the relation between the ideas expressed in the main clauses is very close and obvious without a conjunction, you can separate the clauses with a semicolon” (Little, Brown Handbook, 9th Edition, p. 361).
  • 28. COMPOUND SENTENCE: SEMICOLON Matt has benefited from his exercise program; he is slim and energetic.
  • 29. Complex Sentence SUBJECT PREDICATE SUBJECT PREDICATE even though
  • 30. Complex Sentence Bob is popular he is ugly. even though
  • 31. COMPLEX SENTENCE: SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS EVEN THOUGH WHEN BECAUSE UNLESS WHEREAS ADVERB CLAUSES
  • 32. COMPLEX SENTENCE: SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Bob is popular even though he is ugly. Clause 1 Clause 2 Independent Dependent
  • 33. COMPLEX SENTENCE: SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular. Clause 1 Clause 2 Dependent Independent
  • 34. COMPLEX SENTENCE: SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS When the MAIN clause is first, it is usually NOT followed by a comma! Bob is popular even though he is ugly.
  • 35. COMPLEX SENTENCE: SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS When the ADVERB clause is first, it is followed by a comma! Even though Bob is ugly, he is popular.
  • 36. Compound-Complex Sentence Mike is popular he is good looking, because he is not very happy. but
  • 37. COMPOUND-COMPLEX SENTENCE: COMBINES BOTH TYPES Punctuate each clause according to its rules! Mike is popular because he is good looking, but he is not very happy.
  • 38. Punctuation Review!
  • 39. No commas before “and” in compound subjects and predicates! My friends and I play tennis and go bowling every weekend. SIMPLE SENTENCE
  • 40. Comma before coordinating conjunction! Men may exercise harder, but they may not exercise as regularly as women do. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Coordinating Conjunction
  • 41. Semicolon before conjunctive adverb Comma after conjunctive adverb! Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; however, some schools fail to distinguish between these groups. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Conjunctive Adverb
  • 42. Semicolon after first independent clause-- Commas before and after conjunctive adverb! Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; some schools, however, fail to distinguish between these groups. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Conjunctive Adverb--in the middle
  • 43. Semicolon after first independent clause-- Comma before conjunctive adverb! Native and nonnative English speakers have different needs; some schools fail to distinguish between these groups, however. COMPOUND SENTENCE: Conjunctive Adverb at the end
  • 44. When main clause is first, it is not usually followed by a comma! People had continuous moderate exercise when they had to hunt for food. COMPLEX SENTENCE: Adverb Clauses--Subordinating Conjunction
  • 45. When the adverb clause is first, it is followed by a comma! When people had to hunt for food, they had continuous moderate exercise. COMPLEX SENTENCE: Adverb Clauses--Subordinating Conjunction
  • 46. References Writing Academic English, Second Edition, by Alice Oshima and Ann Hogue. White Plains: Addison, Wesley, Longman, 1999. The Little, Brown Handbook, by H. Ramsey Fowler and Jane E. Aaron, Pearson, 2004.