Chapter 6: Language


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Chapter 6: Language

  1. 1. Chapter 6 Religion PPT by Abe Goldman An Introduction to Human Geography The Cultural Landscape, 8e James M. Rubenstein
  2. 2. Stonehenge (England)‏
  3. 3. <ul><li>K-1 Distribution of Religions </li></ul><ul><li>Geographers are interested in religions because it is essential for understanding… </li></ul><ul><li>Helps us see how humans occupy and use the Earth…and influences migration & interaction </li></ul><ul><li>***ALSO…possible conflicts EX? </li></ul><ul><li>EXPLAIN following terms/phrases using EX’s if asked </li></ul><ul><li>Universalizing religion : relig. that tries to “fit” all different kinds of ppl into it…has various ethnicities w/in it; seeks out converts from other cultures </li></ul><ul><li>3 major univer.: Christianity Islam Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic religion : mainly 1 type of pop. in 1 place </li></ul><ul><li>- Largest? Hinduism (see temples next slide  ) </li></ul><ul><li>- 1 very important ? Judaism WHY ? Foundation of 2 lgest world relig.: Christianity & Islam </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>branch of a religion : large division in relig w/ basic (fundamental) differences </li></ul><ul><li>EX’s: Christn .: Catholics, Protestants, East.Orthodox </li></ul><ul><li>Islam : Sunni & Shi’a Buddh .: Mayhayanist, Theravadist </li></ul><ul><li>** rites of passage : events marking change of status </li></ul><ul><li>(often from child to adult) w/in a religion or culture… </li></ul><ul><li>-often marked by age, hormonal changes, or births </li></ul><ul><li>EX: bar mitzvah, quinceanera, graduation, “debs” </li></ul><ul><li>sacred space : areas set aside for uses such as religious services, burial of the dead, etc. EX’s? </li></ul><ul><li>* cities (Jerusalem) *landmark (Kabbah)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>*buildings (church, synagogue, mosque)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>*ground (cemetery) </li></ul><ul><li>*tree (Bodh-Gaya, spot of Buddha’s Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>*settlement (monastery, etc.)‏ </li></ul>
  5. 6. Synagogues: Slovakia, Hungary, Jerusalem
  6. 7. Buddhist temples
  7. 8. Eastern Orthodoxy
  8. 9. <ul><li>** proselytizing : religion that seeks out converts from other cultures, often w/ missionaries, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>-similar to universalizing </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Christianity, Islam, Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>**tenets: important beliefs of a group; ideas a religion or philosophy is based on </li></ul><ul><li>EX: -- Monotheism; -- Virgin birth; </li></ul><ul><li>--Buddha gained Enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>-- Islam’s no “graven images” = no pic’s in mosques </li></ul><ul><li>Hierarchical vs. Autonomous religion: </li></ul><ul><li>Hier .: defined, organized territories w/ local units </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Catholicism w/ Pope, cardinals, archbishops, bishops, local priests…each over a defined region </li></ul><ul><li>Aut .: Self-sufficient… may join in loose organizations w/other churches, etc., but basically have their own rules, tenets, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>EX: Islam; several Protestant denominations </li></ul>
  9. 10. World Distribution of Religions: World religions by continent
  10. 11. World Population by Religion Over two-thirds of the world’s population belong to Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, or Buddhism. Christianity is the single largest world religion.
  11. 12. <ul><li>Map on P. 184-185 : </li></ul><ul><li>a) 4 mainly Catholic areas & 2 countries (or regions) there: </li></ul><ul><li>--Western Europe: Italy….what else? </li></ul><ul><li>--Central Africa Dem. Rep. of Congo, Rep. of Congo… </li></ul><ul><li>--Lat. America…….All Central Amer., S. Amer., Carib. </li></ul><ul><li>--NE USA + E & SE Canada --Also SW USA </li></ul><ul><li>b) 2 areas where Eastern Orthodox “denominations” are dominate? ( are 14 different ones ) </li></ul><ul><li>E. Africa (Horn) Eastern Europe/& near areas of Asia </li></ul><ul><li>-4 largest of these: Russian (40%), Romanian (20%), Greek (10%) , Bulgaria (10%) (also Serbian-10%)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-2 of the newest of these: Albania, Cyprus, Georgia, Poland, Sinai </li></ul><ul><li>-Country that’s part of the Horn of Africa & is heavily Eastern Orthodox? Ethiopia </li></ul><ul><li>- Religion that makes up the rest of this country? Islam </li></ul>
  12. 13. <ul><li>(continue using p. 184-5)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>c) areas w/ Muslim religions : Middle East; N. Africa; SE Asian (Indonesia/Malaysia); some of Central/S. Asia (Pakistan, Turkmenistan, etc.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>2 main Muslims denominations : Sunni & Shi’a </li></ul><ul><li>Larger by far: Sunni ….about 5X larger than Shi’a (aka Shiite) (“Sunni” = orthodox)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Shi’a: mainly in Iran (90% Shi’a) & Iraq (about 60%)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>d) Continent w/ most diversity in relig .: Africa (S-S)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>2 reasons why it’s probably true: colonialism/imperialism; harsh geography = isolation in some areas; nearness to 2 proselytizing religions (S-S = majority Christian)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>e) 2 areas where Buddhists dominate : </li></ul><ul><li>East Asia, SE Asia (Indochina part…Vietnam, Thailand, etc.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>3 large ( in population ) Buddhist countries : China, Japan, S. Korea </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>Main Buddhist Branches : From </li></ul><ul><li>NOTE: See hand-out…no need to copy… </li></ul><ul><li>Mahayana (56%..mostly China, Japan, Korea): not for individual perfection, keep others from suffering, -compassion, selflessness, wisdom, & servitude (serving others) …vow NOT to enter Nirvana, but try to reach Enlightenment. Big concept: service </li></ul><ul><li>Theravada (38%..mostly SE Asia…Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar/Burma/Sri Lanka, Thailand): </li></ul><ul><li>-oldest form: & Monks focus on a personal goal to become an arhat – (enlightened person w/o worldly desires or suffering), </li></ul><ul><li>Big concept : using meditation & study to gain personal insight…each is on his/her own </li></ul><ul><li>Tantrayana (6%..Tibet, Mongolia, Bhutan, SW China, Nepal, N. India, Russia): </li></ul><ul><li>Verbal repetition of mantras (special ritual phrases) to clear the mind & connect to the spiritual….most famous mantra: &quot; Om mani padme hum .&quot;  </li></ul>
  14. 15. <ul><li>Tantrayana uses…. </li></ul><ul><li>Mani wheels -- prayer wheels – w/ printed repetitions of mantra; spinning the wheel releases the mantra to the universe. </li></ul><ul><li>Various yoga techniques, including breath control, picture of a series of nested geometrical shapes, and Mudras, a symbolic gesture made w/ the hand or fingers </li></ul><ul><li>Visual aids (like mandalas) to help the person awaken their spiritual potential. </li></ul><ul><li>Other symbolic tools or musical instruments : </li></ul><ul><li>vaira (thunderbolt)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>ghanta (bell)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>phurba (ritual dagger)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>damaru (hand drum), etc. </li></ul><ul><li>specialized rituals rooted in Vajrayāna cosmology and beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Chela (student) … a guru (teacher), who gradually releases hidden or inner knowledge to the initiate thru oral teachings given by a master. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Diffusion of Islam Islam diffused rapidly & widely from its area of origin in Arabia. It eventually stretched from southeast Asia to West Africa.
  16. 17. <ul><li>Cairo, Egypt Iraq Shi’a (bombed by Sunnis) Oman </li></ul>
  17. 18. Diffusion of Buddhism Buddhism diffused gradually from its origin in NE India to Sri Lanka, SE Asia, & eventually China & Japan.
  18. 19. Statue of Buddha Hong Kong, China
  19. 20. <ul><li>Buddha Japan, bronze & gold gilding Buddha, Tibet (Shakyamuni)‏ </li></ul>
  20. 21. <ul><li>Buddha on lotus Smiling Buddha (China)‏ </li></ul>
  21. 22. <ul><li>Buddha, Thailand…All these show how a universalizing religion molds the religion to fit that culture </li></ul>
  22. 23. <ul><li>Deities : Buddha is not believed to be a god; some ppl in some branches (espec. Mahayanists) do believe in “God”; but it is not necessary to “define” god to them; mostly see “blessed” as being saints </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmogony : varies w/ branch, but mainly we’re on Earth to learn suffering & search for Truth (enlightenment). If we reach it we can go to a higher place…..& avoid reincarnation </li></ul><ul><li>Hearth : NE India & Nepal </li></ul>
  23. 24. <ul><li>Map on p. 186: Europe: </li></ul><ul><li>a) Countries mainly Lutheran ? Iceland, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Germany, Estonia </li></ul><ul><li>b) The 3 Calvinist areas? Scotland, N. Switzerland, N. Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>*What we call most Calvinists in USA : Presbyterians </li></ul><ul><li>c) prominent Catholic countries : Italy, Austria, France, Belgium, Netherlands, Spain </li></ul><ul><li>&quot; Eastern border&quot; Catholic countries : Hungary, Austria, Slovenia, Slovakia, Czech Rep., Latvia, Lithuania </li></ul><ul><li>d) Eastern Europe : Most are what Christn. branch ? Eastern Orthodoxy </li></ul><ul><li>Main denomination of Russia & the Ukraine ? </li></ul><ul><li>Russian Orthodox Greece? Greek Orthodox </li></ul>
  24. 25. Christian Branches in Europe Protestant denominations, Catholicism, & Eastern Orthodoxy are dominant in different regions of Europe—a result of many historic interactions.
  25. 26. Christian Branches in the U.S. Fig. 6-3: Distribution of Christians in the U.S. Shaded areas are counties with more than 50% of church membership concentrated in Roman Catholicism or one of the Protestant denominations.
  26. 27. Religions of the U.S.
  27. 28. <ul><li>Denomination : a division of a branch </li></ul><ul><li>-unites a # of local congregations ( groups that gather ) into one group </li></ul><ul><li>EX’s: Southern Baptists; Episcopalians; Presbyterians; Methodists </li></ul><ul><li>Sect : fairly small group that has broken away from a denomination </li></ul><ul><li>EX’s: -the Mormon polygamists </li></ul><ul><li>-Freewill Baptists or Fire-baptized Baptist </li></ul><ul><li>Some sects are considered to be “cults” if they deal more w/ over-controlling ppl’s behaviors & have behaviors that greatly vary from the “norm” </li></ul><ul><li>EX’s: David Koresh & the Branch Davidians broke from the First Assembly of God Denom. (Waco, TX)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Note: “cult” actually just means extreme devotion & devout religion…now has a different idea recently </li></ul>
  28. 29. <ul><li>Map p. 187: USA : </li></ul><ul><li>a) 2 main denominations in the Great Lakes areas? Lutheran, Roman Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>b) Main denomination of N.E. USA: </li></ul><ul><li>Roman Catholic </li></ul><ul><li>c) What’s dark green indicate? Methodist </li></ul><ul><li>-Where are the large pockets of these? W.VA, MD, CO, Kansas, Ohio </li></ul><ul><li>d) Main denomination of S.E. USA: Baptist </li></ul><ul><li>e) 4 states where you find the most Mormons? </li></ul><ul><li>Utah, Nevada, Wyoming, Idaho </li></ul><ul><li>- Which state is dominated by Mormons? Utah </li></ul><ul><li>* What’s the official name of the Mormon church? </li></ul><ul><li>Church of Jesus Christ, Latter Day Saints </li></ul>
  29. 30. Place Names in Québec Place names in Québec show the impact of religion on the landscape. Many cities and towns Are named after saints.
  30. 31. P. 208: Roman Catholic Hierarchy in U.S. The Catholic Church divides the U.S. into province s headed by archbishops . Provinces are divided into dioceses , headed by bishops .
  31. 32. Religious Conflicts (p. 207)‏ <ul><li>Taliban (Afghanistan) vs. Western values: </li></ul><ul><li>-Issues: women; kites? Soccer; TV </li></ul><ul><li>Hinduism vs. Social equality: caste system </li></ul><ul><li>-Aryans took over about 1500 BCE & established 4 levels based on social position + $ (econ.)…also “untouchables” </li></ul><ul><li>-legally is gone…but still see prejudices </li></ul><ul><li>Religion vs. communism  </li></ul>
  32. 33. <ul><li>Notes on Communism vs. religions (p.208): </li></ul><ul><li>Commun. basically hostile (rejecting) of religion; </li></ul><ul><li>-often didn’t “punish”, but rewarded those against </li></ul><ul><li>USSR: Eastern Orthodoxy + Islam mainly affected </li></ul><ul><li>China: Mainly Buddhism …also some Islam & Christian </li></ul><ul><li>-Tibetan Bud. Shrines destroyed; Laos & Cambodia also had shrines, statues destroyed </li></ul>
  33. 34. <ul><li>Conflict in Mid-East: </li></ul><ul><li>Israelis vs. Palestinians: </li></ul><ul><li>In former “Palestine”, now Israel </li></ul><ul><li>Jerusalem is a big part of this conflict </li></ul><ul><li>a) 3 religions that view this city as holy: (p. 210-11)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism, Christianity, Islam </li></ul><ul><li>Part of Europe held for yrs by Muslims: Spain/Portg. </li></ul><ul><li>(Iberian Peninsula) + part of W. France… & some of SE Europe (that’s why there are Muslims in Bosnia, etc….the B_____ Region )‏ </li></ul>
  34. 35. <ul><li>How Jerusalem is “Holy City” for 3 “Semitic relig.: </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism Christianity Islam . </li></ul><ul><li>Abraham + Sara = Isaac Abra. + Hagar = Ishmael </li></ul><ul><li>Wall of 2 nd Temple Dome of the Rock </li></ul><ul><li>“ Rock” = where Abra. Muslim’s 3 rd holiest city </li></ul><ul><li>took Isaac Muslim Quarter </li></ul><ul><li>Wailing Wall </li></ul><ul><li>Jewish Quarter - (Also W-W)‏ </li></ul><ul><li> -Church of the Holy </li></ul><ul><li>Sepulcher </li></ul><ul><li> -various “patriarchates” </li></ul><ul><li>(Gk.Orth., Cath., </li></ul><ul><li> Coptic, & Ethiopian)‏ </li></ul>
  35. 36. Jerusalem The Old City of Jerusalem contains holy sites for Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.
  36. 37. <ul><li>4 quarters of Jerusa.? Christian, Jewish, Muslim, Armenian </li></ul><ul><li>Why Jerusalem has 4 quarters: </li></ul><ul><li>- J: West areas: historically has been Jewish majority </li></ul><ul><li>-Arab: Palestinians majority in Old City, (NE) … </li></ul><ul><li>-borders Jordan & was part of Jordan once </li></ul><ul><li>-Armenian: for last 1000 yrs. E. Orthodoxy patriarchate -smallest of 4 quart. (is Chr. but separ. from Chr. Qu.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-Chr.: Remains from Catholic Crusades </li></ul><ul><li>The Crusades: (209) 150 yrs. of “Holy wars” by Chr. to take Holy Land from Muslim “infidels” </li></ul><ul><li>*1099: Chr. took Jerusalem *1187 Musl. took it </li></ul><ul><li>*1229 Christians *1244 Muslims </li></ul>
  37. 38. <ul><li>e) Jews vs. Muslims in Palestine : (p. 210-12)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-Palestine/Jerusalem = area between Sinai Pen. & Lebanon… </li></ul><ul><li>-Ottoman Turks held (1516 till defeat in WWI (1917)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-1919: League of Nat. gave to Grt. Britain to control </li></ul><ul><li>-Zionist movement: turn of 20 th century…Jews began trying to return </li></ul><ul><li>Why Jews (ethnic religion usually won’t migrate much ), migrated out…& name of this migration? </li></ul><ul><li>Diaspora : occurred b/c Jews attempted to overthrow Romans, </li></ul><ul><li>-Romans forced them out of their homeland </li></ul>
  38. 39. Boundary Changes in Palestine/Israel The UN partition plan for Palestine in 1947 contrasted w/ the boundaries that were established after the 1948–49 War. Major changes later resulted from the 1967 War (7-day War).
  39. 40. West Bank: Political & Physical Geography Political control of the West Bank is split between Palestinians & Israelis (mainly Israeli control). W-B includes many of regions higher altitude
  40. 41. Section of Israeli Security Barrier: A typical section of the security barrier built by Israel in the West Bank .
  41. 42. Israel’s Security Zone in Lebanon Israel established a security zone in S. Lebanon in 1982. When Israel withdrew in 2000, UN helped draw the boundary between the countries.
  42. 43. Mecca, Islam’s Holiest City Makah (Mecca )‏ is the holiest city in Islam and is the site of pilgrimage for millions of Muslims each year. There are numerous holy sites in the city. 3 Islamic holiest cities: 1: Makah 2. Medina 3. Jerusalem
  43. 44. <ul><li>Mecca, with Kabbah in center… Note minarets … </li></ul>
  44. 45. Makkah during the Haj Pilgrimage The Ka’ba stands at the center of the Great Mosque (al-Haran al Sharif) in Makkah.
  45. 46. <ul><li>The Kabbah (kabah) in Mecca, Islam’s holiest shrine </li></ul>
  46. 47. <ul><li>11) Religious wars in Ireland: </li></ul><ul><li>Most troublesome boundary in W. Europe… </li></ul><ul><li>“ The troubles…” </li></ul>
  47. 48. Ireland: Protestant Christians vs. Catholic Christians <ul><li>Protestants vs. Catholics : Ireland ( Eire ) was Catholic & then taken over by Protestant England centuries ago…& part of UK in 1801 </li></ul><ul><li>Eire wanted independence—esp. after the 1840’s (why?....horror of the famine  anger, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Began to organize & fight in late 1800’s into early in 20 th cent. </li></ul><ul><li>-1921: became self-governing (still part of UK)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>-1937: full independence… Republic of Ireland declared 1949 </li></ul><ul><li>Rep. of Ire . = peaceful…but N. Ireland has Protestant majority that has kept Catholics from higher paying jobs & out of schools, areas, etc., & demonstrations began in 1960’s </li></ul>
  48. 49. <ul><li>N. Ireland: Calvinist & Anglican (Episcopalian)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>- IRA : Irish Republican Army ; militant group that fights for unification of R.I & N. Ireland ( freedom fighters or terrorists?)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>- UDF : Ulster Defense Forces: militant Protestant extremists </li></ul><ul><li>-most of both sides in N. Ireland have always wanted peace, but extremists push their ideas (sound familiar??) </li></ul><ul><li>Recently have decided to lay down arms… </li></ul><ul><li>What world events influenced this? </li></ul>
  49. 50. Protestants in Northern Ireland % Protestant population by district in Ireland, 1911 . When Ireland became independent in 1937 , 26 northern districts w/ large Protestant populations chose to remain part of the UK.
  50. 51. <ul><li>“ All gave some. Some gave all…” </li></ul><ul><li>Post-ceasefire mural, Protestant West Belfast </li></ul>
  51. 52. Diffusion of Universalizing Religions: Each of the 3 main universalizing religions diffused widely from its hearth
  52. 53. Diffusion of Christianity: Christianity diffused from Palestine thru the Roman Empire & continued diffusing thru Europe after the fall of Rome. Later was replaced by Islam much of the Mideast & North Africa.
  53. 54. <ul><li>Shinto : Ethnic religion of Japan that involves reverence their ancestors </li></ul><ul><li>Also believes some parts of nature have spirits & are sacred </li></ul><ul><li>Sikhism : Monotheistic religion of the Punjab in India </li></ul><ul><li>Blends some aspects of Islam, Christianity, & Hinduism </li></ul><ul><li>Know **Monotheism vs. polytheism </li></ul>
  54. 55. <ul><li>Sikhism is concentrated in the Punjab of India , the hearth of Sikhism </li></ul><ul><li>Irredentism: 2 states arguing over a region…both claim it…EX: Jammu & Kashmir </li></ul>
  55. 56. The Golden Temple in Amritsar (Darbar Sahib): India is the holiest structure for Sikhism .
  56. 57. Shinto & Buddhism in Japan Since Japanese can be both Shinto & Buddhist, are many areas in Japan where over 2/3 of the population are both Shinto & Buddhist… peacefully…
  57. 58. <ul><li>Organization of Space: </li></ul><ul><li>Places of worship </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred space: </li></ul><ul><li>Disposing of the dead, Religious settlements, & Religious toponyms names </li></ul>
  58. 59. Holy Sites in Buddhism Most holy sites in Buddhism are locations of important events in Buddha’s life & are clustered in NE India & Southern Nepal.
  59. 60. Buddhist Temple Bodh Gaya, India The Buddha reached Enlightenment here under a bo tree
  60. 61. Ritual Bathing in the Ganges River: Hindu pilgrims achieve purification by bathing in the Ganges.
  61. 62. Hindu Holy Places Hierarchy of Hindu holy places: Some sites are holy to Hindus throughout India. Others have a regional or sectarian importance, or are important only locally.
  62. 63. Cremation near Taj Mahal
  63. 64. Baha’i Temple in Uganda Baha’i has at least 1 temple on each continent… It is a u_____ or a p_____ religion
  64. 65. <ul><li>Religion Overview: </li></ul><ul><li>(E = ethnic… U = universalizing… Cir. = around)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>3 Main Religions from India : </li></ul><ul><li>Hindu (oldest—cir. 3500 BCE) polytheistic E </li></ul><ul><li>Buddhism (cir. 500 BCE) U </li></ul><ul><li>Sikhism (cir. 1500 CE) monotheistic U </li></ul><ul><li>3 Semitic Religions </li></ul><ul><li>(from Semites = Jews…Hamidic = Arab) </li></ul><ul><li>ALL 3 are monotheistic </li></ul><ul><li>Judaism (cir. 3000 BCE) E </li></ul><ul><li>Christianity (cir. 35 CE) U </li></ul><ul><li>Islam (cir. 560 CE) U </li></ul><ul><li>(…..END…..)‏ </li></ul>
  65. 66. <ul><li>Buddhism: </li></ul><ul><li>Deities : Buddha is not believed to be a god; some ppl in some branches (espec. Mahayanists) do believe in “God”; but it is not necessary to “define” god to them; mostly see “blessed” as being saints </li></ul><ul><li>Cosmogony : varies w/ branch, but mainly we’re on Earth to learn suffering & search for Truth (enlightenment). If we reach it we can go to a higher place…..& avoid reincarnation </li></ul><ul><li>Hearth : NE India & Nepal </li></ul><ul><li>Branches & Denominations : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Theravada : We are here to reach our own salvation thru isolated meditations, etc. (monks, etc.; no priests); in SE Asia, Sri Lanka </li></ul><ul><li>2. Mahayana : Thru serving others & helping we can reach enlightenment (China, Japan, Korea)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>3. Tantrayana : Mahayana style in Tibet & Mongolia </li></ul>
  66. 67. <ul><li>Areas in the world today : Ma. : China, E. Asia (Japan, Korea) Ther. : SE Asia (Vietnam, Thai., etc.) Tan. : Tibet, Mongolia </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred texts : Theravada scriptures : “baskets” of law </li></ul><ul><li>Mahayana sutras & Tripitakas : writings thought to be words of the Buddha </li></ul><ul><li>Sacred places : Places related to events in Buddha’s life </li></ul><ul><li>Lumbini: his birth </li></ul><ul><li>Bodh Gaya (& tree he was under): attained enlightenment </li></ul><ul><li>Deer Park in Sarnath, his 1 st sermon </li></ul><ul><li>Kusinagara: he died & achieved Nirvana, peaceful extinction </li></ul>
  67. 68. <ul><li>Sacred buildings : Temples, pagodas </li></ul><ul><li>Universalizing/global : Yes (1 of 3 largest)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>% of the world population : 6% </li></ul><ul><li>Rituals/rites : Varies w/ groups; These are NOT strict observances </li></ul><ul><li>Birth : </li></ul><ul><li>baby “registered” at local temple </li></ul><ul><li>sprinkled w/ holy water </li></ul><ul><li>candle wax dripped into water bowl = joining 4 elements: water, earth. air, fire </li></ul><ul><li>Adulthood : none specific to age…varies w/ cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Marriage : some areas: think it’s bad luck for monk to attend; but most think it’s OK; bride + groom at temple, & “thread ceremony” (read)‏ </li></ul>
  68. 69. <ul><li>Death : </li></ul><ul><li>Theravada : reincarnation of the dharma of each person…the balance of good & evil; cremate dead as Buddha was; monks visit family & chant to comfort </li></ul><ul><li>Mahayana : just after death, person is in a 4 day trance… </li></ul><ul><li>1 st Bardo: monks can communicate w/ dead thru chants, etc.; dead sees bright light …if embrace will be free of rebirth, but most fear it & are reborn (doesn’t know he I dead)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd Bardo: person sees thoughts & events in life & knows he is dead </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd Bardo: Now free to choose new parents & new identity </li></ul>
  69. 70. <ul><li>APHG: REVIEWING FOR EXAM ON CH. 1-3: </li></ul><ul><li>1. 3 types of regions: 12. Pop.pyramids </li></ul><ul><li>2. types of diffusion 13. emigration..immigration </li></ul><ul><li>3. GPS/GIS, etc. 14. Asian immigr. To USA </li></ul><ul><li>4. elements of culture 15. Europ. USA </li></ul><ul><li>5. lat./long.: using it….hi/mid/lo </li></ul><ul><li>6. globalization concepts 16. Euro. immigration </li></ul><ul><li>7. 3 Types of density 17. US interregional </li></ul><ul><li>8. characteristics of MDC’s 18. Latino imm. to USA </li></ul><ul><li>& LDC’s 19. urban/rural migr. </li></ul><ul><li>9. demographics: TFR, IMR, 20. encouraging migra.? </li></ul><ul><li>CDR, CBR, NIR, life expect., 21. push/pull/obstacles… </li></ul><ul><li>literacy rate, etc…. </li></ul><ul><li>10. doubling time: inversely proportional to what??? </li></ul><ul><li>11. Stages 1…2…3…4…characteristics of each? </li></ul>
  70. 71. <ul><li>CH. 4: Pop vs. Folk Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Custom: performed by grp. of ppl.; habit by an individual </li></ul><ul><li>US, Great Britain, France, Soviet Union </li></ul><ul><li>Middle Atlantic &quot;I&quot; house </li></ul><ul><li>China; taboo against pork consumption by Hindus </li></ul><ul><li>France; Brazil </li></ul><ul><li>popular customs : invented in known time, place, ppl, etc </li></ul><ul><li>folk customs : anonymous source, unknown date, unknown originator </li></ul><ul><li>7. popular customs diffuse rapidly, extensively, & thru modern communications; folk customs diffuse more slowly, at a smaller scale, & thru migration (reloc. diff.)‏ </li></ul><ul><li>8. b; c; a </li></ul><ul><li>9. recognition generates higher consumption </li></ul><ul><li>10. loss of traditional values; </li></ul><ul><li>fear domination by W. nations </li></ul><ul><li>11. True </li></ul><ul><li>12. False </li></ul><ul><li>13. True </li></ul><ul><li>14. False </li></ul><ul><li>15. True </li></ul><ul><li>16. False </li></ul><ul><li>17. False </li></ul><ul><li>18. False </li></ul><ul><li>19. True </li></ul><ul><li>20. False 21. False </li></ul><ul><li>22.True 23. False </li></ul><ul><li>24. True 25. True </li></ul>
  71. 72. <ul><li>CH. 5 Lang. Review : </li></ul><ul><li>26. migration from Britain to the American colonies </li></ul><ul><li>27. isolation of the newly independent U.S. from Britain </li></ul><ul><li>28. Belgium; Flemish or Dutch; French </li></ul><ul><li>29. Indo-European; Romance; Spanish; Portuguese </li></ul><ul><li>30. Indo-European </li></ul><ul><li>31. Sino-Tibetan </li></ul><ul><li>32. Germanic; Romance; Slavic or Balto-Slavic </li></ul><ul><li>33. first speakers of Indo-European language </li></ul><ul><li>34. vocabulary; spelling; pronunciation </li></ul><ul><li>35. Afro-Asiatic; Arabic </li></ul><ul><li>36. False  37. True </li></ul><ul><li>38. True 39. True </li></ul><ul><li>40. True 41. False </li></ul><ul><li>42. True 43. True </li></ul><ul><li>44. False 45. False </li></ul><ul><li>46. False 47. True </li></ul><ul><li>48. True 49. False 50. True </li></ul>
  72. 73. <ul><li>CH. 6: Religions Review : </li></ul><ul><li>1. universalizing : holidays revolve around events in founder's life ethnic : holidays revolve around agricultural calendar </li></ul><ul><li>2. Hinduism; India </li></ul><ul><li>3. Buddhism </li></ul><ul><li>4. Christianity; Protestantism; Roman Catholicism; Eastern Orthodoxy </li></ul><ul><li>5. Sunni; Shiite  6. Shiite  7. c; a; d; b </li></ul><ul><li>8. Roman Catholic; Protestant </li></ul><ul><li>9. Israel; Egypt, Syria, Jordan; Egypt </li></ul><ul><li>10. a. Buddhism b. Daoism (aka Taoism) </li></ul><ul><li>c. Shinto d. Confucianism </li></ul><ul><li>--people often follow more than one religion </li></ul><ul><li>11. True  12. True  13. True </li></ul><ul><li>14. False 15. False 16. True </li></ul><ul><li>17. False 18. False 19. False </li></ul><ul><li>20. False 21. True 22. False </li></ul><ul><li>23. True 24. False 25. False </li></ul>
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