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SHAC Water Conservation - Maggie Lawton
 

SHAC Water Conservation - Maggie Lawton

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Design Criteria ...

Design Criteria
•Water efficient fittings and appliances
•On-site water capture and reuse
•Water supply flow rates optimised to balance required performance and conservation
•Local retention of stormwater runoff, stormwater treatment train with consideration of raingardens, roofgardens and swales
•Wastewater minimised and/or reused; information on water use readily available
•In-house water supply flow rate optimised
•Plumbing system designed for water and energy efficiency
•Site design recognition of local soil and climate conditions and low water use garden design applied.

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SHAC Water Conservation - Maggie Lawton SHAC Water Conservation - Maggie Lawton Presentation Transcript

  • Water Conservation SHaC Video-conference 14 May 2008
  • Water in the built environment
    • Water Supply
    • Wastewater treatment
    • Stormwater treatment
  • Judging Criteria
    • RESEARCH & DESIGN & DEVELOPMENT 30%
    • 1. Teamwork and Collaboration within Tertiary organisation, and with Industry, Local Government, and other Teams
    • 2. Project Management: Research, Planning and Process
    • COMMUNITY CONNECTION 25%
    • 3. Community Engagement
    • 4. Communication of design and rational to community
    • DESIGN AND ARCHITECTURE 45%
    • 5. Health
    • 6. Energy
    • 7. Material and Resource Use
    • 8. Water & Waste Management
    • 9. Site and Environment
    • 10. Architecture and Affordability
  • Hydrologic Cycle
  • Water Criteria
    • 90 l/pp/pd design critera is achievable without supplementary supply
    • Stormwater flows attenuated
    • Wastewater reduced where possible
    • Innovation being sought, in particular integration of water services.
  • What we are looking for
    • Safe and healthy water services to the home
    • Maximising water use efficiency
    • Providing resilience to the system through supplementary supply
    • Retaining stormwater on-site, allowing infiltration
    • Integrating services where possible
    • Pushing the boundaries, gently; showing innovation
    • Understanding (not necessarily agreeing with) regulatory constraints and working with regulators where required
    • Demonstrating how design criteria have been developed to meet performance targets
    • Integrating the water services where possible and considering whether integration with other services .
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  • Social Considerations
    • Less than 0.08% of all the Earth's water is available for biological life. Yet over the next two decades human use is estimated to increase by about 40%.
    • Local Government Act requires thinking sustainably across the four pillars of wellbeing – cultural, environmental, social and economic.
  • Building resilience
    • Reducing competing demands for water in parts of the Country where water resources are constrained.
    • Reducing the need for further large water supply systems which cause changes to the water cycle and do not operate in harmony with natural water cycles and water catchments.
    • Anticipating potential climate related changes and resulting water cycle disturbances
    • Reducing the contribution of leaks and spills from wastewater on declining water quality in New Zealand
    • Recognising that some water sources are not renewable in the short-term, for example groundwater is generally non-renewable for practical purposes
  • Cost savings
    • Saving on capital costs through delaying or eliminating infrastructure development.
    • Achieving cost savings in wastewater management through reducing the water that goes through the system.
    • Saving cost associated with energy through reducing in-house hot water use.
    • Saving costs associated with energy and maintenance in both the treatment of water to a potable standard and its reticulation.
    • Saving energy and maintenance costs in the reticulation and treatment of wastewater.
  • life supporting resources declining consumption of life supporting resources rising
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  • “ We can’t solve problems by using the same kind of thinking we used when we created them” Albert Einstein.
  • From this….
  • To this…
  • We could be going from: This….. To this
  • Water Use Efficiency
  • Typical breakdown of domestic water use
  • Comparison of daily per capita water uses * =metered with volumetric pricing Council Daily Per Capita Water Use Figure Nelson 160* Waitakere 167* Rodney 179* Metrowater (Auckland City) 184* Manukau 189* Papakura 190* Kawerau 214 Upper Hutt 227 Tauranga 265* Christchurch 333 South Taranaki 450 Kaikoura 648 Kapiti 650 Queenstown Lakes District 750
  • Current technology
    • Technology including
    • Rainwater tanks
    • Greywater Reuse
    • Reduced or low flow devices
    • Pressure reducers
    • Tap aerators and flow restrictors
    • Dual flush/low flush toilet
    • Water efficient appliances
    • WELS rating system should be in use this year
    Smarter use of Water
  • Products Costs $s Costs with installation Water savings % of total use Accumulative water savings % of total use Gismo 2 5-10 5 Tap Aerators 10 5-10 10 Outdoor hose washers 2 2-5 12-15 Low flow shower head 75 150 10-15 22-30 Dual Flush Toilets (<5l) 225 300 10-15 27-40 4 star rated washing machine 1200 10 37-50 Rain barrel 400 litres or 300 10-15 47-60 Rain tank 4500 litres or 4000 4500 40-60 75 plus Wastewater recovery system 3000 4000 20-40 60 plus
  • Relative increasing cost and difficulty Schematic of DM options against cost and difficulty of implementation for the domestic user
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  • Landcare’s water management Rainwater from all roofs is collected in this 25,000 litre tank. It is used for toilet flushing on ground floor, for urinals and for irrigation of glasshouses.
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  • Kapiti Coast District Council
    • Public education
    • Wide ranging education progs
    • & free services,eg. green gardener
    • & plumber, and garden show
    • Subdivision Code of Practice promoted low impact urban design
    • Proposed a District Plan change- two acceptable solutions which promote water conservation
    • But: no metering and still have 650 l/pp/pd
  • Modeled water reduction for Kapiti
  • Composting Toilets · ·      
  • Wastewater Management
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  • Stormwater Managament
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  • Prevention Techniques
    • Landscaping
      • rain gardens, swales, absorbent
      • materials
    • Green Roofs
    • Pervious Pavement
    • Ponds and Wetlands
    • Infiltration Trenches
    Common site-level Best Management Practices
  • Water Quality Friendly Streets Source: City of Portland Water Quality Friendly Streets Program. http://www.portlandonline.com/bes/index.cfm?c=32066
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  • The Kapiti Coast District Council experience in changing the rules of the game for subdivision & development Out with the old and in with the new
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    • Living areas face the street
    • Permeable fences
    • Houses facing reserve/public open space
    • Located on site for solar access
    • Each house has private space outside to rear or back of property
    • Narrower carriageways
    • Located near planned railway station
    • Building materials chosen for long term durability
    On the ground change
    • Low flow showerheads
    • Watersmart two tank system
      • Rainwater for use in gardens
      • Town supply for use in house
    • Greywater collected for watering lawns
    • Uses covenants on the title to ensure systems are maintained
    On the ground change
  • Example of 500m 2 lots SMA 2 54% 61% 61% 48% 61% 53% 55%
  • Permitted Activity Route, North Shore
    • “ Off-the-shelf” standard solutions
    • SMA & Activity
    • Preferred mitigation methods
    • Rain tanks
    • Bio - retention
    • Provide multiple benefits
    • Practice notes to aid with design
    (Source:Maplewood, Minisata)
  • Bio-retention
    • Rain gardens, SW planters, Bio- retention swales, Tree Pits
    • Benefits:
      • Water volume reduction,
      • Peak flow control,
      • Water quality,
      • Amenity
    • Min Design
    • Requirements:
      • Min depth 600mm of planting soil
      • 8% of area (or 5%)
    • Practice note to help with design
    • Gardens not treatment devices
  • Water Quality Friendly Streets Curb Cut w/Pad
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  • Council documentation
      • Engineering standards
      • Council Engineering Manuals
      • Verification Methods and Acceptable Solutions
      • Information Pamphlets and Brochures
      • Practice Notes/Design Guidelines
  • Based on work of Prof Hans Schreier
    • A Traditional Approach
    • >Impervious Surfaces
    • < Buffer Zones
    • Stormwater Piping
    • Large scale infrastructure
    • End of Pipe Treatment
    • Point Source Pollution
    • Expanding Water Supplies
    • Focus – Single Pollutants
    • Water Use of Human Activities
    • Government Management
    • A Sustainable Approach
    • < Impervious Surfaces
    • > Buffer Zones
    • Creating biological solutions
    • On-site solutions
    • Detaining Stormwater
    • Non-Point Source Pollution
    • Controlling Demand
    • Source Control
    • Water for Environmental Services
    • Community Involvement
  • Design Criteria
    • Water efficient fittings and appliances
    • On-site water capture and reuse
    • Water supply flow rates optimised to balance required performance and conservation
    • Local retention of stormwater runoff, stormwater treatment train with consideration of raingardens, roofgardens and swales
    • Wastewater minimised and/or reused; information on water use readily available
    • In-house water supply flow rate optimised
    • Plumbing system designed for water and energy efficiency
    • Site design recognition of local soil and climate conditions and low water use garden design applied.
  • Website resources
    • http:// www.level.org.nz
    • http://www.sustainablehouseholds.org.nz/actionpdfs/save_water_action.pdf
    • http://www.smarterhomes.org.nz/water/
    • http://www.ecobob.co.nz/EcoBusiness/Browse.aspx also good for products and services
    • http://www.waitakere.govt.nz/CnlSer/wtr/wtrsavetips.asp
    • http://www.ecomatters.org.nz/09_Water/091_Water/091d_Water_06_top_10_tips.htm
    • http://www.ecan.govt.nz/Our+Environment/Energy/YourHome/homeimprovement/hot-water.htm for hot water saving tips
    • http://www.bethedifference.gw.govt.nz
    • http://www.ccc.govt.nz.waterwause/story2.497.cfm?
    • http://www.greenpagesaustralia.com.au
    • http://www.consumerbuild.org.nz/publish/maintenance/kitchen-bathroom-plumbing.php
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  • Definitions Residential Built Environment “ The residential built environment consists of the buildings and supporting infrastructure that together constitute the surroundings in which people dwell. It includes, therefore, not only people’s dwellings but other neighbourhood buildings. It also includes the arrangement of infrastructure that service dwellings and the neighbourhoods in which those dwellings are situated.” Sustainability and Affordability “ In achieving sustainability of residential built environments the focus is on the sustainability of individual dwellings but also the neighbourhoods in which they are situated. The goal is to make improving the sustainability of dwellings and neighbourhoods both affordable and cost-competitive.”
  • Systems Industry, Infrastructure, Government, Consumers Pull based on market and needs Energy Water IEQ Pull based on prioritised systems and HSS Market Transformation – pan communication and alignment Policy and Regulation – pan regulatory involvement Beacon’s Operating Model Neighbourhoods New Homes Retrofit Homes
    • BEACON WATER TARGETS
    • All Homes - reducing per capita demand for reticulated water by 40% and council mains supply by 50%.
    • All Homes & Neighbourhoods – Effective management of three waters to create a more resilient water system
    Nation Region Neighbourhood Home City