Can motivational videos improve
agency and self-efficacy:
Evidence from a Nairobi slum
Nada Eissa, James Habyarimana and W...
The challenges of slum life
• Unemployment
– Lack of opportunities
• Inadequate public good provision
– Waste management
–...
Research questions
• Can some of these problems be addressed by more
active participation by slum-dwellers?
– Entrepreneur...
Context: Sanitation in the Kenyan Constitution
• Article 43. (1) Every person has the right—
(a) to the highest attainable...
Sanitation mobilization campaign
• The Akiba Mashinani Trust promotes
housing, sanitation, and other causes in
Mukuru and ...
The intervention
• We screen a selection of motivational videos
delivered to women in Mukuru, a Nairobi slum
• Motivationa...
The Design
+
Explicit call to action
regarding sanitation
Explicit call to action
regarding sanitation
TreatmentPlacebo
No...
Mukuru slum
Venues
• Schools inappropriate for day-time showing
• Video halls frequented by young males – inappropriate
for our sample
Venues
• Videos screened twice a day (morning and
afternoon), four days a week
Video sessions
Outcomes of interest
• Willingness to sign the AMT petition
• Other indicators of collective action
– Responses to vignett...
Sampling and recruitment and women
• 150 circles of radius 50m (exclude vacant land,
swamps, etc.)
• Randomly assign circl...
Location of venues and treatment clusters
Invitations*
* Courtesy of Well Told Story
Implementation
Baseline data: Treatment-Control balance
Treatment-Placebo balance (I)
Treatment-Placebo balance (II)
• Individuals asked to state degree of
agreement with the following statements:
Measuring self-efficacy
Baseline self-efficacy
0
.05
.1
.15
Density
15 20 25 30 35 40
total_ses
Control Makutano MiL
kernel = epanechnikov, bandwi...
Baseline group membership
Awareness of community initiatives
Priority initiatives
Baseline engagement with political
figures
Baseline political participation
Baseline action on sanitation
Video attendance
0%
10%
20%
30%
40%
50%
60%
70%
80%
90%
100%
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12
Sharethatviewedatleastnshows
Num...
Attrition at endline survey
• Participation in the petition
• Responses to vignettes
• Measures of self efficacy
• Levels of community engagement
Resu...
• Intent to treat – by treatment assignment
• 2SLS – using treatment assignment and
distance to venue as instruments for
a...
First stage
(1) (2) (3) (4)
Attended at least one show Makutano MiL
Makutano
& AMT
MiL &
AMT
Makutano Junction 0.483*** 0....
Petition: did you sign? - ITT
Panel A: ITT (1) (2)
Makutano Junction -0.026 -0.026
(0.045) (0.038)
Mother-in-Law 0.008 0.0...
Panel B: IV Attended at least one show (1) (2)
Makutano Junction -0.073 -0.064
(0.115) (0.099)
Mother-in-Law 0.015 0.032
(...
Vignette 1
Mike lives in a house that like others in his area has lots of solid waste
disposal outside. In particular, the...
Vignette 1: ITT
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Vin1 Q1 Vin1 Q2 Vin1 Q3 Vin1 Q4
Std.
Effect
Panel A: ITT results
Makutano Junction -0....
Vignette 2
Alice was robbed on her way home from the market by some unknown individuals.
She brings her complaint to the l...
Vignette 2: ITT
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Vin2 Q1 Vin2 Q2 Vin2 Q3 Vin2 Q4 Std. Effect
Panel A: ITT results
Makutano Junction -0....
Vignette 3
The local water supply in Wangeci’s community is not very clean.
Wangeci is concerned about the health of her e...
Vignette 3: ITT
(1) (2) (3)
Vin3 Q1 Vin3 Q2 Std. Effect
Panel A: ITT results
Makutano Junction 0.008 0.022 0.040
(0.051) (...
Vignette 4
Mumbi discovers the teachers at her child’s school have been skipping class. She
confronts the deputy head teac...
Vignette 4: ITT
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Vin4 Q1 Vin4 Q2 Vin4 Q3 Vin4 Q4 Std. Effect
Panel A: ITT results
Makutano Junction 0.0...
Vignette 5
Eva thinks her local community leader does not care
about local issues that primarily affect women. In the
next...
Vignette 5: ITT
(1)
Vin5 Q1
Panel A: ITT results
Makutano Junction -0.036
(0.045)
Mother-in-Law -0.082*
(0.043)
Makutano J...
Ex post locus of control
Engagement and decision making: ITT
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Community
Leader
Group
Member
Attend
Groups
Engagement
Index
Decis...
Engagement and decision making: IV
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)
Community
Leader
Group
Member
Attend
Groups
Engagement
Index
Decisi...
• There is little discernible effect of the
treatment, Makutano Junction
• If anything, exposure to the placebo had
negati...
www.gui2de.org
Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum
Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum
Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum
Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum
Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum
Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum
Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum
Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum
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Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum

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Presentation by Nada Eissa, James Habyarimana and William Jack of the Georgetown University Initiative on Innovation, Development and Evaluation

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Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum

  1. 1. Can motivational videos improve agency and self-efficacy: Evidence from a Nairobi slum Nada Eissa, James Habyarimana and William Jack Georgetown University University of Arizona Development Workshop on Mind, Society and Behavior Tucson, April 17, 2015
  2. 2. The challenges of slum life • Unemployment – Lack of opportunities • Inadequate public good provision – Waste management – Security – Other infrastructure • Low levels and quality of public service provision – Sanitation – Education – Police All symptoms of a low- trust environment
  3. 3. Research questions • Can some of these problems be addressed by more active participation by slum-dwellers? – Entrepreneurship – Collective action – Monitoring and enforcement • Can subtle messages lead to behavior change? • Or are direct instructions more effective?
  4. 4. Context: Sanitation in the Kenyan Constitution • Article 43. (1) Every person has the right— (a) to the highest attainable standard of health, which includes the right to health care services, including reproductive health care; (b) to accessible and adequate housing, and to reasonable standards of sanitation; (c) to be free from hunger, and to have adequate food of acceptable quality; (d) to clean and safe water in adequate quantities;
  5. 5. Sanitation mobilization campaign • The Akiba Mashinani Trust promotes housing, sanitation, and other causes in Mukuru and other slums in Nairobi • AMT law suit • AMT petition
  6. 6. The intervention • We screen a selection of motivational videos delivered to women in Mukuru, a Nairobi slum • Motivational Treatment – Makutano Junction + – Ni Sisi clips • Placebo arm – “Mother in law,” a popular Kenyan soap • Explicit call to action – Akiba Mashinani Trust – Information about an on-going signature campaign
  7. 7. The Design + Explicit call to action regarding sanitation Explicit call to action regarding sanitation TreatmentPlacebo No call to action No call to action Control x No call to action
  8. 8. Mukuru slum
  9. 9. Venues • Schools inappropriate for day-time showing • Video halls frequented by young males – inappropriate for our sample
  10. 10. Venues
  11. 11. • Videos screened twice a day (morning and afternoon), four days a week Video sessions
  12. 12. Outcomes of interest • Willingness to sign the AMT petition • Other indicators of collective action – Responses to vignettes – Locus of control and optimism – Preferences for public goods – Civic participation and engagement
  13. 13. Sampling and recruitment and women • 150 circles of radius 50m (exclude vacant land, swamps, etc.) • Randomly assign circles to T, P, and C • Up to 50 women recruited within each circle Treatment Placebo Control 1,953 1,852 1,910
  14. 14. Location of venues and treatment clusters
  15. 15. Invitations* * Courtesy of Well Told Story
  16. 16. Implementation
  17. 17. Baseline data: Treatment-Control balance
  18. 18. Treatment-Placebo balance (I)
  19. 19. Treatment-Placebo balance (II)
  20. 20. • Individuals asked to state degree of agreement with the following statements: Measuring self-efficacy
  21. 21. Baseline self-efficacy 0 .05 .1 .15 Density 15 20 25 30 35 40 total_ses Control Makutano MiL kernel = epanechnikov, bandwidth = 0.5889 Distribution of Self-Efficacy Scores
  22. 22. Baseline group membership
  23. 23. Awareness of community initiatives
  24. 24. Priority initiatives
  25. 25. Baseline engagement with political figures
  26. 26. Baseline political participation
  27. 27. Baseline action on sanitation
  28. 28. Video attendance 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Sharethatviewedatleastnshows Number of shows, n Placebo Treatment
  29. 29. Attrition at endline survey
  30. 30. • Participation in the petition • Responses to vignettes • Measures of self efficacy • Levels of community engagement Results
  31. 31. • Intent to treat – by treatment assignment • 2SLS – using treatment assignment and distance to venue as instruments for attendance Estimates
  32. 32. First stage (1) (2) (3) (4) Attended at least one show Makutano MiL Makutano & AMT MiL & AMT Makutano Junction 0.483*** 0.005 0.064** 0.005 (0.043) (0.005) (0.027) (0.005) Makutano Junction & AMT -0.005 -0.010 0.375*** -0.010 (0.051) (0.009) (0.038) (0.009) Makutano Junction & AMT & Distance -0.000*** 0.000 -0.000* 0.000 (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) Mother-in-Law 0.008 0.372*** 0.004 0.017 (0.005) (0.038) (0.003) (0.020) Mother-in-Law & AMT -0.003 0.082** 0.004 0.427*** (0.007) (0.042) (0.004) (0.031) Mother-in-Law & AMT & Distance 0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) Distance -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 -0.000 (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) (0.000) Observations 5,556 5,556 5,556 5,556 Mean, control 0.141 0.132 0.074 0.073 R-squared 0.298 0.295 0.328 0.361 MakutanoAMT=MiLAMT 64.33 47.75 3.591 0.804 Prob > F 0.000 0.000 0.0300 0.449 Robust standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
  33. 33. Petition: did you sign? - ITT Panel A: ITT (1) (2) Makutano Junction -0.026 -0.026 (0.045) (0.038) Mother-in-Law 0.008 0.012 (0.038) (0.033) Makutano Junction & AMT -0.047 -0.056 (0.054) (0.050) Mother-in-Law & AMT -0.090* -0.088** (0.046) (0.043) R-squared 0.009 0.012 Makutano=MiL 0.251 0.427 Prob > F, Makutano=MiL 0.779 0.653 Observations 4,108 3,926 Mean, Control 0.727 0.755 Robust standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 Note: Second regression excludes ineligible signatures
  34. 34. Panel B: IV Attended at least one show (1) (2) Makutano Junction -0.073 -0.064 (0.115) (0.099) Mother-in-Law 0.015 0.032 (0.103) (0.091) Makutano Junction & AMT -0.120 -0.141 (0.144) (0.138) Mother-in-Law & AMT -0.211* -0.210* (0.117) (0.110) Observations 4,108 3,926 Mean, Control 0.727 0.755 Robust standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1 Note: Second regression excludes ineligible signatures Petition: did you sign? - IV
  35. 35. Vignette 1 Mike lives in a house that like others in his area has lots of solid waste disposal outside. In particular, there is a drain outside his house that floods occasionally creating a very unhealthy environment for children in the area. Mike and his neighbors would really like to have the drain cleared so rainwater can flow away from their homes. If you were Mike’s neighbor, would you take any of the following actions? • Ask someone in your household to help clear up the drain? Yes/No • Contribute to a fund to pay for the civil works required? Yes/No • Talk to the village chairman to do something about the drainage? Yes/No • Start looking for alternative accommodation? Yes/No
  36. 36. Vignette 1: ITT (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Vin1 Q1 Vin1 Q2 Vin1 Q3 Vin1 Q4 Std. Effect Panel A: ITT results Makutano Junction -0.005 -0.031 0.025 0.091* 0.044 (0.041) (0.053) (0.044) (0.054) (0.032) Mother-in-Law -0.057 -0.143*** -0.064 -0.038 0.006 (0.046) (0.047) (0.051) (0.049) (0.035) Makutano Junction & AMT 0.010 -0.013 0.009 0.006 -0.165*** (0.037) (0.059) (0.047) (0.055) (0.032) Mother-in-Law & AMT -0.014 0.072 0.031 -0.032 0.027 (0.057) (0.045) (0.060) (0.049) (0.037) R-squared 0.007 0.013 0.009 0.020 Makutano=MiL 0.826 5.022 1.281 3.128 37.75 Prob > F, Makutano=MiL 0.440 0.008 0.281 0.0468 0.000 Observations 4,073 4,073 4,073 4,073 4,103 Mean, Control 0.821 0.621 0.786 0.551 Robust standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
  37. 37. Vignette 2 Alice was robbed on her way home from the market by some unknown individuals. She brings her complaint to the local police station in order to have the individuals apprehended and her property returned. The officer in charge tells her that there is very little he can do as he is under-staffed and has no resources to investigate the case or for that matter deploy patrols to deter future crime. Alice is considering a few options to recover her property and reduce crime in her neighborhood. Alice would like your help in improving her community. Would you agree to: • Bring up this matter with the village headman and other political leaders to seek funding for the local police? Yes/No • Be part of a local neighborhood watch group to keep out criminals? Yes/No • Let her stay with you for a few days as she looks for another place to live? Yes/No • Contribute to a fund to support the local police station provide services? Yes/No
  38. 38. Vignette 2: ITT (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Vin2 Q1 Vin2 Q2 Vin2 Q3 Vin2 Q4 Std. Effect Panel A: ITT results Makutano Junction -0.017 0.004 0.037 0.007 0.021 (0.056) (0.055) (0.057) (0.059) (0.033) Mother-in-Law -0.132** -0.032 -0.049 -0.068 -0.010 (0.054) (0.053) (0.054) (0.052) (0.037) Makutano Junction & AMT 0.010 0.018 -0.010 -0.033 -0.139*** (0.057) (0.055) (0.061) (0.059) (0.031) Mother-in-Law & AMT 0.020 0.001 -0.044 -0.023 -0.021 (0.058) (0.056) (0.051) (0.053) (0.035) R-squared 0.014 0.007 0.013 0.011 Makutano=MiL 3.148 0.253 1.101 1.131 26.11 Prob > F, Makutano=MiL 0.046 0.777 0.335 0.325 0.000 Observations 4,073 4,073 4,073 4,073 4,103 Mean, Control 0.628 0.677 0.413 0.497
  39. 39. Vignette 3 The local water supply in Wangeci’s community is not very clean. Wangeci is concerned about the health of her elderly parents who cannot afford to boil the water or use a water filter. Wangeci does some research and has been told that the community will need to raise 50,000 Kshs to protect the well and improve the quality of the water. Another option is to start a signature campaign to motivate the local government to pay for the well protection. Which of these two options would you advise Wangeci to pursue?. • Community fundraising to protect the well? • A signature campaign to engage the local government?
  40. 40. Vignette 3: ITT (1) (2) (3) Vin3 Q1 Vin3 Q2 Std. Effect Panel A: ITT results Makutano Junction 0.008 0.022 0.040 (0.051) (0.037) (0.033) Mother-in-Law -0.041 -0.052 -0.051 (0.045) (0.036) (0.037) Makutano Junction & AMT -0.009 -0.031 -0.104*** (0.053) (0.044) (0.034) Mother-in-Law & AMT 0.004 0.046 0.059 4,073 4,073 (0.040) R-squared 0.004 0.005 Makutano=MiL 0.604 1.862 15.39 Prob > F, Makutano=MiL 0.548 0.159 0.000 Observations 4,073 4,073 4,103 Mean, Control 0.635 0.792 Robust standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
  41. 41. Vignette 4 Mumbi discovers the teachers at her child’s school have been skipping class. She confronts the deputy head teacher who tells her that the reason for the absence is that teachers have very large classes, and their salary has not been paid for three months. Her child has just started grade 3 but still cannot read simple sentences. Mumbi is desperate to make sure her child learns these important skills. She asks for your advice on the following options that she is considering? Do you think the following would be a sensible course of action? • Moving her child to a private school? Yes/No • Fundraising for the school to hire a few more contract teachers? Yes/No • Going to the radio/newspapers to raise the issue of teacher compensation? Yes/No • Raising the absenteeism problem with the school management committee? Yes/No
  42. 42. Vignette 4: ITT (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Vin4 Q1 Vin4 Q2 Vin4 Q3 Vin4 Q4 Std. Effect Panel A: ITT results Makutano Junction 0.033 -0.009 -0.032 0.001 0.002 (0.057) (0.058) (0.056) (0.027) (0.031) Mother-in-Law -0.042 -0.101* -0.120** -0.048 0.013 (0.053) (0.059) (0.053) (0.030) (0.034) Makutano Junction & AMT 0.025 -0.007 0.000 0.005 -0.167*** (0.061) (0.062) (0.062) (0.027) (0.030) Mother-in-Law & AMT 0.001 0.084 -0.007 0.047 0.078** (0.061) (0.065) (0.060) (0.031) (0.034) R-squared 0.007 0.010 0.013 0.006 Makutano=MiL 0.716 1.640 2.674 1.557 34.98 Prob > F, Makutano=MiL 0.490 0.198 0.072 0.214 0.000 Observations 4,073 4,073 4,073 4,073 4,103 Mean, Control 0.567 0.582 0.402 0.889 Robust standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
  43. 43. Vignette 5 Eva thinks her local community leader does not care about local issues that primarily affect women. In the next election, she decides to run for his position to try and change the situation. • Do you think that Eva’s approach, to run for office, is a good way to make positive social change?
  44. 44. Vignette 5: ITT (1) Vin5 Q1 Panel A: ITT results Makutano Junction -0.036 (0.045) Mother-in-Law -0.082* (0.043) Makutano Junction & AMT 0.031 (0.045) Mother-in-Law & AMT 0.038 (0.046) R-squared 0.009 Makutano=MiL 0.594 Prob > F, Makutano=MiL 0.553 Observations 4,073 Mean, Control 0.84 Robust standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
  45. 45. Ex post locus of control
  46. 46. Engagement and decision making: ITT (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Community Leader Group Member Attend Groups Engagement Index Decision- Making Panel A: ITT results Makutano Junction -0.061 -0.007 -0.001 -0.035 0.022 (0.047) (0.046) (0.007) (0.055) (0.047) Mother-in-Law -0.099*** -0.049 0.006 -0.086* 0.031 (0.038) (0.041) (0.006) (0.044) (0.043) Makutano Junction & AMT 0.021 0.030 -0.008 0.043 0.001 (0.053) (0.043) (0.008) (0.061) (0.054) Mother-in-Law & AMT 0.029 -0.039 -0.009 -0.004 -0.014 (0.053) (0.046) (0.006) (0.058) (0.054) R-squared 0.010 0.013 0.004 0.015 0.005 Makutano=MiL 3.627 0.783 1.138 1.866 0.273 Prob > F, Makutano=MiL 0.029 0.459 0.323 0.158 0.762 Observations 4,073 4,073 4,556 4,073 3,060 Mean, Control 0.646 0.459 0.977 0.043 0.654 Robust standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
  47. 47. Engagement and decision making: IV (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) Community Leader Group Member Attend Groups Engagement Index Decision- Making Makutano Junction -0.135 0.010 -0.003 -0.061 0.051 (0.123) (0.112) (0.017) (0.137) (0.117) Mother-in-Law -0.261** -0.122 0.019 -0.223* 0.082 (0.107) (0.117) (0.016) (0.127) (0.120) Makutano Junction & AMT 0.060 0.074 -0.022 0.109 -0.000 (0.139) (0.109) (0.020) (0.156) (0.138) Mother-in-Law & AMT 0.114 -0.066 -0.024 0.033 -0.047 (0.136) (0.119) (0.016) (0.151) -0.136 Observations 4,073 4,073 4,556 4,073 3,060 Mean, Control 0.646 0.459 0.977 0.043 0.654 Robust standard errors in parentheses *** p<0.01, ** p<0.05, * p<0.1
  48. 48. • There is little discernible effect of the treatment, Makutano Junction • If anything, exposure to the placebo had negative effects • Being instructed explicitly to sign a petition seemed to reduce the willingness of women to do so Conclusion
  49. 49. www.gui2de.org

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