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  1. 1. Constructivism<br />By Tani<br />
  2. 2. What is Constructivism?<br />Based on a type of learning in which the learner forms, or constructs, much of what he comprehends<br />Constructivists agree that students learn by doing<br />Learning is an active, constructive process, and the learner is an information constructor<br />New information is linked to prior knowledge<br />
  3. 3. Key People<br />Jean Piaget<br />Jerome Bruner<br />Lev Vygotsky<br />John Dewey<br />
  4. 4. Key People<br />Jean Piaget<br />Psychologist who observed children for many years<br />Believed children think very differently from adults<br />4 cognitive stages:<br />1. sensorimotor when learning takes place primarily through the child’s senses and motor actions (egocentric)<br />2. preoperational  children begin to use symbols and images (egocentric)<br />3. concrete operational  children begin to think logically<br />4. formal operational  children transition from concrete thinking to more abstract<br />While children learn, they create schema cognitive understanding or development at any given time<br />
  5. 5. Key People<br />Jerome Bruner<br />Proposed that learning is an active process in which the learner constructs new ideas or concepts based on his current knowledge<br />Believed learners are actively engaged in the learning process<br />Discovery learning inquiry-based; takes place in problem solving situations where the learner draws on his own past experience and existing knowledge to discover facts and relationships and new truths to be learned<br />Explore and manipulate objects<br />Wrestle with questions and controversies<br />Perform experiments<br />
  6. 6. Key People<br />Lev Vygotsky<br />Educational psychologist interested in children’s cognitive development<br />Developed social cognition theory social interaction precedes development; consciousness and cognition are the end product of socialization and social behavior<br />Zone of proximal development the distance between a student’s ability to perform a task under adult guidance and/or with peer collaboration and the student’s ability solving the problem independently<br />Vygotsky encouraged collaborative learning<br />
  7. 7. Key People<br />John Dewey<br />An educational psychologist, philosopher, and political activist<br /> The “Father of American Education”<br />An advocate for child-centered instruction and educational reform<br />Viewed school as a community and an extension of society<br />Began the Laboratory School in 1896 (also known as the Dewey School)<br />Progressive education educating the whole child – physically, mentally, and socially<br />
  8. 8. Classroom Implications: Teacher.What does the teacher do under this theory?<br />Constructivism is student-centered. So the teacher plays the role of facilitator, encouraging and engaging students.<br />With technology<br />Because constructivism is student-centered, teachers can create technology-based activities such as using Web Quests, scavenger hunts, curriculum pages, and computer game activities<br />Without technology<br />The teacher can create experiments, arts-and-crafts projects, and worksheets that allow students to be actively engaged. Technology isn’t a necessity in activities such as these.<br />
  9. 9. Classroom Implications: Student.What does the student do under this theory?<br />Students serve as “constructors” and active learners.<br />With technology<br />Students could engage in activities such as instructional computer games or perform a search on the Internet.<br />Without technology<br />Because technology is not a factor, students may be better off working together in collaborate groups to complete a task, such as a worksheet. This would keep them actively engaged.<br />In reading lessons, students could create their own reading questions and try finding their own solutions<br />
  10. 10. Constructivism:For my own teaching<br />I believe that constructivism is a viable theory for my classroom. To integrate it into my teaching:<br />I would create collaborate group-based activities<br />Technology would be important in keeping my students engaged, interested, and involved<br />Many lessons and activities would be hands-on learning experiences<br />Worksheets would require critical-thinking and analysis skills<br />Students would construct their own questions and try to find the answers on their own<br />
  11. 11. Credits<br />Textbook: Teachers Discovering Computers: Integrating Technology and Digital Media in the Classroom 5th ed.<br /><br />First image:<br />Second image: PowerPoint Clip Gallery<br />Third image:<br />Fourth image:<br />Fifth image:<br />Sixth image:<br />