Team Resistance April 17 Avery. Laura. Danea. Ashlyn.
Rejections of Liberal Principles Soviet Communism -offers guaranteed employment (economic freedom, self-interest) -state plans and controls the economy (economic freedom) -society without classes, without exploitation of man by man (competition) - Without any kind of individual or collective property (private property) Nazi Germany -provide employment for all workers (economic freedom, self-interest) -make Germany economically self-sufficient (economic freedom, self-interest) -Only Aryans controlling business (individual rights and freedoms, rule of law) -Dictatorship (competition)
Appealing Ideologies of Communism When the country is deep in debt, when there is high inflation and when there are no jobs available is when the time is right for communism and fascism. Communism became more popular after the Bolshevik Revolution, 1917. Before this the citizens of the Soviet Union were oppressed by the Czar Nicholas II dragged into war and came out in ruins and the country was ripe for revolution, the group that appealed most to the people was Communism because they were promised work and equality. Fascism was accepted more in Nazi Germany. The citizens of Germany after World War I, because of the Treaty of Versailles, underwent many difficulties such as, hyperinflation, lack of food and jobs.
Communist/Facist Ideologies Considered Liberal Liberal Ideologies -Individual Rights and Freedoms -Competition -Rule of Law -Private Property -Self-Interest -Economic Freedom Communist Ideologies -Rule of Law -Individual Rights and Freedoms Fascist Ideologies -Private Property -Competition -Economic Freedom -Self-Interest
The Extent to which the Rejection of Liberalism by Nazi Germany and Soviet Communism is Justified Nazi Germany The events leading up to Germany wanting to reject liberalism were ones of desperation. Before Hitler came into power, Germany’s economy was in ruins. Germany’s government was forced to pay reparations after their defeat in the war, but wasn’t in a good position to continue to pay the reparations implemented by the Treaty of Versailles. To makes matters worse, France and Belgium invaded Germany’s industrial region. Their countries conditions were worsening, so the banks from America loaned money to Germany, which in the end left Germany in even more massive debt. Germany’s citizens blamed their liberalist government for their defeat and for the Treaty of Versailles which had led to all these economic hardships. Their defeat in the war had undermined the German voter’s confidence which was carried towards liberal democracy. Germany’s economic hardships, unemployment and poverty had quickly become advantages for Hitler to gain power over Germany. Hitler had declared it was the responsibility of the State to provide every citizen with equal opportunity to earn a living and that everyone was obligated to be able to work. Hitler had begun to advocate law and order policies appealing the German’s needs. The Nazi’s good intentions soon started to go downhill. Protests and riots soon began to break out, so the Nazi’s used their paramilitary, the Storm Troopers, to start more riots and to instigate political violence. Hitler had capitalized on Germany’s rising level of fear, which was partially caused by the actions of the Nazi’s/ Storm Troopers. Building off of Germany’s citizen’s fear and desperation for change, Hitler was claiming stronger government was in need to control the chaos that had gripped their nation. Afterwards, ironically the government agreed that they thought Hitler posed no real threat and could easily be manipulated when in rule of Germany. In 1933 the Nazi’s have gained power in Germany. The Nazi’s had soon begun to temporarily restrict civil liberties for all German citizens and they were never restored.
The Extent to which the Rejection of Liberalism by Nazi Germany and Soviet Communism is Justified Russia The rejection to the Russian Monarchy much began under some of the same circumstances as Germany did. Food was scarce and the German people were forced to pay heavy taxes. The gap between Russian peasants and nobles had grew increasingly further apart more and more every day. Russia’s citizens grew more miserable with Tsar’s autocratic rule and they wanted the Tsar out of power to be replaced by a more democratic rule. Russia’s citizens had thought that other powers were progressing faster and thought that the Tsar should do the same. Russia’s defeat in the Russo-Japanese war had made Russian citizens lose confidence in the Tsar and it’s military. After their defeat, the people of Russia had started to present petitions regarding better work conditions, medical benefits and more freedom. They had wanted the parliament to implement their views. The Tsar didn’t think this was necessary and thus started “Bloody Sunday.” The unarmed demonstrators had been shot by the Tsar’s troops and many innocent protesters were killed. Bloody Sunday had started many more outbursts afterwards. The Tsar’s troops had been mutinied and the Russian peasants had started to demand that the Tsar created a Duma and give them more freedom. Afterwards, the Tsar had finally decided to form a Duma and to allow more freedom of speech to the Russian citizens. This had been the Tsar’s chance to improve his people’s living and work condition standards. Instead of employing the Duma to help him gain support, he ended up making a huge mess out of everything and going power hungry. Up until WWI, Russia had been one of the world’s most major powers at the time. The Tsar, being under Rasputin’s influence once again had started to make many new changes to administration and to put Russia into further crisis. The Russian’s during the war had been financed by printing and borrowing money instead of raising taxes, this had made their living conditions even worse. More and more riots and protested started to break out due to the lack of hope and their extreme hatred for the Tsar. During the revolution not only Russian citizens have been fighting against the defective government, but the soldiers had also begun to fight against their government because everyone felt that the government was defective. The people had started to demand change in the administration, but the Tsar refused to cooperate. The Duma, who was desperate for peace and change had tried to force the Tsar to make an immediate decision to either change of pass on power. The Tsar had decided to put his brother in charge, but he refused the throne, thus forming a democratic provisional Government on a temporary basis which had put an end to the reign of the Monarchy.
Common Themes The major common themes of liberalism between the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen and from the Declaration of Independence are Rule of Law and Individual Rights and Freedoms. Both of these documents make a point of stating that the Government must have some power within the economy, although not overpowering, and that no man is above the law. They also suggest that all people are to be treated equally under the law and that each man is entitled to equal treatment within the economy. This also leads to all men having equal rights. In both declarations, the rights and freedoms people are entitled to, are outlined clearly and held as a high priority. Both groups made it important that their declarations displayed the equal rights of man as well as where those rights stop and the rights of another start.
Classical Liberal Thinkers Who Influenced the Writers of the Declarations: Locke— Focused on reason and logic to determine actions. Believed humans had inalienable natural rights: Life, liberty, security, private property; advocated for rule of law and protection of civil liberties, rights, and freedoms under a constitution. Montesquieu— Separation of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches of government which would keep the government accountable; placed high importance on the rule of law, the constitutional limitations on government, and the primacy of individual rights and freedoms. Mill— Believed in individual rights and freedoms as well as free speech. Only limitation should be if one’s actions could harm another; individual rights and freedoms.
Radical Rejections Hugo Chavez Led part of the Coup of 1992 in Venezuela However Chávez and his men failed to secure their part and the coup was quickly put down. Chávez was allowed to go on television to explain his actions, and the poor people of Venezuela identified with him. He was sent to prison but vindicated the following year when President Pérez was convicted in a massive corruption scandal. Chávez was pardoned in 1994 entered politics soon after. Created a legitimate political party, the Fifth Republic Movement, and ran for president in 1998. Chávez was elected in a landslide at the end of 1998, taking 56% of the vote. Beginning in office in February 1999, he quickly began applying aspects of his “Bolivarian” brand of socialism.
Radical Rejections Vladimir Lenin Travelled to Switzerland to meet like minded Social Democrats in 1895. They argued over the means of bringing about change in Russia. When Lenin returned to Russia he carried illegal pamphlets, he wanted to start up a revolutionary paper. On the eve of the publication he and other leaders were arrested. He served fifteen months in prison. The 1905 St. Petersburg Massacre encouraged Lenin to advocate violent action. The Massacre occurred when Cossacks fired on peaceful protesters. This event led to several uprisings in Russia. Lenin returned to Russia for two years but the promised revolution did not happen 1917 was the time for revolution in Russia. Two revolutions happened this year. In March steelworkers in St. Petersburg went on strike. It grew until thousands of people lined the streets. The Tsar’s power collapsed and the Duma, led by Alexander Kerensky, took power. Lenin made a deal with the Germans; if they could get him safely back to Russia, he would take power and pull Russia out of the war. Lenin came to power in October after a nearly bloodless coup.
At age forty seven Vladimir Ilich Lenin was named president
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