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Mitosis and meiosis
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Mitosis and meiosis


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  • Explain the randomness in meiosis End of first class
  • Beginning of second class
  • A mnemonic to help remember the stages of mitosis. Now do the mitosis flip books End of second class
  • Beginning of third class
  • Transcript

    • 1. Mitosis & Meiosis Mitosis animation:
    • 2. Mitosis:
      • If a cell wants to make a duplicate of itself, it first must copy its DNA (part of a chromosome).
      • The copies then must be separated & sorted into two sides of the cell.
      • The cell then splits in two. Part of each parent is carried to the two new cells.
      • Results in cells such as internal organs, skin, bones, blood, etc.
    • 3. Meiosis:
      • As in mitosis, if a cell wants to make a duplicate of itself, it first must copy its DNA (part of a chromosome).
      • Results in reproductive cells (sperm, eggs, etc).
      • Part of each parent is carried to the four new cells.
      • Meiosis has evolved to solve a problem.
      • The problem is this: some organisms have sex with other organisms – that is, they combine their genes together (creating genetic diversity).
      • Why would this be a problem?
    • 4. This may you remember these terms:
      • MIT osis takes the cell and M akes I t T wo (diploid)
      • M e iosis has to do with s e x
      • From the cell’s point of view:
        • m IT osis results in I dentical T wins
        • m E io S is results in E gg and S perm (haploid)
        • Clyde Freeman Herreid – Dept. of Biological Sciences: Buffalo State Univ. of New York
    • 5. Mitosis: Meiosis: Each resulting cell still has chromosomes from mom & dad
    • 6. Mitosis
      • Mitosis animations:
    • 7. Vocabulary
      • Diploid
      • Haploid
      • Interphase
      • Prophase
      • Metaphase
      • Anaphase
      • Telophase
      • Cytokinesis
    • 8. Interphase occurs just before Mitosis begins: DNA is replicated along with organelles and other cellular components and the cell prepares for division.
    • 9. Mitosis Interphase
      • Animal cell
      • Plant cell
      Photographs from:
    • 10. 1 st step in Mitosis: Prophase (preparation phase) The DNA recoils, and the chromosomes condense; the nuclear membrane disappears, and the mitotic spindles begin to form.
    • 11. Mitosis Prophase Photographs from: Animal cell Plant cell
    • 12. 2 nd step in Mitosis: metaphase (organizational phase)
      • The chromosomes line up the middle of the cell with the help of spindle fibers attached to the centromere of each replicated chromosome.
    • 13. Mitosis Metaphase
      • Animal cell
      • Plant cell
      Photographs from:
    • 14. 3 rd step in Mitosis: Anaphase (separation phase)
      • The chromosomes split in the middle and the sister chromatids are pulled by the spindle fibers to opposite poles of the cell.
    • 15. Mitosis Anaphase
      • Animal cell
      • Plant cell
      Photographs from:
    • 16. 4 th step in Mitosis: Telophase
      • The chromosomes, along with the cytoplasm and its organelles and membranes are divided into 2 portions. This diagram shows the end of telophase.
    • 17. Mitosis Telophase
      • Animal cell
      • Plant cell
      Photographs from:
    • 18. After Mitosis: Cytokinesis
      • The actual splitting of
      • the daughter cells into
      • two separate cells is
      • called cytokinesis and
      • occurs differently in
      • both plant and animal
      • Cells.
      Beginning of cytokinesis in a plant: Beginning of cytokinesis in an animal:
    • 19.
      • I nterphase
      • P rophase
      • M etaphase
      • A naphase
      • T elophase
      • C ytokinesis
      I P ray M ore A t T he C hurch Julie Camp’s mitosis power point - IPMATC
    • 20. Meiosis
      • Meiosis animation:
    • 21. Vocabulary
      • Diploid
      • Haploid
      • Germ cell
      • Somatic cell
      • Interphase
      • Prophase
      • Metaphase
      • Anaphase
      • Telophase
      • Cytokinesis
    • 22.  
    • 23. Meiosis Interphase Meiosis is preceded by interphase. The chromosomes have not yet condensed.
    • 24. Meiosis Interphase The chromosomes have replicated, and the chromatin begins to condense.
    • 25. Meiosis Prophase I The chromosomes are completely condensed. In meiosis (unlike mitosis), the homologous chromosomes pair with one another
    • 26. Meiosis Metaphase I
      • The nuclear membrane dissolves and the homologous chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers. They are preparing to go to opposite poles.
    • 27. Meiosis Anaphase I
      • The chromosomes move to opposite ends of the cell.
    • 28. Meiosis Telophase I & Cytokinesis
      • The cell begins to divide into two daughter cells. It is important to understand that each daughter cell can get any combination of maternal and paternal chromosomes.
    • 29. Meiosis Prophase II
      • The cell has divided into two daughter cells.
    • 30. Meiosis Metaphase II
      • As in Meiosis I, the chromosomes line up on the spindle fibers.
    • 31. Meiosis Anaphase II
      • The two cells each begin to divide. As in Meiosis I, the chromosomes move to opposite ends of each cell.
    • 32. Telophase II & Cytokinesis
      • With the formation of four cells, meiosis is over. Each of these prospective germ cells carries half the number of chromosomes of somatic cells.
    • 33. Yvonne Norman G410 (Life Sciences for Middle School Educators) Senior – Portland State University February 2009