Derecho de inversión extranjera<br />DOCTRINA CALVO <br />
¿Cuál es el umbral de protección que un Estado debe dar a los inversionistas extranjeros?<br />Igualdad vs trato de acuerdo a los estándares internacionales.<br />Ejemplo de las nacionalizaciones mexicanas en 1938 y defensa de ambas posturas.<br />DOCTRINA CALVO<br />
Gobierno mexicano (igualdad):<br />“the principle of equality between nationals and foreigners, considering that the foreigner who voluntarily moves to a country…accepts in advance, together with the advantages which he is going to enjoy, the risk to which he may find himself exposed. It would be unjust that he should aspire to a privileged position safe from any risk, but availing himself, on the other hand, of the effort of the nationals which must be to the benefit of the collectivity”<br />DOCTRINA CALVO<br />
Gobierno de Estados Unidos (estándar de justicia internacional):<br />“when aliens are admitted into a country the country is obligated to accord them that degree of protection of life and property consistent with the standards of justice recognized by the law of nations”<br />Primerassoluciones: El extranjerorecibe el mismotratoque el nacional. Proteccióndiplomática no podíainvocarsesóloporhaberleyesdistintas. Sípordenegación de justicia. <br />DOCTRINA CALVO<br />
“Derecho de jentes” Andrés Bello en 1832. <br />Límites a la protección diplomática. Denegación de justicia. <br />Carlos Calvo: Igualdad entre nacionales y extranjeros. Acudir a los tribunales nacionales. <br />DOCTRINA CALVO<br />
It is certain that aliens who establish themselves in a country have the same right to protection as nationals, but they ought not to lay claim to a protection more extended. If they suffer any wrong, they ought to count on the government of the country prosecuting the delinquents, and not claim from the state to which the authors of the violence belong any pecuniary indemnity.<br />The rule that in more than one case it has been attempted to impose on American states is that foreigners merit more regard and privileges more marked and extended than those accorded even to the nationals of the country where they reside.<br />C Calvo, Le Droit international (204-5) 231, 140. Cited in E. Borchard. The diplomatic protection of citizens abroad or the law of international claims. (The Banks law publishing, New York 1915)793<br />DOCTRINA CALVO<br />
Aside from political motives these interventions have nearly always had as apparent pretexts, injuries to private interest, claims and demands for pecuniary indemnities in behalf of subjects… According to strict international law, the recovery of debts and the pursuit of private claims does not justify de plano the armed intervention of governments, and, since European states invariably follow this rule in their reciprocal relations, there is no reason why they should not also impose it upon themselves in their relations with nations of the new world ”<br />“Asserting that the use of force to protect foreign investors was prohibited and that, upon entering a state´s territory, foreign investors had to respect local laws and subject themselves to domestic courts. The only protection to which investors were entitled under international law was the same treatment as that enjoyed by nationals C Calvo, Le Droitinternational (204-5) 231, 140. Cited in E. Borchard. The diplomatic protection of citizens abroad or the law of international claims. (The Banks law publishing, New York 1915)793.<br />C Calvo, Le Droit international (5th edn, Paris: A Rosseau, 1896) 118-64. Cited by G. Van Harten p17. <br />Doctrina Calvo<br />
Cláusula Calvo: Establecida en la Constitución, leyes o contratos: <br />“The doubts and controversies that may arise on account of this contract shall be decided by the competent tribunals of the Republic, in conformity with the laws, and shall not give rise to any international reclamation”<br />Venezuela aplicó la cláusulaCalvo en 1873: Jurisdicción especial para la solución de controversias.<br />DOCTRINA CALVO<br />
USA: Lo aceptaba de manera general. <br />Reino Unido y Alemania: Tenían derecho a seguir ejerciendo la protección diplomática. <br />DOCTRINA CALVO<br />
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