Xenofwn a8hnaiwn politeia (neoellhnikh apodosh)

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Xenofwn a8hnaiwn politeia (neoellhnikh apodosh)

  1. 1. •ENOºøNA£HNAIøN ¶O§ITEIA ¶H°H: HTTP://NAOS.20M.COM/ WWW.E-E-E.GR
  2. 2. •ENOºøN - A£HNAIøN ¶O§ITEIA 1.1 ¶EPI ¢E TH™ A£HNAIøN ¶O§ITEIA™, OTI MEN EI§ONTO TOYTON TONTPO¶ON TH™ ¶O§ITEIA™ OYK E¶AINø ¢IA TO¢E, OTI TAY£ E§OMENOI EI§ONTOTOY™ ¶ONHPOY™ AMEINON ¶PATTEIN H TOY™ XPH™TOY™: ¢IA MEN OYN TOYTOOYK E¶AINø. E¶EI ¢E TAYTA E¢O•EN OYTø™ AYTOI™, ø™ EY ¢IA™øZONTAI THN¶O§ITEIAN KAI TA§§A ¢IA¶PATTONTAI A ¢OKOY™IN AMAPTANEIN TOI™ A§§OI™E§§H™IN, TOYT A¶O¢EI•ø. 1.2 ¶PøTON MEN OYN TOYTO EPø, OTI ¢IKAIø™ <¢OKOY™IN> AYTO£I [KAI] OI¶ENHTE™ KAI O ¢HMO™ ¶§EON EXEIN TøN °ENNAIøN KAI TøN ¶§OY™IøN ¢IATO¢E, OTI O ¢HMO™ E™TIN O E§AYNøN TA™ NAY™ KAI O THN ¢YNAMIN¶EPITI£EI™ TH ¶O§EI, KAI OI KYBEPNHTAI KAI OI KE§EY™TAI KAI OI¶ENTHKONTAPXOI KAI OI ¶PøPATAI KAI OI NAY¶H°OI, OYTOI EI™IN OI THN¢YNAMIN ¶EPITI£ENTE™ TH ¶O§EI ¶O§Y MA§§ON H OI O¶§ITAI KAI OI °ENNAIOIKAI OI XPH™TOI. E¶EI¢H OYN TAYTA OYTø™ EXEI, ¢OKEI ¢IKAION EINAI ¶A™I TøNAPXøN METEINAI EN TE Tø K§HPø KAI EN TH XEIPOTONIA, KAI §E°EIN 1.3 E•EINAI Tø BOY§OMENø TøN ¶O§ITøN. E¶EITA O¶O™AI MEN ™øTHPIANºEPOY™I TøN APXøN XPH™TAI OY™AI KAI MH XPH™TAI KIN¢YNON Tø ¢HMøA¶ANTI, TOYTøN MEN TøN APXøN OY¢EN ¢EITAI O ¢HMO™ METEINAI: OYTE TøN™TPATH°IøN K§HPø OIONTAI ™ºI™I XPHNAI METEINAI OYTE TøN I¶¶APXIøN:°I°Nø™KEI °AP O ¢HMO™ OTI ¶§EIø øºE§EITAI EN Tø MH AYTO™ APXEIN TAYTA™TA™ APXA™, A§§ EAN TOY™ ¢YNATøTATOY™ APXEIN: O¶O™AI ¢ EI™IN APXAIMI™£OºOPIA™ ENEKA KAI øºE§EIA™ EI™ TON OIKON, 1.4 TAYTA™ ZHTEI O ¢HMO™ APXEIN. E¶EITA ¢E O ENIOI £AYMAZOY™IN OTI¶ANTAXOY ¶§EON NEMOY™I TOI™ ¶ONHPOI™ KAI ¶ENH™I KAI ¢HMOTIKOI™ H TOI™XPH™TOI™, EN AYTø TOYTø ºANOYNTAI THN ¢HMOKPATIAN ¢IA™øZONTE™. OI MEN°AP ¶ENHTE™ KAI OI ¢HMOTAI KAI OI XEIPOY™ EY ¶PATTONTE™ KAI ¶O§§OI OITOIOYTOI °I°NO MENOI THN ¢HMOKPATIAN AY•OY™IN: EAN ¢E EY ¶PATTø™IN OI¶§OY™IOI KAI OI XPH™TOI, I™XYPON TO ENANTION ™ºI™IN AYTOI™ 1.5 KA£I™TA™IN OI ¢HMOTIKOI. E™TI ¢E ¶A™H °H TO BE§TI™TON ENANTION TH¢HMOKPATIA: EN °AP TOI™ BE§TI™TOI™ ENI AKO§A™IA TE O§I°I™TH KAI A¢IKIA,AKPIBEIA ¢E ¶§EI™TH EI™ TA XPH™TA, EN ¢E Tø ¢HMø AMA£IA TE ¶§EI™TH KAIATA•IA KAI ¶ONHPIA: H TE °AP ¶ENIA AYTOY™ MA§§ON A°EI E¶I TA AI™XPA KAIH A¶AI¢EY™IA KAI H AMA£IA <H> ¢I EN¢EIAN XPHMATøN ENIOI™ TøN 1.6 AN£Pø¶øN. EI¶OI ¢ AN TI™ ø™ EXPHN AYTOY™ MH EAN §E°EIN ¶ANTA™E•H™ MH¢E BOY§EYEIN, A§§A TOY™ ¢E•IøTATOY™ KAI AN¢PA™ API™TOY™. OI ¢EKAI EN TOYTø API™TA BOY§EYONTAI EøNTE™ KAI TOY™ ¶ONHPOY™ §E°EIN. EI MEN°AP OI XPH™TOI E§E°ON KAI EBOY§EYONTO, TOI™ OMOIOI™ ™ºI™IN AYTOI™ HNA°A£A, TOI™ ¢E ¢HMOTIKOI™ OYK A°A£A: NYN ¢E §E°øN O BOY§OMENO™ANA™TA™, AN£Pø¶O™ ¶ONHPO™, E•EYPI™KEI TO A°A£ON AYTø TE 1
  3. 3. 1.7 KAI TOI™ OMOIOI™ AYTø. EI¶OI TI™ AN, TI AN OYN °NOIH A°A£ON AYTø HTø ¢HMø TOIOYTO™ AN£Pø¶O™; OI ¢E °I°Nø™KOY™IN OTI H TOYTOY AMA£IA KAI¶ONHPIA KAI EYNOIA MA§§ON §Y™ITE§EI 1.8 H TOY XPH™TOY APETH KAI ™OºIA KAI KAKONOIA. EIH MEN OYN AN ¶O§I™OYK A¶O TOIOYTøN ¢IAITHMATøN H BE§TI™TH, A§§ H ¢HMOKPATIA MA§I™T AN™øZOITO OYTø™. O °AP ¢HMO™ BOY §ETAI OYK EYNOMOYMENH™ TH™ ¶O§Eø™AYTO™ ¢OY§EYEIN, A§§ E§EY£EPO™ EINAI KAI APXEIN, TH™ ¢E KAKONOMIA™ AYTøO§I°ON ME§EI: O °AP ™Y NOMIZEI™ OYK EYNOMEI™£AI, AYTO™ A¶O TOYTOY 1.9 I™XYEI O ¢HMO™ KAI E§EY£EPO™ E™TIN. EI ¢ EYNOMIAN ZHTEI™, ¶PøTAMEN OæEI TOY™ ¢E•IøTATOY™ AYTOI™ TOY™ NOMOY™ TI£ENTA™: E¶EITAKO§A™OY™IN OI XPH™TOI TOY™ ¶ONHPOY™ KAI BOY§EY ™OY™IN OI XPH™TOI ¶EPI TH™¶O§Eø™ KAI OYK EA™OY™I MAINO MENOY™ AN£Pø¶OY™ BOY§EYEIN OY¢E §E°EINOY¢E EKK§H™IAZEIN. A¶O TOYTøN TOINYN TøN A°A£øN TAXI™T AN O ¢HMO™ EI™¢OY§EIAN KATA¶E™OI. 1.10 TøN ¢OY§øN ¢ AY KAI TøN METOIKøN ¶§EI™TH E™TIN A£HNH™INAKO§A™IA, KAI OYTE ¶ATA•AI E•E™TIN AYTO£I OYTE Y¶EK™TH™ETAI ™OI O ¢OY§O™.OY ¢ ENEKEN E™TI TOYTO E¶I XøPION E°ø ºPA™ø. EI NOMO™ HN TON ¢OY§ONY¶O TOY E§EY£EPOY TY¶TE™£AI H TON METOIKON H TON A¶E§EY£EPON,¶O§§AKI™ AN OIH£EI™ EINAI TON A£HNAION ¢OY§ON E¶ATA•EN AN: E™£HTA TE°AP OY¢EN BE§TIøN O ¢HMO™ AYTO£I H OI ¢OY§OI KAI OI 1.11 METOIKOI KAI TA EI¢H OY¢EN BE§TIOY™ EI™IN: EI ¢E TI™ KAI TOYTO£AYMAZEI, OTI Eø™I TOY™ ¢OY§OY™ TPYºAN AYTO£I KAI ME°A§O¶PE¶ø™¢IAITA™£AI ENIOY™, KAI TOYTO °NøMH ºANEIEN AN ¶OIOYNTE™. O¶OY °APNAYTIKH ¢YNAMI™ E™TIN, A¶O XPH MATøN ANA°KH TOI™ AN¢PA¶O¢OI™¢OY§EYEIN, INA §AMBANøMEN <øN> ¶PATTH TA™ A¶OºOPA™, KAI E§EY£EPOY™AºIENAI. O¶OY ¢ EI™I ¶§OY™IOI ¢OY§OI, OYKETI ENTAY£A §Y™ITE§EI TON EMON¢OY§ON ™E ¢E¢IENAI: EN ¢E TH §AKE¢AIMONI O EMO™ ¢OY§O™ ™ E¢E¢OIKEI:EAN ¢E ¢E¢IH O ™O™ ¢OY§O™ EME, KIN¢YNEY™EI KAI TA XPHMATA ¢I¢ONAI TAEAYTOY ø™TE MH KIN¢YNEYEIN ¶EPI 1.12 EAYTOY. ¢IA TOYT OYN I™H°OPIAN KAI TOI™ ¢OY§OI™ ¶PO™ TOY™E§EY£EPOY™ E¶OIH™AMEN KAI TOI™ METOIKOI™ ¶PO™ TOY™ A™TOY™, ¢IOTI ¢EITAI H¶O§I™ METOIKøN ¢IA TE TO ¶§H£O™ TøN TEXNøN KAI ¢IA TO NAYTIKON: ¢IATOYTO OYN KAI TOI™ METOIKOI™ EIKOTø™ THN I™H°OPIAN E¶OIH™AMEN. 1.13 TOY™ ¢E °YMNAZOMENOY™ AYTO£I KAI THN MOY™IKHN E¶ITH ¢EYONTA™KATA§E§YKEN O ¢HMO™, NOMIZøN TOYTO OY KA§ON EINAI, °NOY™ OTI OY¢YNATO™ TAYTA E™TIN E¶ITH¢EYEIN. EN TAI™ XOPH °IAI™ AY KAI °YMNA™IAPXIAI™KAI TPIHPAPXIAI™ °I°Nø™KOY™IN OTI XOPH°OY™I MEN OI ¶§OY™IOI, XOPH°EITAI ¢E O¢HMO™, KAI °YMNA™IAPXOY™IN OI ¶§OY™IOI KAI TPIHPAPXOY™IN, O ¢E ¢HMO™TPIHPAPXEITAI KAI °YMNA™IAPXEITAI. A•IOI °OYN AP°YPION §AMBANEIN O ¢HMO™KAI A¢øN KAI TPEXøN KAI OPXOYMENO™ KAI ¶§EøN EN TAI™ NAY™IN, INA AYTO™TE EXH KAI OI ¶§OY™IOI ¶ENE™TEPOI °I°NøNTAI. EN TE TOI™ ¢IKA™THPIOI™ OY TOY¢IKAIOY AYTOI™ MA§§ON ME§EI H TOY AYTOI™ ™YMºOPOY. 1.14 ¶EPI ¢E TøN ™YMMAXøN, OTI EK¶§EONTE™ ™YKOºANTOY™IN ø™ ¢OKOY™I 2
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  8. 8. XPHMATIEITAI. E°ø ¢E TOYTOI™ OMO§O°H™AIM AN A¶O XPH MATøN ¶O§§A¢IA¶PATTE™£AI A£HNH™I, KAI ETI AN ¶§EIø ¢IA ¶PATTE™£AI, EI ¶§EIOY™ ETIE¢I¢O™AN AP°YPION: TOYTO MENTOI EY OI¢A, ¢IOTI ¶A™I ¢IA¶PA•AI H ¶O§I™ ...TøN ¢EOMENøN OYX IKANH, OY¢ EI O¶O™ONOYN XPY™ION KAI AP°YPION ¢I¢OIHTI™ 3.4 AYTOI™. ¢EI ¢E KAI TA¢E ¢IA¢IKAZEIN, EI TI™ THN NAYN MH E¶I ™KEYAZEIH KATOIKO¢OMEI TI ¢HMO™ION: ¶PO™ ¢E TOYTOI™ XOPH°OI™ ¢IA¢IKA™AI EI™¢IONY™IA KAI £AP°H§IA KAI ¶ANA£HNAIA KAI ¶POMH£EIA KAI HºAI™TIA O™A ETH:KAI TPIHPAPXOI KA£I™TANTAI TETPAKO™IOI EKA™TOY ENIAYTOY, KAI TOYTøN TOI™BOY§OMENOI™ <¢EI> ¢IA¢IKA™AI O™A ETH: ¶PO™ ¢E TOYTOI™ APXA™ ¢OKIMA™AIKAI ¢IA¢IKA™AI KAI OPºANOY™ ¢OKIMA™AI KAI ºY§AKA™ ¢E™Mø 3.5 TøN KATA™TH™AI. TAYTA MEN OYN O™A ETH: ¢IA XPONOY ¢E ¢IKA™AI ¢EI™TPATIA™ KAI EAN TI A§§O E•A¶INAION A¢IKHMA °I°NHTAI, EAN TE YBPIZø™ITINE™ AH£E™ YBPI™MA EAN TE A™EBH™ø™I. ¶O§§A ETI ¶ANY ¶APA§EI¶ø: TO ¢EME°I™TON EIPHTAI ¶§HN AI TA•EI™ TOY ºOPOY: TOYTO ¢E °I°NETAI ø™ TA ¶O§§A¢I ETOY™ ¶EM¶TOY. ºEPE ¢H TOINYN, TAYTA OYK OIE™£AI 3.6 <XPH> XPHNAI ¢IA¢IKAZEIN A¶ANTA; EI¶ATø °AP TI™ O TI OY XPHNAYTO£I ¢IA¢IKAZE™£AI. EI ¢ AY OMO§O°EIN ¢EI A¶ANTA XPHNAI ¢IA¢IKAZEIN,ANA°KH ¢I ENIAYTOY: ø™ OY¢E NYN ¢I ENIAYTOY ¢IKAZONTE™ Y¶APXOY™INø™TE ¶AYEIN TOY™ A¢IKO§YNTA™ 3.7 Y¶O TOY ¶§H£OY™ TøN AN£Pø¶øN. ºEPE ¢H, A§§A ºH™EI TI™ XPHNAI¢IKAZEIN MEN, E§ATTOY™ ¢E ¢IKAZEIN. ANA°KH TOINYN, EAN MH O§I°A ¶OIøNTAI¢IKA™THPIA, O§I°OI EN EKA™Tø E™ONTAI Tø ¢IKA™THPIø: ø™TE KAI ¢IA™KEYA™A™£AIPA¢ION E™TAI ¶PO™ O§I°OY™ ¢IKA™TA™ KAI ™YN¢EKA™AI ¶O§Y HTTON ¢IKAIø™¢IKAZEIN 3.8 ¶PO™ ¢E TOYTOI™ OIE™£AI XPH KAI EOPTA™ A°EIN XPHNAI A£H NAIOY™,EN AI™ OYX OION TE ¢IKAZEIN. KAI A°OY™I MEN EOPTA™ ¢I¶§A™IOY™ H OI A§§OI:A§§ E°ø MEN TI£HMI I™A™ TH O§I°I™TA™ A°OY™H ¶O§EI. TOYTøN TOINYNTOIOYTøN ONTøN OY ºHMI OION T EINAI A§§ø™ EXEIN TA ¶PA°MATA A£HNH™INH ø™¶EP NYN EXEI, ¶§HN H KATA MIKPON TI OION TE TO MEN AºE§EIN TO ¢E¶PO™£EINAI: ¶O§Y ¢ OYX OION TE METAKINEIN, ø™TE MH OYXI TH™ ¢HMOKPATIA™AºAIPEIN TI. 3.9 ø™TE MEN °AP BE§TION EXEIN THN ¶O§ITEIAN, OION TE ¶O§§A E•EYPEIN, ø™TE MENTOI Y¶APXEIN MEN ¢HMOKPATIAN EINAI APKOYNTø™ ¢E TOYTOE•EYPEIN, O¶ø™ BE§TION ¶O§ITEY™ONTAI, OY PA¢ION, ¶§HN, O¶EP APTI EI¶ON,KATA MIKPON TI ¶PO™£ENTA H AºE§ONTA. 3.10 ¢OKOY™I ¢E A£HNAIOI KAI TOYTO MOI OYK OP£ø™ BOY§EYE ™£AI, OTITOY™ XEIPOY™ AIPOYNTAI EN TAI™ ¶O§E™I TAI™ ™TA™IA ZOY™AI™. OI ¢E TOYTO°NøMH ¶OIOY™IN. EI MEN °AP HPOYNTO TOY™ BE§TIOY™, HPOYNT AN OYXI TOY™TAYTA °I°Nø™KONTA™ ™ºI™IN AYTOI™: EN OY¢EMIA °AP ¶O§EI TO BE§TI™TONEYNOYN E™TI Tø ¢HMø, A§§A TO KAKI™TON EN EKA™TH E™TI ¶O§EI EYNOYN Tø¢HMø: OI °AP OMOIOI TOI™ OMOIOI™ EYNOI EI™I. ¢IA TAYTA OYN A£HNAIOI TA™ºI™IN AYTOI™ ¶PO™HKONTA AIPOYNTAI. 7
  9. 9. 3.11 O¶O™AKI™ ¢ E¶EXEIPH™AN AIPEI™£AI TOY™ BE§TI™TOY™, OY ™YNH NE°KENAYTOI™, A§§ ENTO™ O§I°OY XPONOY O ¢HMO™ E¢OY§EY™EN O EN BOIøTOI™:TOYTO ¢E OTE MI§H™IøN EI§ONTO TOY™ BE§ TI™TOY™, ENTO™ O§I°OY XPONOYA¶O™TANTE™ TON ¢HMON KATE KOæAN: TOYTO ¢E OTE EI§ONTO§AKE¢AIMONIOY™ ANTI ME™™HNIøN, ENTO™ O§I°OY XPONOY §AKE¢AIMONIOIKATA™TPEæAMENOI ME™ ™HNIOY™ E¶O§EMOYN A£HNAIOI™. 3.12 Y¶O§ABOI ¢E TI™ AN ø™ OY¢EI™ APA A¢IKø™ HTIMøTAI A£H NH™IN. E°ø¢E ºHMI TINA™ EINAI OI A¢IKø™ HTIMøNTAI. O§I°OI MENTOI TINE™ <EI™IN>: A§§OYK O§I°øN ¢EI TøN E¶I£H™OMENøN 3.13 TH ¢HMOKPATIA TH A£HNH™IN, E¶EI TOI KAI OYTø™ EXEI, OY¢ENEN£YMEI™£AI ANN£Pø¶OY™ OITINE™ ¢IKAIø™ HTIMøNTAI, A§§ EI TINE™ A¢IKø™.¶ø™ AN OYN A¢IKø™ OIOITO TI™ AN TOY™ ¶O§§OY™ HTIMø™£AI A£HNH™IN, O¶OYO ¢HMO™ E™TIN O APXøN TA™ APXA™; EK ¢E TOY MH ¢IKAIø™ APXEIN MH¢E§E°EIN TA ¢IKAIA <MH¢E> ¶PATTEIN, EK TOIOYTøN ATIMOI EI™IN A£HNH™I. TAYTAXPH §O°IZOMENON MH NOMIZEIN EINAI TI ¢EINON A¶O TøN ATIMøN A£HNH™IN. 8
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