At the end of this presentation, you should: Know what marketing is and why you should learn about it. Understand the difference between micro-marketing and macro-marketing. Know the marketing functions and why marketing specialists—including intermediaries and facilitators—develop to perform them. Understand what a market-driven economy is and how it adjusts the macro-marketing system. Know what the marketing concept is—and how it should guide a firm or nonprofit organization.
Summary Overview Many people are surprised when they realize how many different ideas and activities are included in the term “marketing.” Key Issues Most people think that marketing involves selling and advertising. Marketing is much more than selling or advertising . Think about a manufacturer of bicycles: many different bicycles many brand names many types of bicycles; various features prices range from low to very high Discussion Question: Why are there so many varieties of bicycles? This slide relates to material on p. 4. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview By focusing on the many tasks involved in producing a bicycle, it is possible to get a feel for the wider range of marketing activities. Key Issues Among the different things a firm must do in producing a bicycle, it must: Analyze the needs of people for various types of bicycles; Predict the types of bicycles consumers will want and decide which consumers to satisfy; Estimate the number of bicycle riders and how many bicycles they might buy; Predict when consumers will want to buy; Determine where the consumers will be and how to get bicycles to them; Estimate the price consumers are willing to pay for a bicycle, and if that price will result in a profit for the firm; Decide what kinds of promotion should be used to inform consumers about the firm and its bicycles; Estimate the impact of competition from other bicycle producers; Figure out how to provide warranty service after a customer purchases a bike. Discussion Question: How many of these activities are marketing activities? This slide relates to material on pp. 4-5. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview Production and marketing are both fundamental economic activities. However, some people misunderstand the relationship between them. Thus, it helps to have a clear picture of how production and marketing interact with each other. Key Issues Production involves : making goods, or performing services. Discussion Question: Is it true that a good product is the only thing that makes a business a success? What is needed in addition to the product? Products do not sell themselves ! Marketing: makes sure that the right goods and services are produced; creates customer satisfaction : the extent to which an organization fulfills a customer’s needs, desires and expectations. Discussion Question: If you were buying a bicycle, what needs would you have? How would your desires or wants be different from your needs? What expectations would you have about the bicycle you were purchasing? This slide relates to material on p. 5. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview Production and marketing work together to create utility : the power to satisfy human needs. There are five kinds of economic utility. Key Issues Form utility-- provided when someone produces something tangible. Task utility-- provided when someone performs a task for someone else. Time utility-- having the product available when the customer wants it. Place utility-- having the product available where the customer wants it. Discussion Question: Can you think of examples of businesses that excel in providing time and place utility? Possession utility-- obtaining a good or service and the right to use or consume it. This slide relates to material on pp. 5-6. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview Marketing is a pervasive activity. It is something that eventually touches everyone and it dramatically affects peoples’ daily lives. The principles learned in marketing courses are directly and immediately applicable to students’ daily lives. Key Issues Marketing is important to every consumer . People bear the costs of marketing via price. Everyone buys or uses a product or service. People shop, are exposed to advertising, and provide information to businesses. Marketing is important to your job . People have to market themselves. Marketing offers career opportunities. Organizations exist to satisfy customers; marketing contributes to success. Discussion Question: How would a knowledge of marketing benefit an accountant? A computer system designer? An attorney? A physician? Marketing also affects the standard of living and economic growth : stimulates research and innovation; creates new/improved products; generates a higher standard of living. This slide relates to material on pp. 6-7. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview Marketing is more than selling and advertising, but it also possible to define marketing too broadly. In defining marketing, there are really two alternative views-- micro-marketing or macro-marketing . Key Issues Micro-marketing --activities that: anticipate customer needs; direct flows of goods and services to customers. are performed by organizations . Macro-marketing -- social process that: accomplishes the objectives of society; effectively matches supply and demand. is concerned with how marketing activities affect society, and vice versa. Discussion Question: Why is it important for marketers to understand both the micro- and macro- definitions of marketing? This slide relates to material on p. 7 and p. 9. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview Micro-marketing is done by organizations; beyond that general definition, there are several specific aspects of micro-marketing that marketers should consider. Key Issues Micro-marketing: applies to both profit and nonprofit organizations ; more than persuasion ; Discussion Question: What are some of the marketing activities other than persuasion? begins with customer needs ; does not do it alone or take the place of other business activities; involves exchanges —consumers exchange something of value to acquire something of value. builds a relationship with the customer that will lead to repeat purchase. The focus of the text is on management-oriented micro-marketing . This slide relates to material on pp. 7-9. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview In contrast to micro-marketing, macro-marketing’s emphasis is on how the whole marketing system works . Key Issues Every economy needs a macro-marketing system, because: variation exists among the types of producers that can meet needs; every consumer has a different set of needs; system must effectively match consumers and producers. Discussion Question: Which countries’ macro-marketing systems might be viewed by Americans as unfair or ineffective? Which countries’ citizens might think that the American macro-marketing system is unfair or ineffective? Try to think of specific mismatches between customer needs and the outputs of producers. This slide relates to material on pp. 9-10. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview The universal marketing functions help the macro-marketing system overcome separations and discrepancies between those wishing to participate in an exchange. The fulfillment of these functions in a particular country or culture varies widely, but all the functions are needed in any macro-marketing system. Key Issues Buying : looking for and evaluating goods and services. Selling : promoting the product to prospective buyers. Transporting : moving the goods from place to place. Storing : holding an inventory of goods until needed by customers. Standardization and grading : sorting products by size and quality. Discussion Question: Can you think of products that have to be sorted or evaluated before you can purchase them? Hint: think about agriculture. Financing : providing necessary cash and credit to produce, transport, store, promote, sell, and buy products. Risk taking : assuming responsibility for uncertainties. Discussion Question: What are some examples of the risks taken in business enterprise? Market information : the collection, analysis, and distribution of all the information the marketer needs to plan, implement, and control need-satisfying marketing activities. This slide relates to material on pp. 10-11. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview Individuals and organizations perform marketing functions. It is often easiest to think of producers , such as manufacturers of tangible products and providers of intangible services. However, there are many other marketing performers. Key Issues Consumers : needs drive the marketing responses of many organizations; provide marketing information to organizations. Marketing specialists : such as intermediaries, execute tasks related to buying and selling. Facilitators : firms that provide marketing functions other than buying and selling. advertising agencies, marketing research firms; independent product-testing laboratories; Internet service providers; transporting firms, etc. Universal functions of marketing need to be performed by someone. There can be specialization in the performance of these functions. Functions can also be shared and shifted among the marketing performers. Discussion Question: Why doesn’t each of the organizations or individuals in a macro-marketing system perform all of the marketing functions? This slide relates to material on pp. 11-12. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview Every society needs an economic system : the way an economy organizes to use scarce resources in production and consumption. Depending upon the type of economic system, decisions about resource allocation are made differently. Key Issues Planned economic system : government planners make decisions about production and distribution; can work well in simple economies or under adverse conditions. Market-directed economic system: individuals govern resource allocation, production and consumption. Characteristics of market-directed systems include: Adjusts itself . Price is a measure of value : consumers pay what they think things are worth; producers try to meet those price expectations. Greatest freedom of choice : less intervention from government planners; more choices are available to producers and consumers. The role of government is to ensure fairness and the common good. Discussion Question: What are examples of things government planners compel consumers to buy, even in a largely market-directed economic system? This slide relates to material on pp. 13-14. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview As marketing has evolved, its focus has changed from a focus on products to a focus on customer needs. An important point to remember is that some managers have not made it all the way to the final stages of marketing evolution. Key Issues Simple trade era --families trade or sell their output to local middlemen. Production era --company focuses on production of a few specific products: no ceiling on demand for the firm's products; focus on producing more efficiently, selling what it's easy to produce. Sales era --competition increases: finite demand for firm's products and services; surplus of products for sale; focus on pushing products via promotion, beating competition. Marketing department era --emphasis on coordinating marketing activities in a marketing department. Marketing company era --marketing is an overall philosophy: everyone in the organization is involved in increasing customer satisfaction; short-run and long-term planning; guided by the marketing concept. Discussion Question: Many companies profess to be customer-oriented, but their customer service still leaves a lot to be desired. Why? This slide relates to material on pp. 15-17. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview The cornerstone of the marketing-oriented company is the marketing concept . Key Issues Production orientation --making whatever products are easy to produce and then trying to sell them. Marketing orientation --designing marketing programs that will meet customer needs. Marketing concept : customer satisfaction guides the whole organization ; all individuals work together to accomplish this goal Discussion Question: What can managers do to motivate everyone in the organization to satisfy customer needs? requires that the company be profitable . This slide relates to material on pp. 17-18. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview This ad from Allen Edmonds demonstrates that the firm attempts to create customer satisfaction by giving customers what they need--different shoes for different occasions. Key Issues Allen Edmonds shoes: high quality, expensive. Not every consumer will be interested in paying for Allen Edmonds quality. Allen Edmonds meets the needs of people who are willing to pay more. Allen Edmonds has responded to the need for more styles. The company has developed a “recrafting” process for old shoes; it builds long-term relationships with the firm’s customers. This slide relates to material on pp. 17-18.
Summary Overview To better understand what it takes to satisfy a customer, it’s useful to take the customer’s point of view . Key Issues Customer value is the difference between the benefits a customer sees from a marketing offering and the costs of obtaining those benefits. Different customers may see the benefits and costs in different ways. The customer may not always dwell on value as a key determinant of buying behavior. Discussion Question: Can you give examples of firms that provide you with superior customer value? Do other consumers view this value in the same way? Where does competition fit ? A firm that offers superior customer value is likely to win customers. Customer value builds relationships . Understanding customer value is especially important when products and services are very similar. This slide relates to material on pp. 19-21. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview This model summarizes the important ideas presented to this point. Key Issues In a firm that has adopted the marketing concept, everyone focuses on customer satisfaction. The organization offers superior customer value. Value, in turn, helps attract customers and keeps them satisfied after they buy. This satisfaction then leads to repeat purchase. As the firm maintains this profitable relationship, the profit gives the firm the incentive and the resources to offer superior customer value. Discussion Question: If a firm’s customers are already satisfied with the firm’s offerings, why does the firm need to look for new and better ways to provide customer value? Adopting the marketing concept is a “win-win” situation for marketers and consumers! This slide relates to material on pp.19-21. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview The marketing concept is also applicable to nonprofit organizations such as museums, libraries, charities, and political parties. Key Issues Nonprofit organizations are relative newcomers to marketing . Nonprofit organizations often have a different idea of support and “satisfied customers ” than do business firms. Nonprofits often exist to accomplish a goal unrelated to traditional customer satisfaction. Many nonprofits raise money from non-customer groups and then spend it on other “customers”. They may not have a traditional “ bottom line ” economic measure of success. Discussion Question: What is the “profit” for a political party? A library? A museum? A symphony orchestra? A blood bank? Nonprofit organizations may not be organized for marketing . The marketing concept provides a focus on what is really needed. This slide relates to material on pp. 23-24. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview Organizations implement the marketing concept in the broader context of society. There are times when the society’s needs conflict with the needs of a particular individual or group, creating the micro-macro dilemma . Key Issues Social responsibility --an obligation to improve the organization’s positive effects on society. Businesses must strive to reach acceptable balances. “ Should all needs be satisfied ?” Some products that many people use are not good for them. Marketers must rely on legal and ethical standards in making decisions. “ What if profits suffer ?” Some marketers are adopting a longer-term view. Customer satisfaction goes beyond fulfilling an immediate need. Discussion Question: It is possible for an organization to be truly consumer-oriented and intentionally act in an unethical manner? Why or why not? The marketing concept guides marketing ethics : focuses the organization on the needs of consumers; many organizations have developed codes of ethics. Marketers should take criticisms of marketing seriously. This slide relates to material on pp. 24-26. Indicates place where slide “builds” to include the corresponding point.
Summary Overview These are key terms you should be familiar with based upon the material in this presentation. Key Issues Production : actually making goods or performing services. Customer satisfaction : the extent to which a firm fulfills a consumer's needs, desires, and expectations. Utility : the power to satisfy human needs. Form utility : provided when someone produces something tangible. Task utility : provided when someone performs a task for someone else--for instance when a bank handles financial transactions. Time utility : having the product available when the customer wants it. Place utility : having the product available where the customer wants it. Possession utility : obtaining a good or service and having the right to use or consume it. Innovation : the development and spread of new ideas, goods, and services. Micro-marketing : the performance of activities that seek to accomplish an organization's objectives by anticipating customer or client needs and directing a flow of need-satisfying goods and services from producer to customer or client. Pure subsistence economy : each family unit produces everything it consumes. Macro-marketing : a social process that directs an economy's flow of goods and services from producers to consumers in a way that effectively matches supply and demand and accomplishes the objectives of society. Economies of scale : as a company produces larger numbers of a particular product, the cost for each of these products goes down. Universal functions of marketing : buying, selling, transporting, storing, standardizing and grading, financing, risk taking, and market information. Buying : looking for and evaluating goods and services. Selling : promoting the product. Transporting : the marketing function of moving goods. Storing : the marketing function of holding goods. Standardization and grading : sorting products according to size and quality. This slide refers to boldfaced terms appearing in Chapter 1.
This slide refers to boldfaced terms appearing in Chapter 1. Summary Overview These are additional key terms. Key Issues Financing : provides the necessary cash and credit to produce, transport, store, promote, sell, and buy products. Risk-taking : bearing the uncertainties that are part of the marketing process. Market information : the collection, analysis, and distribution of all the information needed to plan, carry out, and control marketing activities. Intermediary : a middleman. Middleman : someone who specializes in trade rather than production, sometimes called an intermediary. Facilitators : firms that provide one or more of the marketing functions other than buying or selling. E-commerce : exchanges between individuals or organizations--and activities that facilitate those exchanges--based on applications of information technology. Economic system : the way an economy organizes to use scarce resources to produce goods and services and distribute them for consumption by various people and groups in the society. Planned economic system : government planners decide what and how much is to be produced and distributed by whom, when, to whom, and why. Market-directed economic system : consumers make a society’s production decisions when they make their choices in the marketplace. Simple trade era : a time when families traded or sold their surplus output to local middlemen who resold these goods to other consumers or distant middlemen. Production era : a time when a company focuses on production of a few specific products--perhaps because few of these products are available in the market. Sales era : a time when a company emphasizes selling because of increased competition. Marketing department era : a time when all marketing activities are brought under the control of one department to improve short-run policy planning and to try to integrate the firm's activities. Marketing company era : a time when, in addition to short-run marketing planning, marketing people develop long range plans--sometimes 10 or more years ahead--and the whole company effort is guided by the marketing concept. Marketing concept : the idea that an organization should aim all its efforts at satisfying its customers --at a profit . Production orientation : making whatever products are easy to produce and then trying to sell them. Marketing orientation : trying to carry out the marketing concept. Customer value : the difference between the benefits a customer sees from a market offering and the costs of obtaining those benefits.
This slide refers to boldfaced terms appearing in Chapter 1. Summary Overview These are additional key terms. Key Issues Micro-macro dilemma: what is good for some producers and consumers may not be good for society as a whole. Social responsibility : a firm's obligation to improve its positive effects on society and reduce its negative effects. Marketing ethics : the moral standards that guide marketing decisions and actions.
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