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    Sasanian+empire Sasanian+empire Presentation Transcript

    • Sasanian Empire 224-651
    • Sasanian Homeland
      • Province of Fars / Persis
    • Sources
      • Roman: Greek & Latin (3 rd -8 th CE)
      • Armenian & Georgian
      • Arabic & Persian (8-12 th )
      • Pahlavi texts (7-10 th )
      • Inscriptions
    • Province of Fars
      • Local Rulers
      • Frataraka: 2 nd BCE-1 st CE
      • King of Persis: 1 st CE-3 rd CE
      • Province of Fars
    • Parthian Rulers
      • King of Kings: Aratabanus IV 216-224 CE
      • Parthian overlords
      • Sub-kings of Fars
    • Sub-king of Persis
      • Local rulers
      • King Manuchihr
    • Sasanian Uprising
      • City of Istakhr
      • Fire-temple
      • Pabag
    • Revolt in Persis
      • Pabag: father
      • Sasan: dynastic line
      • Shapur: son of Pabag
      • Ardashir: son of Pabag
      • Ardashir defeats his brother
    • Coronation of Ardashir in Persis
      • Coronation 214 CE
      • Diadem: from whom? Symbol of sovereignty
    • War
      • Artabanus vs. Ardashir: 224 CE
      • Ardashir: victorious
    • Investiture Relief
      • Diadem: Ardashir from Ohrmazd
      • Iconography: Imperial Propaganda
      • Ardashir & Ohrmazd
    • Ardashir Propaganda
      • Closer look
      • Ahriman Artabanus Ahriman
    • Ardashir (224-240 CE)
      • Representative of God on earth
      • Coinage: “Mazda Worshipping Lord, Ardashir, King of Kings of Iranians, who is from the lineage of gods”
    • Eran / Iran
      • Eran / Iran
      • First mentioned by Ardashir
      • Iranshahr
      • “Domain of Iranians” < Aryans
      • Avesta: Zoroastrian hymns
      • Mythical homeland of the Aryans
    • Religious Propaganda
      • Mazda: Ohrmazd < Ahura Mazda
      • Fire-alter
      • Religion & State
    • Textural record: Avesta
      • Denkard (Acts of Religion):
      • “ His Majesty, Ardashir, the king of kings, son of Pabag, acting on the just judgment of Tosar, demanded that all those scattered teachings to be brought to the court. Tosar assumed command; he selected those which were trustworthy, and left the rest out of the canon. And thus he decreed: From now only those are true expositions which are based on the Mazdean religion, for now there is no lack of information and knowledge concerning them.”
    • Sacred Fire
      • Anahid / Anahita Fire-temple at Istakhr
      • Avesta: Aban Yasht (4) Aryan/Iranian homeland
    • Ardashir
      • Palace at Fars
    • Sasanian Round Cities
      • Ardashir-Khwarreh
      • Darabgird
    • Society
      • Pishag: Class
      • Priests: āsrōnān / mowbedān / hērbedān / dastūrān / dādwarān / radān / andarzbed / mowān andarzbed, ohrmazd mowbed
      • Warriros: Iran-Spahbeh / Artēshdārān sālār / Šahrdārān / Wisphuragān / Wuzurgān, Azadān / aswārān / paygān / spāh / pushtigbān-sālār / pīl-bānān / kaštīg / nāvbed /argbed / marzbāns / gund-sālār / kanārang
      • Wastaryōshān (husbandmen) / Dahigān (farmers) / Wāstaryōshān sālār / Hutukhshān (artisans) / Sogdians / Kārragbed
    • Shapur I (240-270 CE)
      • Heir to the throne
      • Shapur I
    • Shapur I
      • War with Rome
      • Romans in Mesopotamia?
      • Sasanian Capital in Mesopotamia: Ctesiphon
    • War with Rome
      • Gordian, Philip the Arab, Valerian
      • Mesopotamia, Syria, Anatolia
    • Chronology of War
      • Shapur’s campaign 240, 252-6, 260 CE
      • And in the third campaign, we set upon Carrhae and Edessa, and as we were besieging Carrhae and Edessa, Valerian Caesar came against us, and with him was a force [later specified as totaling 70,000] from the province ( hštr ) of the Goths and Germans [most Roman provinces are named]. And on the far side [= west] of Carrhae and Edessa a great battle took place for us with Valerianus Caesar. And we with our own hands took Valerian Caesar prisoner and the rest who were the commanders of this army, the Praetorian Prefect, and the senators, and the officers all of these we took prisoners and we led them away into Persis (Pârs). And we burned with fire, and we ravaged, and we took captive and we conquered the province of Syria, and the province of Cilicia, and the province of Cappadocia. And in that campaign we conquered from the Roman Empire [thirty-six cities are named with their dependent districts]. And we led the men from the Roman Empire, namely, from the Anêrân [un-Iranian lands], away with the booty; and we settled them in our own Iranian empire-- in Persis, Parthia and in Khuzistan and in Asôristân [=Babylonia], and in the other provinces, province by province, whenever we, or our father, or our forefathers or our ancestors had royal estates&quot;
    • Trilingual Inscription
      • Ka’ba-ye Zardosht
      • Middle Persian, Parthian, Greek: why?
    • Propaganda
      • Multiple records of the events
      • Shapur, Valerian and Philip the Arab
      • http://tourajdaryaee.tumblr.com/post/364501371/sabuhr-is-new-gold-coin-depicting-the-roman-emperor
    • Propaganda
      • Shapur I: new slogan on coins
      • Mazda Worshipping Lord,
      • Shapur, King of Kings of
      • Iranians and non-Iranian,
      • whose lineage is from
      • the gods”
    • Shapur I (240-270 CE)
      • Religious Policy
      • Zoroastrianism
      • Mani: Gnosticism (Gnosis): Knowledge
    • Mani
      • Shapuragan : Book composed in honor of Shapur
      • Ardahng : Illustrated book
      • -Different Languages:
      • Greek, Coptic, Sogdian,
      • Middle Persian, Parthian,
      • Turkic …
    • Influence of Manichaeism
      • Gnostic texts: Early Christianity (4 th -5 th CE)
      • St. Augustine: North Africa
      • Confessions
      • City of God
      • Islam:
      • Seal of the prophets
      • Ascetic practices
    • Religious Principals
      • Two Principles & Three Periods
      • Light / Spirit vs. Darkness / Matter
      • Separation of state
      • Mixed state
      • End of time
      • Separation of state
    • Central Figures
      • Mani: born in Babylonia
      • Parthian noble family
      • Receives messages
      • Zurvan: Great Lord
      • Jesus: Great warrior
      • Adam: First man
      • End of time: Spirit free from matter
      • Zoroastrianism, Christianity, Hinduism