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3+addiction+narrated+ii

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  • 1. Addiction
  • 2. Tolerance: Repeated administrations of a drug lead to a decreased drug effect. Craving: After repeated drug administration there is strong desire for it. Withdrawal: Lack of drug to an addicted person causes a variety of unpleasant symptoms. All addictive drugs develop addiction in the same way. Addiction
  • 3. Morphine administration • Euphoria •  Blocking pain • Hypothermia •  Decreased blood pressure • Warm skin • Drying of secretions Same response in animals as in humans Morphine is an opiate and is a refined version of heroin
  • 4. Pavlovian Learning Unconditional Stimulus Unconditional Response Food Salivation Conditional Stimulus Conditional Response Bell Salivation
  • 5. Pavlovian Learning Unconditional Stimulus Unconditional Response Food Salivation Conditional Stimulus Conditional Response Bell Salivation The conditional response helps to maintain homeostasis
  • 6. Pavlovian Drug Learning Unconditional Stimulus Unconditional Response Drug Drug response Conditional Stimulus Conditional Response Drug Administration Ritual Compensatory Response
  • 7. Pavlovian Drug Learning Unconditional Stimulus Unconditional Response Drug Drug response Conditional Stimulus Conditional Response Drug Administration Ritual Compensatory Response The conditional response helps to maintain homeostasis
  • 8. The conditional response does not need to be the same as the unconditional response.
  • 9. The Drug Response Morphine Administration Compensatory Response • Euphoria • Depression •  Blocking pain • Pain sensitive • Hypothermia • Hyperthermia •  Decreased blood pressure • Increased blood pressure • Warm skin • Cool skin • Drying of secretions • Increased secretions Unconditional response
  • 10. Compensatory Response Morphine Administration Compensatory Response • Euphoria • Depression •  Blocking pain • Pain sensitive • Hypothermia • Hyperthermia •  Decreased blood pressure • Increased blood pressure • Warm skin • Cool skin • Drying of secretions • Increased secretions Drug response Unconditional response Learned response Conditional response
  • 11. Time Drug Effect + _ First-time drug use 0 Unconditional drug response
  • 12. Time Drug Effect + _ Tenth-time drug use 0 Unconditional drug response Compensatory drug response Development of Tolerance Actual drug response
  • 13. Morphine Addiction Morphine Administration Morphine Withdrawal • Euphoria • Depression •  Blocking pain • Pain sensitive • Hypothermia • Hyperthermia •  Decreased blood pressure • Increased blood pressure • Warm skin • Cool skin • Drying of secretions • Increased secretions
  • 14. Morphine Addiction Morphine Administration Morphine Withdrawal • Euphoria • Depression •  Blocking pain • Pain sensitive • Hypothermia • Hyperthermia •  Decreased blood pressure • Increased blood pressure • Warm skin • Cool skin • Drying of secretions • Increased secretions Withdrawal is the compensatory response
  • 15. Clinical Implications
    • • Abstention typically does not work; high recidivism rate.
    • • Extinction is the only way to diminish a learned compensatory response.
    • • Unsignaled drug slows the development of tolerance.
    • • Interpolated blanks slows the development of tolerance.
    • • Changing the conditions under which the drug is given slows tolerance.
    • • Vietnam returnees did not revert to addiction.
  • 16. Implications for drug overdose
    • • Drug doses are if anything lower than the buyers expect, not higher.
    • • The individuals die with a dose that they enjoyed the day before.
    • • Other people using the same drug don’t overdose.
    • • Rats given a drug in one environment were not tolerant to the drug if tested in a new environment.
    • • Novel environment does not predict the drug.
  • 17. Dopamine mediation of addiction
    • • Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which project to the nucleus accumbens (NA) via the nigrostriatal bundle, are activated by all of the drugs that are addictive.
    • • Rats do not become addicted to these drugs if this pathway is destroyed.
  • 18. Dopamine mediation of pleasure
    • • Dopamine neurons are activated by:
    • Gambling
    • Risk
    • Money
    • Sports Cars
    • Beautiful faces
    • Food
    • Pleasant music
    • Sex
    • Humor
  • 19. ventral tegmental area Nigrostriatal bundle
  • 20. Dopamine mediation of addiction
    • • Nicotine induces the VTA neurons to release dopamine.
    • • Cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine into VTA neurons.
    • • Alcohol and opiates quiet neurons that would ordinarily inhibit dopamine neurons.
    • • Opiates also mimic the effects of dopamine on the Nucleus Accumbens.
  • 21. There is no difference between physical and psychological addiction to a drug