Addiction
Tolerance:   Repeated administrations of a drug  lead to a decreased drug effect.  Craving:   After repeated drug administ...
Morphine administration •  Euphoria   •  Blocking pain   •  Hypothermia   •  Decreased blood pressure  •  Warm skin   •  D...
Pavlovian Learning Unconditional Stimulus   Unconditional Response Food   Salivation Conditional Stimulus  Conditional Res...
Pavlovian Learning Unconditional Stimulus   Unconditional Response Food   Salivation Conditional Stimulus  Conditional Res...
Pavlovian Drug Learning Unconditional Stimulus   Unconditional Response Drug   Drug response Conditional Stimulus  Conditi...
Pavlovian Drug Learning Unconditional Stimulus   Unconditional Response Drug   Drug response Conditional Stimulus  Conditi...
The conditional response does  not need to be the same as  the unconditional response.
The Drug Response Morphine Administration   Compensatory Response •  Euphoria   • Depression •  Blocking pain   • Pain sen...
Compensatory Response Morphine Administration   Compensatory Response •  Euphoria   • Depression •  Blocking pain   • Pain...
Time Drug Effect + _ First-time drug use 0 Unconditional  drug response
Time Drug Effect + _ Tenth-time drug use 0 Unconditional  drug response Compensatory drug response Development of Toleranc...
Morphine Addiction Morphine Administration   Morphine Withdrawal •  Euphoria   • Depression •  Blocking pain   • Pain sens...
Morphine Addiction Morphine Administration   Morphine Withdrawal •  Euphoria   • Depression •  Blocking pain   • Pain sens...
Clinical Implications <ul><li>•  Abstention typically does not work; high recidivism rate. </li></ul><ul><li>•  Extinction...
Implications for drug overdose <ul><li>•  Drug doses are if anything lower than the buyers expect, not higher. </li></ul><...
Dopamine mediation of addiction  <ul><li>•  Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which project to the nuc...
Dopamine mediation of pleasure  <ul><li>•  Dopamine neurons are activated by: </li></ul><ul><li>Gambling </li></ul><ul><li...
ventral tegmental area Nigrostriatal bundle
Dopamine mediation of addiction  <ul><li>•  Nicotine induces the VTA neurons to  release dopamine. </li></ul><ul><li>•  Co...
There is no difference between physical and psychological addiction to a drug
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3+addiction+narrated+ii

  1. 1. Addiction
  2. 2. Tolerance: Repeated administrations of a drug lead to a decreased drug effect. Craving: After repeated drug administration there is strong desire for it. Withdrawal: Lack of drug to an addicted person causes a variety of unpleasant symptoms. All addictive drugs develop addiction in the same way. Addiction
  3. 3. Morphine administration • Euphoria •  Blocking pain • Hypothermia •  Decreased blood pressure • Warm skin • Drying of secretions Same response in animals as in humans Morphine is an opiate and is a refined version of heroin
  4. 4. Pavlovian Learning Unconditional Stimulus Unconditional Response Food Salivation Conditional Stimulus Conditional Response Bell Salivation
  5. 5. Pavlovian Learning Unconditional Stimulus Unconditional Response Food Salivation Conditional Stimulus Conditional Response Bell Salivation The conditional response helps to maintain homeostasis
  6. 6. Pavlovian Drug Learning Unconditional Stimulus Unconditional Response Drug Drug response Conditional Stimulus Conditional Response Drug Administration Ritual Compensatory Response
  7. 7. Pavlovian Drug Learning Unconditional Stimulus Unconditional Response Drug Drug response Conditional Stimulus Conditional Response Drug Administration Ritual Compensatory Response The conditional response helps to maintain homeostasis
  8. 8. The conditional response does not need to be the same as the unconditional response.
  9. 9. The Drug Response Morphine Administration Compensatory Response • Euphoria • Depression •  Blocking pain • Pain sensitive • Hypothermia • Hyperthermia •  Decreased blood pressure • Increased blood pressure • Warm skin • Cool skin • Drying of secretions • Increased secretions Unconditional response
  10. 10. Compensatory Response Morphine Administration Compensatory Response • Euphoria • Depression •  Blocking pain • Pain sensitive • Hypothermia • Hyperthermia •  Decreased blood pressure • Increased blood pressure • Warm skin • Cool skin • Drying of secretions • Increased secretions Drug response Unconditional response Learned response Conditional response
  11. 11. Time Drug Effect + _ First-time drug use 0 Unconditional drug response
  12. 12. Time Drug Effect + _ Tenth-time drug use 0 Unconditional drug response Compensatory drug response Development of Tolerance Actual drug response
  13. 13. Morphine Addiction Morphine Administration Morphine Withdrawal • Euphoria • Depression •  Blocking pain • Pain sensitive • Hypothermia • Hyperthermia •  Decreased blood pressure • Increased blood pressure • Warm skin • Cool skin • Drying of secretions • Increased secretions
  14. 14. Morphine Addiction Morphine Administration Morphine Withdrawal • Euphoria • Depression •  Blocking pain • Pain sensitive • Hypothermia • Hyperthermia •  Decreased blood pressure • Increased blood pressure • Warm skin • Cool skin • Drying of secretions • Increased secretions Withdrawal is the compensatory response
  15. 15. Clinical Implications <ul><li>• Abstention typically does not work; high recidivism rate. </li></ul><ul><li>• Extinction is the only way to diminish a learned compensatory response. </li></ul><ul><li>• Unsignaled drug slows the development of tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>• Interpolated blanks slows the development of tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>• Changing the conditions under which the drug is given slows tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>• Vietnam returnees did not revert to addiction. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Implications for drug overdose <ul><li>• Drug doses are if anything lower than the buyers expect, not higher. </li></ul><ul><li>• The individuals die with a dose that they enjoyed the day before. </li></ul><ul><li>• Other people using the same drug don’t overdose. </li></ul><ul><li>• Rats given a drug in one environment were not tolerant to the drug if tested in a new environment. </li></ul><ul><li>• Novel environment does not predict the drug. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Dopamine mediation of addiction <ul><li>• Dopamine neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), which project to the nucleus accumbens (NA) via the nigrostriatal bundle, are activated by all of the drugs that are addictive. </li></ul><ul><li>• Rats do not become addicted to these drugs if this pathway is destroyed. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Dopamine mediation of pleasure <ul><li>• Dopamine neurons are activated by: </li></ul><ul><li>Gambling </li></ul><ul><li>Risk </li></ul><ul><li>Money </li></ul><ul><li>Sports Cars </li></ul><ul><li>Beautiful faces </li></ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul><ul><li>Pleasant music </li></ul><ul><li>Sex </li></ul><ul><li>Humor </li></ul>
  19. 19. ventral tegmental area Nigrostriatal bundle
  20. 20. Dopamine mediation of addiction <ul><li>• Nicotine induces the VTA neurons to release dopamine. </li></ul><ul><li>• Cocaine blocks the reuptake of dopamine into VTA neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>• Alcohol and opiates quiet neurons that would ordinarily inhibit dopamine neurons. </li></ul><ul><li>• Opiates also mimic the effects of dopamine on the Nucleus Accumbens. </li></ul>
  21. 21. There is no difference between physical and psychological addiction to a drug

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