ET3003-1 introduction (Semester II 2013-2014)

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Lecture notes on introduction to computer networks and protocol

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ET3003-1 introduction (Semester II 2013-2014)

  1. 1. 1 Tutun Juhana Telecommunication Engineering School of Electrical Engineering & Informatics Institut Teknologi Bandung Introduction Computer Networks
  2. 2. Reference • TCP/IP Protocol Suite, Fourth Edition, Behrouz A. Forouzan, McGraw-Hill
  3. 3. The Menu • Theories • Hands-on
  4. 4. A Brief History • A network is a group of connected, communicating devices such as computers and printers • An internet is two or more networks that can communicate with each other • The most notable internet is called the Internet
  5. 5. internetsociety.org
  6. 6. Internet today
  7. 7. http://scoop.intel.com/what-happens-in-an-internet-minute/
  8. 8. PROTOCOLS AND STANDARDS
  9. 9. Protocol • A protocol is a set of rules that governs communication http://www.teracomtraining.com/online-coursescertification/samples/lesson1104-protocols-andstandards.htm
  10. 10. • For communication to occur among entities, they must agree on a protocol We agree to talk in English…
  11. 11. • In computer networks, communication occurs between entities in different systems
  12. 12. • The key elements of a protocol – Syntax – Semantics – Timing A protocol defines what is communicated, how it is communicated, and when it is communicated
  13. 13. Syntax • Syntax refers to the structure or format of the data, meaning the order in which they are presented
  14. 14. Semantics • Semantics refers to the meaning of each section of bits
  15. 15. Timing • Timing refers to two characteristics – When data should be sent – How fast it can be sent
  16. 16. http://dev.opera.com/articles/view/http-basic-introduction/
  17. 17. Standards • Standards are essential in – creating and maintaining an open and competitive market for equipment manufacturers – guaranteeing national and international interoperability of data and telecommunications technology and processes • Standards provide guidelines to manufacturers, vendors, government agencies, and other service providers to ensure the kind of interconnectivity necessary in today’s marketplace and in international communications
  18. 18. • De facto standard ( “by fact” or “by convention”) – Standards that have not been approved by an organized body but have been adopted as standards through widespread use are de facto standards – Examples of de facto standards are MS Office and various DVD standards
  19. 19. • De jure standards ( “by law” or “by regulation”) – Standards that have been legislated by an officially recognized body
  20. 20. STANDARDS ORGANIZATIONS Standards Creation Committees
  21. 21. Forum To accommodate the need for working models and agreements and to facilitate the standardization process, many special-interest groups have developed forums made up of representatives from interested corporations
  22. 22. Regulatory Agencies
  23. 23. INTERNET STANDARDS • An Internet standard is a thoroughly tested specification that is useful to and adhered to by those who work with the Internet • It is a formalized regulation that must be followed • There is a strict procedure by which a specification attains Internet standard status
  24. 24. • A specification begins as an Internet draft • Upon recommendation from the Internet authorities, a draft may be published as a Request for Comment (RFC) • Each RFC is edited, assigned a number, and made available to all interested parties • RFCs can be found at http://www.rfc-editor.org
  25. 25. Maturity Levels of RFC
  26. 26. RFC Requirement Levels
  27. 27. INTERNET ADMINISTRATION ietf.org
  28. 28. • Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) and Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) – IANA, supported by the U.S. government, was responsible for the management of Internet domain names and addresses until October 1998 – ICANN, a private nonprofit corporation managed by an international board, assumed IANA operations • Network Information Center (NIC) – Responsible for collecting and distributing information about TCP/IP protocols

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