Jungian dream interpretatl
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Jungian dream interpretatl Jungian dream interpretatl Presentation Transcript

  • Marie-Louise von Franz, Holorary PatronStudies in Jungian Psychologyby Jungian AnalystsDaryl Sharp. Gcneral EditorJungianDreamInterpretationA Handbook of Theory and PracticeJames A. Hall, M.D.
  • l,) 5 ,/itnnc|,ttt iIu. uma/rix, sororCanadian Cataloguing in publication DataHall. Jdrnes Albcrt. I934-Jungian dream interprelation(Sludics in Jungian psychology b1 .lungian analvstst Ij)Bibliography: p.Includes index.rsBN 0-9 r9123- 12 0L Dreaor.i 2. Psychoanalysis. 3. Jung. C.G. (CarlCu.rJvr. t875 tqbl. l. lirlc. ll Scrr..i.BF1078.H34 1983 154.63 C83_098964 ICopyright o 1983 by Jlmes A. Hall.All rights reserved.INNER CITY BOOKSBox 1271, Srarion Q. Toronro. Canacla M4T 2t,4Tclephone (416) 927-U355llonoraN Patron: Marie-Louisc 1)n Fran7.Publishcr,and General Edilor: Dlryl Sharp.Editorial Board: Fraser Boa. Daryl Sirarp. Marii.rn Woodman.INNER CITY BOOKS was founded in l9g0 1() pronror0 thcunderstanding and practical lpplicltion of the riork ol.C.C. .lung.C,rtr Kn.rrs:rnJ d,,uhle-hr.rdr..J (ru(cn,,t H(irfl. nlu. rri nlong miLuhr.. lq8U. ( ,,urrc,) Lrrl I r,uht r. Surrzrrl:irrJ(ilossary and Indcx by Dlr,vl Sharp.Printed and bound in Caoada byUoiversily of Toronto press IncorpomtedCONTENTSPreface 7I Basic Concepts ofJungian Psychology 9General Structures l0Relation between the Peruonal and the Objective PsycheComplex and Archetype l3ldentity Structures: Ego and Shadow 14Relational Structures: Anima/Animus and Persona l6The Individuation Process 192 The Nature of Dreaming 22Dreams as Compensation 23Non- Interpretive Uses of Dreams 26Dream Interpretation and Imaginal Techniques 27Ego-Identity and the Structure ofComplexes 283 The Jungian Approach to Dreams 34Amplihcation of Images 35Context of the Dream 364 Dreams as Diagnostic Tools 38lnitial Dreams in Analysis 38Related Images in a Dream Series 40DifferentialDiagnosis 44Depression 45Anxiery 46Psychosis 50Physical Problems 5lDreams of Death 52Pdnciples to Remembcr 535 Questions ofTechnique 54Transference and Coun tertransfer€ nce 54Medication in Analysis 58Reductive or Prospective Analysis 59The Affect-Ego and Dreams b IDelayed lnterpretation and Non-lnterpretation 64Concurrent Group and lndividual Therapy 65Poinls to Remember 67t2
  • Ilgo Inrugcs und (irrnplexes in Dreams 68l(l( tltrlr( ittir)r) ol (omplexes 68Slll( turirl Shilts: Borders and Boundaries iOItrIrrtioIIirI irnd Identity Structures ilI ltt Itrsone 7 |I ln, ,hadow 72tl ttitttuf Animus 73lhc Sclf and rhe Ego-SelfAxis 75Arche typal Amplification 78(irmmon Dream Motifs 80Inccst 80Mourning 8lHouses 82Automobiles 83Alcohol and Drugs 84Death 86Snakes 87The Dream Frame 89Dream-within-a-Dream 89Dreams of Reality-as-it-is 90Time and Space References 9lSynchronisticPhenomena 92Symbolism in Alchemy 96Alchemical Motifs in Dreams 97Coniunctio: Images of Union 98Dreams and Individuation l0lThe Nature of Neurosis l0lThe Relativization ofthe Ego t04The Individuating Ego 105The Dream-Ego and the Waking-Ego 107Focal and Tacit Knowing 109ll The Two Tensions of Dream Interpretation ll2Objective and Subjective ll2The Personal and the Archetypal 113A Brief Summing-Up I 16Notes I 18Glossary ofJungian Terms l2OIndex 12210See last page for descriptions oJ other lnner City BooksPrefaceDuring the first two years of my psychiatric practice I at-temDted to maintain a neutral attitude toward different theo-ries of dream interpretation. I hoped that by considering allsuch theories equally valid, I would eventually be able todiscriminate on the basis of clinical observation the advan-tages and disadvantages of each theory. I hoped rationally todecide for myself which theory of dream interpretationseemed Dreferable.The ti/o maior contenders in this contest of theories werethe approachei to dream interpretation of Freud and Jung.During my medical and psychiatric training the theories ofFreud had been exclusively emphasized when dreams werementioned, if they were mentioned at all. During psychiatricresidency at Duke University Medical Center my personalanalysis was with Dr. Bingham Dai, a Sullivanian, who em-phasized the relation of dream material to early family pat-tems and ego identities based upon those relationships. I stillremember that after seventy-five hours of analysis with him Iimpatiently remarked, "l know about my mother complex, wedont have rc frnd, that in a dream again!" He laughed kindly,knowing (as I later came to appreciate) the difference betweenknowing as a cognitive content and knowing in the sense oflived wisdom. When I left Duke to return to Texas. Dr. Daislast advice to me was: "Dont get too deeply into Jungiantheory too quickly." He sensed, it seems, my later deep attrac-tion to the Junsian view.It finallv beiame imnossible for me to deal with dreamscomfortabiy from a non-Jungian perspective. All other theo-ries of dreams seemed to be special cases of the Jungian view,but it was not possible for me to compress the broad vision ofJung into any other available theory. I became a convincedJungian.My own personal Jungian analysis was the pdmary teacherabout the meaning of dreams, for which I am continuallygrateful to my analysts: Rivkah Scharf Kluger, Dieter Bau-mann, Marie-Louise von Franz and Edward Whitmont. Workwith many analysands over a number of years of clinical7
  • Ipractice has brought confirming data. ln 1977 I published abasic text on drcam interpretation. Clinical Uses oJ Dreants:Jungian Interpretations and Enactments, in which I comparedJungian dream theory with other significrnt theories. poinringout differences and similarities. I also included a modest at-tempt to relate Jungian dream theory to the laboratory studyof sleeD and dreamins.The present volumi does not review these various compari-sons, but gives straightforward, prlcrical advice on dream in-terpretation and its use in light of the basic principles ofJungian psychology. I have highlighted recurrent clinicalproblems, giving examples and discussion of exactly why ccr-tain interpretations are preferred, and in most instanccs dem-onstrating how these interpretations relate to clinical change.Some useful references are indicated, but there is no intentionto provide again an exhaustive review of the growing literature on dream interpretation.One can give general guidelines for dream interpretation.but it is not possible to give airtight rules ofprocedure. Thereis no substitute for ones personal analysis and clinical experrence under a skilled supervisor, both essential elements of anypsychoanalytic training of whatever school or emphasis.Dreams used here fbr clinical illustrations are not presentedwith the full range ol amplification that may occur in anactual analytic hour. Nor, in most cases. have I tried to showthe rich matrix of personal meaning into which a dream canbe fitted during analysis. These omissions are neccssary forthe sake of brevity and to allow focus on the clinical problembeins illustrated.All dreams are used with the permission of the dreamer.but similar motifs and tvoes of dreams often occur in diflerentpersons. Hence none of my analysands should identily any ofthe dreams as their own. nor should they take the commentsabout a dream example as referring to any dream of theirs.These dreams are taken out of the rich matrix of clinicalJungian analysis and presented for particular illustrative pur-poses.IBasic Concepts of Jungian PsychologyJung used certain terms to describe the diffefent parts of thepsyche, both conscious and unconscious. These conccpts wereempirically dcrived from observation of a great deal of clinicalmaterial, including Jungs early work with the word associa-tion experiment, which formed the basis for polygraph testing(modern lie detectors) and fbr the concept of psychologicalcomplexes. (Jung was already deeply involved in word asso-ciation studies when he first read Freuds Interpretation ofDreanr. published in 1900.)It is useful to consider basic Jungian concepts in severalcategories, although onc must remember that the divisions aremorc or less arbitrary and for convenience of description anddiscussion: in the living psyche, different levels and variousstructures function as an organized whole. There are two basrctopographical divisions: consciousness and the unconscious.The unconscious is further divided into the personal uncon-scious and the objective psyche. Jungs earlier term for theobjective psyche was "collective unconscious," and this is stillthe term most widely used in discussing Jungian theory. Theterm objective psyche was introduced to avoid confusion withvarious collective groups of mankind, since what Jung particu-larly wanted to emphasize was that the depths of the humanpsyche are as objectively real as thc outer. "real" world ofcollective conscious exnerience.There are thus fourlevels of thc psyche:l) personal con:iciousness, or ordinary awareness;21 the personal unconscious. that which is unique to anindividual p5y(hc bul nL,l (r)nseiou5:3) lhe objectire psvche, or collective unconscious. which hasan apparently universal structure in mankind: and4) the outer world of colleclive cctnstiousness, the culturalworld of shared values and fbrms.Within these basic topographical divisions there exist gen-cral and specialized structures. The general structures are oftwo typcs: archetypal imagcs and complexes. Thc special
  • Il0 Bu.sit ( otrept; ol .lungiun P.srchalo,qrstructures ofthe personal parts of the psyche, both consciousand unconscious. are fbur: the ego, the persona, the shadowand the syzygy (paired groupingl Jf unimus,artrnu. Wirhin theobjective psyche there are archetypes and archetypal imagcs,whose number cannot be precisely stated, although therc isone notable archetype: thc Sefi which ntay also bc referred toas the central archetypc of order.Ceneral StructuresCompleres arc groupings of related images held together by acommon emotional tone. .lung discovered the presence ofemoli()nally-toneJ complcxe.. 6y noring rcgulirriiie. in .uh-jects associations to missed or delaycd responses in the wordassociation experimcnt. He found that in each subject theseitssociations tended to cluster about certain themes. such asassociations to the mother a "mother comnlex." The termcomplex has long since passed in J lr,ose ury into generalcultu_ral usage. Complexes are the basic contents of the per-sonal unconsclous.Archetvpul images tr.re thc basic contents of the objectivepsvche. Archetypes thcmselves are nr,t directl) observahlc. butlike a nragnetic field arc discernible by their inllucnce on thevisible contents of the mind. the archetypal images and pcr-sonified or imaged complexes. The archetype in itself is.rtendency to structure images ofour experience in a particularfashion, but the archetype is not the image itself. In discussingthe concept of the archetype, Jung likened it to the crystalformation in a saturated solution: the lattice-structure of aparticular crystal fbllows certain principlcs (the archcrype).while the actual form a particular crystal will take (archetypallmage) cannot be predicted in advance. Everyone is born witha tendcncy to form certain imagcs. but not with the imagesthemselves. There is a universal human tendency, for exam-ple. to form an image of the mother, hut cach individualfirrms a particular mother image based on this universalhuman archetvDe.Archetypal images are fundamental and deep imagcsfirrned by the action of archetypes upon the accumulatingexpericnce olthe individual psychc. Archetvpal images differGeneral S tructures llfrom the images of complexes in having a more universal andgeneralizcd meaning, often with numinous affective quality.Archetypal images that are meaningful to a large number ofDersons over an extended Deriod of time tend to be embeddediulturally in collective consciousness. Examples in culturalform are the image of the king and queen, the Virgin Mary.and such rcligious figures as Jesus and Buddha. Many collec-tive ligures and situations carry archetypal images withoutanyone being ordinarily aware of the projection. The strongemotional reactions after the assassination or death of a publicfigure, such as a president or king, movie star or religiousleader, show that for many persons the particular figure car-ried an archetvpal projection.Any recurrent human experience has an archetypal founda-tion: birth, death, serual union. marriage, conflict ofopposingfbrces, etc. Although archetypes may have evolved. they aresuch a slow variable that for all practical purposes they maybe considered as fixed within historical time.In .lungs model the Self is the regulating center of theentire psyche, while the ego is only the center of personalconsciousness. The Self is the ordering center which actuallycoordinates the psychic field. It is additionally the archetypaltemplate of individual ego-identity. The lerm Self is furtherused to rcfer to the Dsvche as a whole. There are thus thrccseparable meanings ol Self:l) the pslche rs a wh.rlc. funtti,rning as a unit:2) the central archetype of order. when viewed liom thepoint of view of thc cgo: and3) the archetypal basis of the ego.Because the Self is a more comorehensive entitv than thecgo, the perception by the ego of the Self often tekeis the ftrrmof a symbol olhigher value: images of God. the sun as thecenter of the solar system, the nucleus as the center of theatom. etc. The affective tone of an expericnce of the Self isoften numinous or fascinating and inspiring of awe. The egoexperiencing the Self may feel itself to be the object of asuperior power. When the ego is unstable the Self may appearas a reassuring symbol of order. often in the form of a man-dala. a figure with a clear periphery and a center, such as aquadrated circle or a square within a circle, although the
  • l2 Busit Concept.s of Jungian Ps.v-tholog.rforms are capable of endless elaboration. In Eastern religioustmdilions. m_andala rrrangement5 oflen contain god-im-agcsand are used in meditational practices. Althoush the Seliisthe least empirical of Jungs stiuctural concep$lbecause it isI the borderland ofuhar can be clinicllly demonsrraterl ir isa uselul term in describing psychologicaill whar is otheruiseindescribable.. tndeed. phenohenologically" the Self is virtuallyindistinguishable from what has traditionally been called God.Relation between the Personal and the Objective psycheOur point of reference in the psyche is the ego complex, thatstructure we refer to whenever we use the firsi-person singularpronoun "I." The personal layers of the psyche, however, restup.on an archetypal foundation in the objective psyche orcollective unconscious. The personal sphere, both-consciousand unconscious. develops oul ol the matrix of thc objectivepsyche and is continually related to these deeper areas of thepsyche in a profound and organic fashion, alth-ough the devel-oped ego inevitably tends naively to consider itself the centerof the psyche. It is similar to the difference between the sunrerulving around the earlh or vice versr.The activity of the deeper layers of the psyche is clearlyexperienced in dreaming, a universal humar eiperience, andit may break through in excessive form in acute psychosis. Inrn inten.ive Jungian analysis the anal;sand comes to appre-ciale lhe essentially helpful movements of the ubiectir e psychein furthering th_e empirical individuation proceis of tlLe-cgo.Some analysands learn the Jungian technique of active imig-ination, through which it is possible intenlionally to contactthe-re deeper la;ers of rhe psyche during waking Iiie.In structurll terms, each complex in the personal sphere(conscious or unconscious) is formed upon an- archetypai ma-trix in the objective psyche. At the core of every complex is anarchetype The ego is formed upon the arehetypal core rlf thcSelf; behind the personal mother complex is ttre Great Motherarchetype; the imago of the father and mother together has atits center the archetypal image of the divine farents: endthere are deep archetypal roots for the shadow and for manypersona roles. An archetypal form may involve the combina--Conpl?. 0nd Ar(hcl.lPc 1-l{ion ofseparable forms; for example the divine marriage orItiaros gamos can also image the unification of opposites. Thelrchettpal layer of the psyche has the ability to form symbolsthat in effect unite contents that are irreconcilable at thepcrsonal level. This ability of the objective psyche to formreconciling symbols is called the transcendent.funcllon becauseit can transcend the conscious tension of opposites ln thisprocess conllicts do not necessarily disappear, rather they aretranscended and relativized.Bccause each complex in the personal psyche rests upon anarchetypal foundation in the objective psyche, any complexthat is penetrated to sufflcient depth will reveal its archetypalassociaaions. Much of the art of Jungian analysis lies in ampli-fying images to the point where the ego experiences _ltsconnection to the archetypal world in a healing lashion, butnot to such an extcnt that the ego is swamped in a sea ofnon-unified archetypal contents. For example, if the ego is able toexperience its connection to the Self, an ego-Self axis isloimed and the ego thereafter has a more abiding sense of itsrclation to the very core of the psyche. But if a weak orundeveloped ego has this experience, it may be assimilated bythe Sell appearing as psychic inflation and the loss of a clearstandpoini in consciousness, or, at worst, temporary psychosis.The irequent experience of "being God" when taking psy-chedelic drugs such as I.sD and psilocybin is an experience bythe drugged ego of its archetypal core in the Seli but withoutsufficient grounding in reality to establish a stable ego-Selfaxts.Complex and ArchetyPeF.ach complex is a group of rclated images formed about acentral core of meaning that in its essence is archetypal. Fromthe moment of first awareness, these archetypal possibilities ofthe psyche are filled in with personal experience, so that theaduli ego feels that conscious. subjective contents are simplythe suni of its own past personal experiences. It is often onlyin analysis, in dreanrs, or in very moving emotional experi-ences that the developed ego can experience the truc arche-typal fbundations of the complexes. In the practice of analysis
  • Il4 Basit Concepts of Jungion Ps.ythologymany imaginal techniques may be used to facilitate thisawa-reness: guided imagination, gestalt techniques, drawing,work in clay. dancing, construction of projective forms in asandtray, hypnoanalytic techniques, or, the most pure fbrm.rctie imaginrtion. For indivitluarion lo procced mJst directllthe ego must always take a stance toward the contents of theobjective psyche that are revealed in these activities not slm-ply evoke them, like the sorcerers apprentice.Since each complex holds personai imtLges in an archc-typalmatrlx, there is always a danger that the personal associationswill be mistaken fbr the core of the comDlex, leadins to amerely reductive analysis, i.e.. interprering currcnt co-nflictspurely rn the light of early childhood experiences. Conversely.the excessive archetypal ampiification of images may lead tosome understanding of the archetypes but is likely to miss thehealing connection between the personal and the objectrvepsycne.In order to better understand thc dynamic interaction be-tween the various psychologieul srrucrurcs conceptualized byJung, it is helpful to separate them into two categories: iden-trty structures and relational structures. The ego and theshadow are primarily identity struetures. uhile ihc pers.rnaand the anima or animus are primarilt rclltionll structurcs.In the natural process of individuatitrn,thcre seems to be firsta need for the formation of a strong and reliable eso withwhich to establish oneself in thc worldl This is followed" bv tnetask of relating to other pcrsons und to thc collective eulturein which one exists. It is usually not until later in lile that theego expenences a need to relate to the archctypal forccs thatlie behind both the collective culture rnd the pirsonrJ pslchea need that ol1en appears as a so-called mid-life crisis.Identity Structures: Ego and ShadowA basic ego-identity is formed quite early, at first embeddedin the mother-child dyad, later enlargcd within the family unitand still later expanding to include an ever-widening culturalenvironment. In the process of ego formation, certain innateactivities and tendencies of the individual will be accepted oythe mother or the family and othcr activities and impulses willldcttitt StruLturcl: Eqo utul Shu&tt 1.5bc negatively valued and thus rejected. The crisis of toilettrainins stands for manv other more subtle interactions rnwhich ihe ego-identity olthe growing child is moldcd by thcprefercnces and tlislikes of those persons it is dependent upon.l-he tcndencies and impulses which are rejected by thc lamilyare not simply lost; they tend to cluster as an alter-ego imagejust below the surface of the personal unconscious. This alter-ego is what Jung termed thc shadow, because when one partof a pair of opposites is brought into thc "light" of conscious-ness. the other rejected part melaphorically falls into the"shadow" of unconsciousncss,Sincc the contents or qualitics of the shadow were poten-tially part of the developing ego, they continuc to carry asense of personal identity but of a rejected or unacccptablekind, and usually associated with feelings of guilt. Since theshadow was dynamically disassociated liom the dominantego-identity in the course of early development. its possiblereturn to claim a share of conscious life arouses anxietv. Muchof the routine work of psychotherapy and analysis is to createa place in which it is safe to again examine thc contents of theshadow and possibly integrate much that was previously dis-carded by early "splitting" in the formation ofthe ego. Manynatural attributes ofthe nsvche that are disassociated in childhood are actually necessiry for healthy adult tunctioning. Ag-gressivc and sexual impulses, lbr example. are olten disso-ciated, since their expression in childhood would be inappro-priate or culturally unacceptable and troublesome to parentsibut these are qualities essential to the normal adult personal-ity. where they can be modulated and integrated in a fashionnot available to the immature ego structure ofthe child. Otherqualities. even thl: easy expression of innate intelligence. maybe similarly dissociated into the shadow.Thc conscious integration olcontents of the shadow has thedual effect of enlarging the sphere of activity olthc cgo andreleasing the energy previously needed to naintain thc dissu-ciation and repression of those shadow qualitics. Ihe individ-ual often exneriences this as a new lease on life.Because the shadow is potentially ego, it tcnds to have thesame sexual identity as the ego. masculine in a man andfeminine in a wonran. In addition to being personilied indreams and fantasy material, thc shadow is commonly found
  • It 11,^r, | 1)httl)t t)l .lu giun P)&ologrlrr;rr tr.rl lrl)()r) pcrsons of the same sex, often someone both,lr,lrlrrl ;rrrtl cnvied for having qualities that are not suffi_, r rrl rlcvcl(ped in the dominJnt image of onerelf.l{clulional Structures: Anima/Animus and personal hc enhanced ego-identity formed through assimilation ofplrts of the shadow is faced more clearly with the need rorelate to others, both to other persons and io the transpersonalculture of the collective conscious world tnd the transoersonalarchetypal contents of the objecrive psyche. The two siructurallbrms that facilitate this relational tas-k are the anima or ant-mus and the oersona.Qualities that are culturally defined as inappropridte to rherexual identir; of the ego rend to be excluded even from rheshadow alter-ego and instead constellate around a contrasex_ual image: a masculine image (animus) in the psyche of awoman and a feminine image (anima) in the psyclie-of a man.Jung observed such imrges in the dreams andfintasv materialof his patients. realizing-that these images carried suth impor-tance that.estrangement from them could produce a feeiingthat primitive cultures would describe as..loisof soul.,The usual way in which the anima or animus is experiencedrs rn proJectlon upon a person of the opposite sex. Unlike theprojection of the shadow, such projeition of the anima oranimus lends a quality of fascinatjon to the person who ..car-nes" them in projected form._ "Falling in l,ove" is a classrcrnstance of mutual anima and animus prolection between aman an-d a woman. During such a mutual projection onessense of personal worth is enhanced in the preience of theperson who represents the soul image in projeited form, but acorresponding loss of soul and emptiness may result if theconnection is not maintained. This projective phase. the un-conscious identification of another p6rson with the soul imagein ones. own psyche, is always limited in time; it inevitabiyends, with varying degrees of animosity, because no actuilperson can live up to the fantastic expectations that accom-pany a projected-soul image. And with the end of projectioncom.es th^e task of establishing a genuine relationshii wlth thereallty ol a nother Derson.IiRelationul Slru(ture.; ,4 tlinu i A t1i,11t!s und Pcrsona I7Considered as structures of the psyche, the soul images ofanima and animus, cven in projection. have the function ofenlarging the personal sphere of consciousness. Their fascina-tion enlivens the ego and pulls it toward ways of being thathave not yet been integrated. The withdrawal of the projec-tion, if accompanied by integration of the projected contents.inevitably leads to increased awareness. If the projected animaor animus is not integrated when the projection is withdrawn,the process is likcly to occur again with someone else.The intrapsychic function of the anima or animus, its rolewithin the individual. is directly analogous to the way it worksin projected form: leading the individual out of accustomedways of functioning, challenging one to widen horizons andmove toward a more comprehensive understanding of oneseliThis intraosvchic function can often be followed in a series ofdreams oi seen in artistic productions, such as the Victoriannovel Sre by Rider Haggard that was frequently cited byJung. Rima, the bird-woman of the novel Green Mansions, is aless complex example. Leonardos painting of the Mona Lisacaptures the mysterious and enigmatic fascination of an animafigure, while Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights is a classic por-trayal of the animus; Offenbachs great opera Tales oJ Hofl-mann deals entirely with the difficulties of integrating variousforms of the anima. all with their inevitable fascination.Because the image of the anima or animus is an uncon-scious structure, or exists at the very border of the personalunconscious and the objective psyche, it is essentially abstractand lacks the subtle qualities and nuances of an actual person.For this reason, if a man identifies with his anima, or awoman with her animus, the conscious personality loses thecapacity for discrimination and the ability to deal with anintricate interpla) of opposile:.In traditional European culture (in which Jung lived mostof his early life) the anima of a man tended to carry hisunintegrated emotional side, and therefore was likely to mani-fest in a certain sentimentalitv rather than mature and inte-grated feeling. Similarly, the animus of the traditional womanwas likely to appear as undeveloped thinking and inteliect,often in opinionated thoughts rather than logically formulatedoositions.
  • Tl8 Bosic Conccpts of Jungian Ps.rthoktgrIt is essential not to confuse these historical and culturalstereotvDes with the functional role of the anima and animusas soui hgures. With the increasing cultural freedom for bothmen and women to adopt non-traditional roles, the generalcontent or appearance of the anima and the animus is indeedchanging. but their essential role as guide or psychopompremains as clear as in Jungs first descriptions. The partialintegration of the anima or animus (which cannot be as com-plete as that of lhe shadow) contributes to an individualsability to deal with the complexity of other persons as well asthe other parts of ones own psyche.The persona is the function ol relationship to the outercollective world. Persona is a term derived from the Greekword fbr "mask," carrying overtones of the comic and tragiemasks of classical Greek drama. Any culture provides manyrecognized social roles: father, mother. husband, wift, physi-cian, priest, advocate, etc. These roles carry with them gener-ally expectable and acceptable ways ol functioning in theparticular culture, often cven including certain styles of dressand behavior. The developing ego chooses various roles, inte-grating them more or less into the dominant ego-identity.When the persona roles fit well that is, when they trulyreflect the abilities of the ego they facilitate normal socialinteraction. The physician wearing the white coat. and psycho-logically "wearing" the persona of the medical profession, rsmore easily able to perform necessary (and potentially embar-rassing) examinations of the patients bodily functioning. (Theconverse persona, that of the patient, is one physicians havenotorious difficulty assuming when they themselves are ill.)The healthy ego can more or less successfully adopt differ-ent persona roles according to the appropriate needs of agiven situation. The shadow, in contrast, is so personal that itis something one "has" (if indeed it does not have the ego attimes). There are persona malfunctions, however, that oftenrequire psychotherapeutic intervention. Three are most proml-nenl: l) excessive development of the persona; 2) inadequatedevelopment of the persona; and 3) identihcation with thepersona to such an extent that the ego mistakenly feels itselfto be identical with the primary social role.Ercessive persona development can produce a personalityThe Indiriduutiotl Prorcss l9that precisely fills the social roles, but leaves one with a sensethat there is no real person "inside." Insufficient persona de-velopment produces a personality that is overly vulnerable tothe possibility of rejection and hurt, or ol being swept up intothe persons with whom it relates. The usual forms of individ-ual or group psychotherapy are of great help in these condi-tions.Identification with the persona is a more severe problem inwhich there is an insufllcient sense of the ego being separablefiom the social persona role, so that anything that threatensthe social role is experienced as a direct threat to the integrityof the ego itself. The "empty nest syndrome" ennui anddepression when ones children leave home betrays an over-identification with the persona of the parental role and canoccur in both men and women. The person who feels emptyand adrift except when working has misused the persona ap-propriate to work or prolession and has failed to cultivate awider sense of identity and competency. Analytic treatment isfiequently needed to work through severe problems of identi-fication with the persona.The Individuation ProcessIndividuation is a central concept in Jungian theory. It refersto the process in which a person in actual life consciouslyattempts to understand and develop the innate individual po-tentialities of his or her psyche. Because the archetypal possr-bilities are so vast, any particular individuation process inevit-ably must fail to achieve all that is innately possible. Theimportant factor, therefore, is not the amount of achievement,but whether the personality is being true to its own deeperpotentialities rather than simply following egocentric and nar-cissistic tendencies or identilying with collective cultural roles.The ego may identify with structures in the personal uncon-scious that are not in harmony with the broader individuationprocess. This most frequently causes neurosis-a feeling ofbeing split apart. never one in response and feeling. Living afamily role assigned in childhood may produce such neuroticsplitting, as can an attempt to avoid moving forward throughthe stages of life, fixating oneself at an earlier level.
  • Ttl) lltttt ( t)nt t,l)t. t)f Ju tiutl P.sttholrrytllrc cuo nray also be out of touch with its individuatlonl)r{,((ss ls a result of identifying with roles offered it in ther,rllcttivc spheres either the roles of the collective uncon-stiorrs. in which the ego identifies with an archetype andbeconres inflated, or those offered in collective consciousnesssocial roles becoming something that, however valuable. isnot true to the individual fate. Identification with a social role(identification with the persona). even if that role is acccptedand well rewarded by a wide scgment of a society, is notindividuation. Jung felt that Hitler and Mussolini exemplifiedsuch identification with figures from the collective uncon-scious, leading both themselves and whole nations to tragedy.iThe extreme ol identification with an archetvoal role in theobjectie l5yche {eolleclivc uncunseious) result. in u psychrticidentificatjon with a figure that is larger (and less hurnan)than the ego. Some archetypal identifications are confusionsof the ego with a cultural hero or savior figure Christ, Napo-leon. the mother-of-the-world. etc. Even nesative identihca-tions may achieve archetypal proportions tne-gative inflarion),as in persons with a psychotic depression who feel they havccommitted the "unpardonable sin." placing themselves. byimplication, even above Gods power to forgive.It is difficult to describe a successful or typical proccss ofindividuation because each person must be considered aunlque case of one. Certain "norms" can be stated, such ascomparing the usual process of individuation to the course ofthe sun rising toward clarity and deflnition during the firsthalf of life and declining toward death in the second half,but such generalizations have constant exceptions when onedeals with individuals at close range, as in rhe process otr nalr sis.In his emphasis on the process of individuation as a centralconcept of analytical psychology, Jung spoke clearly for thedeep importance and value of the unique human life. Thispriority is echoed in the great world religions, but is missing inmany modern mass movements, where the individual is re-duced to a social, economic or military unit. In this sensc,individuation is a countemoint to thl threatened loss ofhuman value in a world that is excessively organized on tech-nological or ideologicrl grou n tls.Ihe Individuutiott Process 2lThroughout his life Jung maintained a great interest lnreligious experience. He involved himself in the study of East-ern religions, understood alchemy as a non-orthodox religiousand psychological practice, and explored the transformationrituals he lbund still active within the Western Christian tradi-tion. Since the Self appears phenomenologically with the sameimagery that has often been associated with the deity, it func-tions to some extent as a God-image within the psyche. Therelation between this image and what theological speculationhas referred to as God is indeed an open question, althoughnot one that is frequently opened. Numinous experiencesoccur in some dreams and seem capable, if assimilated, ofproducing deep and lasting alterations in the personality struc-ture, an effect parallel to some religious conversions and tosome peak experiences in waking life.The individuation process, as understood in Jungian theoryand encouraged in analysis, involves a continuing dialoguebetween the ego, as the responsible center of consciousness.and a mysterious regulating center of the total psyche, a cen-ter Jung called the Self-both the core of the ego and tran-scendent to it, needing the ego for the rndividuation process tounfold yet seemingly separate and independent of ego states.We do not know the nature of the Self; it is a concept neededto discuss observable activities of the psyche but not capableof direct elucidation.A "successful" Jungian analysis leads one to appreciate theultimately mysterious nature of the psyche, which seems bothintimate and transpersonal, both bound by the individual egoand yct freer in time and space than the empirical personality.At this borderland of the psyche we are at the door of largercultural questions that cannot be answered by clinical insightalone.
  • TThe Nature of DreamingDreaming is a universal human experience. In a phenomenol-ogical sense, a dream is an experience of life that is recog-nized, in retrospect, to have taken place in the mind whileasleep, although at the time it was experienced it carried thesame sense of verisimilitude that we associate with wakrngexperiences; that is, it seemed to happen in a "real" worldthat was only in retrospect acknowledged to be a ,,dream"world.The phenomenology of dreams involves events that are notexperienced in the waking world: sudden shifts of time andplace, changes in age, the presence of persons known to bedeceased or of fantastic persons and animals that never ex-isted. Perhaps the most radical shift experienced in a dream rsthe shift of the ego-identity irself lrom one character to an-other, or perhaps to no character at all, the dream-ego seem-ing lo observe eventr a il from rn umniscienl floating p.rsi-tion.During the last several decades, an immense amount ofwork has been done on neurophysiological states associatedwith dreaming. Thus far such studies have allowed investiga-tors to define with some precision when a sleeping subject rsin a RFIM state, a state of ascending Stage I sleep-withrapideye movements. When awakened in such a REM st:rte there isa high probability (but no certainty) that rhe subject willreport having been dreaming just prior to awakening. Thereare some dream reports, however, from non-Rl]v stages ofsleep. Although there were earll intriguing studiei thatseemed to link the direction of eye movements to the contcnrof experienced dreams,r that obicrvation stlll lacks sufficientconfirmation to be generally accepted.Since the l{F.Nt state occupies a majority of the time ofprcmature infants, and decreases steadily during the agingprocess, it would seem to be a biologically determined staterather than one simply serving the psychollgicel necds of rhesubject. RI11 sleep is found also throughout most animal spe-Draunts us Clt1lpcllsuliotl )-lcics. where psychological factors are not a major considera-tion. It may initially represent a processing of informationrelated to binocular vision, or may serve the purpose of peri-odically alerting the central nervous system during the night.Whatever the biological basis of dreaming, it seems in thehuman to serve some process necessary to healthy psychologi-cal functioning. Freud assigned to the dream the role ofguarding sleep fiom the irruption of repressed impulses aposition not generally thought to be in accord with moremodern dream research. In contrast, Jungs position was thatthe dream compensated thc limited vicws of the waking ego, apurpose in harmony with the information-processing hypothe-iis of dreaming. but expanding far beyond mere assimilationof new data.Dre:rms as CompcnsationThe dream in Jungian psychology is seen as a natural, regula-tory psychic process, analogous to contpensatory mechanismsol bodily functioning. The conscious awarencss by which theego guides itself is inevitably only a partial view. for muchremains always outside the sphere of the ego. The unconsciouscontains fbrgotten material as well as material sucll as thearchetypes that cannot in principle bc conscious. althouBhchanges in consciousness can point toward their existenccEven within the lleld of consciousness some contents are infocus while others, although indispensable to the maintenanceof the focal awareness. are not.1Therc are three ways in which the dream may be seen ascompensatory, and all are important in understanding theclinical use of dreams. First. the dream nlay compensate tem-porary distortions in ego structure, directing one to a morecomprehensive understanding of attitudes and actions. Forexample. someone who is angry at a fiiend but finds the angerquickly waning may dream of being furious at the friend. Theremembered dream brings back for further attention a quan-tity of anger that had been suppressed, perhaps fbr neuroticreasons. It mav also be imDortant for the dreamer to realiT-cwhich complei was constellated (activated) in the situation.A second and more profound mode of compensation is the22
  • 24 The Nature of Dreaningway in which the dream as a self-representation of the psychcmay face a functioning ego structure with the need for a closeradaptation to the individuation process. This generally occurswhen one is deviating from the personally right and true path.The goal of individuation is never simply adjustment to exis!ing conditions; however adequate such adjustment seems, afurther task is always waiting (ultimately the task of facingdeath as an individual event). An example of this second typeof compensation is the dream of a person who was quite welladapted socially, in the community, family and work areas oflife. He dreamed that an impressive voice said, "You are notleading your true life!" The force of that statement, whichawoke the dreamer with a start. lasted for manv vears andinfluenced a movement toward horizons that were not clear atthe time of the dream.These two forms of compensation the dream as a "mes-sage" to the ego and as a self-representation of the psyche-comprise the classical Jungian idea of the compensatory func-tion of dreams, substantially different frorn the traditionalFreudian view of dreams as wish-fulfilment or Drotectors ofsleeD.Ii is becoming increasingly clear to me, however, that thereis a more mysterious and more subtle third process by whichdreams are compensatory. The archetypal core of the ego isthe enduring basis of "1" but can be identified with manypersonae or ego-identities. The dream may be seen as anattempt to directly alter the structure of complexes uponwhich the archetypal ego is relying for identity at more con-scious levels. For instance, many dreams seem to challense thedream-ego with various tasks, ihe achievement of whicli mayalter the structure of the waking-ego, since the identity of thedream-ego is most often a partial identity of the waking-ego.Events are experienced by the dream-ego as interactions with"outer" situations within the structure of the dream; but theouter events of the dream may directly reflect complexes thatare involved in the day-t6-6ny-functioriing and struciure of thewaking-ego. Changes in the relationship with these dreamsituations can be experienced by the waking-ego as a changein its own attitude or mood. Marie-Louise von Franz gives oparticularly clear example of this type of compensation fromDreans us Contpenxttion 25 r ()l her own dreams. After a day of feeling the nearness of,[:rlh she dreamed that a romantic young boy an animuslr 1rr rc had died.5lrr the usual course of Jungian analysis dreams are oftenrrsrtl as a point of reference for the interaction of the analytic1,rocess. Analyst and analysand are allies in attempting tornrlerstand the "message" of the dream in relation to the ego,l lhe analysand. At times dreams indicate that attention.,lrould be directed to the transference-countertransference, thep;rlticular constellation of interaction in the analytic situation.Sirrce there is no privileged position from which one can knowthc "truth" of another persons psyche. analyst and analysandrrfc engaged in an exploratory venture that involves basic trusthctween them. If the dream focuses on that relationship, therclationship must be examined analytically.In interpreting dreams, it is important never to feel that the,lrcam has been exhausted. At best one can find a useful,ctrrrent meaning to the dream, but even this may be modifiedin the light of subsequent dreams. for dream interpretationinvolves a continuing dialogue between the ego and the un-conscious, a dialogue that extends indefinitely and whose sub-jcct matter may shift both in focus and in level of reference.Even when dreams are not interpreted they seem at timesto have a profound effect upon waking consciousness. Fromobservation of the impact of unanalyzed dreams, it is possibleto infer that even when not remembered dreams are a vitalpart of the total life of the psyche.6 In the Jungian view,dreams are continually functioning to compensate and com-plement (a milder form of compensation) the egos wakingview of reality. The interpretation of a dream permits someconscious attention to be paid to the direction in which theprocess of individuation is already moving, albeit uncon-sciously. When successful, such a teaming of conscious willand unconscious dynamism furthers the process of individua-tion more rapidly than is possible when dreams are left unex-ilmlneo.An additional benefit from the interpretation of dreams isthat the ego retains in conscious memory a residue of thedream, allowing the person to identify similar motifs in every-day life and take the appropriate attitude or action. resulting
  • F)6 The Naturc of Dreuntingin less need for unconscious compensation of that Darticularproblem area.Non-Interpretive Uses of DreamsThe personifications in dreams, including images of scenesand inanimate objects, reflect the structure of psychologicalcomplexes in the personal unconscious, all of which rest uponarchetypal cores in the objective psyche and all of which aresubject to the centering and individuating force of the Self orcentral archetype. Those particular complexes which are ob-jectified and imaged in the dream (including the particularconstellation of the dream-ego) reflect the autonomous activityof the Self in relation to the ego (both waking-ego and dream-ego). It is therefore possible to see, if only dimly, what the Selfis doing with the complexes that comprise the ego and othercontents of the psyche. Such observations may be used in non-interpretative ways, which is in fact their most usual use innon-Jungian therapies.The motils of a dream may refer to the present or the past,and may indicate actual persons, living or dead, or figures thatare unknown in waking life. Persons that are not known rnwaking life are more likely to be personified parts of thedreamers own psyche. By careful attention to these details ltis possible to infer what parts of the psyche and what parts ofthe egos past experience are constellated in the mind at thetlme of the dream. Psychotherapeutic attention to those areas,even without formal interpretation of the dream, may lead thetherapeutic process in the same direction as the natural flowof individuation.When complexes are enacted, as in gestalt techniques, addi-tional psychic energy is focused upon them and the outcomeis likely to be increased awareness. Such enactment, however,does not constitute the same use of the dream as does Jungianinterpretation, for the focus in such enactments is upon thecomplex that is constellated and not upon the usc made ofthat complex in the total structure of the dream.When the clinician has acquired skill in the use of dreaminterpretation, dreams may serve as an added factor in diag-nostic and prognostic evaluation, as well as serving as a subtleDtedn Inlery)rctulitttt und Inuginul Tcclltliques )7indicator of when to institute or alter medication. considerhospitalization, and vary the frequency of psychotherapeutlcilppointments. A very seriously ill young schizophrenic, forexample, often dreamed of his car beginning to roll backwardout of control just before he developed an exacerbation of hispsychotic symptoms and required increased medication. Inseveral instances the reverse seemed true-he would dream ofmarked successes or mastery (such as easily defeating themythological Minotaur) when he was beginning a phase ofimprovement. He once dreamed that a circus con man had allthe parts for an atomic bomb except for the piece the dream-ego had. The dream-ego lied about having the part when thecon man asked for it. This seemed at the time to represent anaverted "explosion" of his psychotic process, paralleling hrsconscious reparative efforts. (Many years and many therapistslater this young man committed suicide: his last dreams areunknown to me.)Dreams can be taken as referring to the other materialdiscussed in the analytic hour rn which they are reported or tothe group therapy session in which they are mentioned, and tothe specific life situation of the dreamer at the time of thedream. Careful reference of the dream images to the contextof the waking-ego at the time of the drcam minimizes thcmost serious error in the clinical use of dreams: the therapi5tprojecting onto the dream his own thoughts about the palient,rather than using the dream as a corrective message from theunconscious of the patient.Dream Interpretation and Imaginal TechniquesModern psychotherapy makes use of many imaginal tech-niques other than dream interpretation. lmaginal techniquesare enactments designed to utilize human imagination, oftenconceptualized as increased activity of the right cerebral hemi-sphere, to modify inappropriate assumptions and identitiesthat underlie neurotic unhappiness. I have referred to suchimaginal techniques as ena(tments to differentiate them froma ing-out, which is the unconscious (and generally undesira-ble) structuring of experience according to unrecognized, un-conscious conflicts.7
  • 28 l hc Nolure of DrauningBoth dream interpretation and imaginal techniques appearto influence the pattern of complexes in the mind, as dc.emotional experiences in everyday life and in psychotherapy.Working with dreams is perhaps the most direct and naturalapproach to ahering the complexes, while the next most directis Jungs method of active imagination, in which unconsciouscontents are encouraged to "come up." while the ego main-tains its waking role of mediating the conflicting pressure ofconstellated opposites in the psyche.Other imaginal techniques include hypnoanalytic imagery,painting and molding images frorn the unconscious, the use ofsandplay to construct scenes with small figures in a tray ofsand, psychodrama, guided imagination and meditationalpractices in which a free flow of imagery is permitted. Theresulting material is so closely akin to that which appears indreams that an understanding of the clinical use of dreamsshould be a fundamental discioline for the use of all imasinaltechniques in psychotherapy.Ego-Identity and the Structure of ComplexesIn most clinical uses of dreams. the aim is to helo the dreamersee clearly the various forms of his or her own personalitystructure that are usually unconscious and simply acted out rnthe world, often causing the neurotic unhappiness that moti-vates a person to seek professional help. This work by thetherapist is essentially similar to the natural spontaneous activ-ity of dreams, for dreams are already attempting to lead theperson out of his neurosis and into the process of individua-tion. Dreams are not dreamed to be analyzed and understood,but an understanding of dreams tells us where the uncon-scious is already trying to alter the ego-image in the directionof health and individuation.Health and individuation, however, are not always aligned;what is "healthy" for one dominant ego-image at a particularstage of Iife may be decidedly anhealthy for the nascent ego-image of the next stage of life. Psychologically, as in otherareas of Iife, the good is the enemy of the better. lndividua-tion is a larger and more complex concept than "health "Individuation is a dynamic process; it involves constantEEt ldcntit.t und rhe Srnttrttre of Cornple.xes 29change and eventually leads to an acceptance of the finitudeof lile and the inevitabilitv of death.Changes in mood may be visualized as changes in thestructure of complexes underlying the image of the ego. Tosome degree, the ego is capable of making such alterations. aswhen one reminds oneself of important personal priorities in asituation of ambivalence. This mav be no more serious thanremembering the intention to lose weight when faced with amcnu of attractive desserts. In dealing with more importantissues. requiring more profound levels of identity change,however, the necessary alterations are not within the sphere ofconscious ego choice. At that level the cgo must simply dowhat it can and then wait upon thc action of the transcendentfunction, the symbol-making capacity of the psyche. which isable to alter the conflict of opposites through creation of asymbolic solution that relativizes both warring opposites in awider frame of meaning.Clinical work with dreams involves helping the ego do whatis within its power to do. While the underlying necessarytransformations can at times be observed in dream images,they cannot be ordered up at the will trf either the patieniorthe analyst. The answer to the insistent (and understandable)cry of the patient to be told "what to do" is to do what onecan. follow as closelv as oossible the forms in which theconflict presents itself, make whatever impact one can on thesituation and lhen wait, watch and trust. Support of thisprocess is an important ingredient in the transfrrrmarion of thepsyche. The analytical situation (and the person of the ana-lyst) may be the only temenos the patient has, a safe placewhere life is held together during the unsettling movementfrom an old ego-image toward an emerging. more comprehcn-slve one.The crucial point to remember is that the ego-image itselfmay alter depending upon which complex (or combination ofcomplexes) the ego uses for a dominant identity. This is fairlyeasy to see in shadow projections, where the ego feelsJusti-fied" in actively not liking someone (usually ofthe same sexas the ego) who embodies qualities that (to everyone otherthan the person doing the projecting) are present in the ego-image of the patient. If such a shadow projection is indeed an
  • 30 The Natura ctf Dreuningintegral part of ones own character structure, dreams oflenshow the dream-ego engaged in that shadow activity or atti-tuoe.If the shadow is not projected but is acted out by the ego, acurious type of dream may occur when the shadow is beingintegrated or is being dissociated from the dominant ego-image. N-on-drinking alcholics, for example, not infrequenllydream of drinking soon after they have ceased to drink iirtheir daily lives. The same type of dream can be observed incigarette smokers who give up tobacco. Such dreams, simpleln structure, suggest that the pattern of ego-identity in whichthe shadow activity was embedded still persists. alihough theego no longer identifies with it. (To see these dreams simplisti-cally as wish-fulfilment risks miring rhe ego in past atritudesand behavior patterns, rather than encouraging its movementaway from them.)More complex dreams illustrate the same principle. A mid-dle-aged man who at one time had wanted Io be a ministcr,but who was long-since successful in an unrelated career, hadar. excessively active sex life, of a counter-phobic quality.While separated from his wife (with whom he still had sexuilrelations) he had a standing weekly date with a married girl-friend, and at other liee moments went to a local pick-up bar,having casual sexual contact with a variety of other women.During this hectic sexual aclivity, his dreams showed himgoing to church and raking communionl His shadow crln-tained what hrd previously been a positive value his reli-gious commitment and interest which had been dissociated,perhaps because of an extreme fundamentalist split betweenerualitr and reliciositv.This-example "also "re.uesto emphasize that in itself therhadow is not posirive or negarive. lhe shldow is .imply analter-egu image prrsonilying those contents that have not beenassigned to the conscious personality. The shadow may appearnegative from the point of view of the dominant ego-irnagebccause of rlissociarion and partial repression from-theego,but rts acturl contents may be either positive or negative,depending upon the state of the present ego-image. .A complex structure that is attached to the ego-identity rsolien bipolar, or even more complicated. A relatively simpleEgo-ldentit. ond tlte Structure oJ Conplere.s -l Ibipolar complex has two identity patterns (or complexes) ar-ranged in a particular way. One pole is often assigned to theego as a pattern of identity, while the coordinated oppositepole is either repressed into the shadow (with occasional man-ifestations) or is projected onto a person in the environment,usually a close family member, where it determines a non-personal pattern of relationship between the ego and the per-son upon whom the opposite pattern is projected. This isessentially an impersonal relational structure, which both in-terferes with the individuation of the Derson who uncon-sciously makes the projection and inhibits the achievement ofa stable personal relationship with the person upon whom theDroiection falls.-Another example of a bipolar structure is a dominance/submission pattern, where one pole of the relationship is con-sidered dominant, the other submissive. ln the impersonalrelationship based upon such a pattern, most interactions be-tween the two persons in the relationship will fall into thatpattern: one will be submissive, the other dominant. But thereare often symptomatic evidences of the reversal of the pattern.For instance, a very successful businessman, who had takencare of everyone around him for decades. retired and foundthat he had irrational fears of sudden illness in which hewould lbel helpless and dcpendent. Discussion revealed thatthe fear of death was not a major component. What he ac-tually feared was experiencing the opposite (dependent andsubmissive) identity that he had avoided since an early age bycompulsive work and taking care of others-A similar dynamic underlies the not infrequent situation lnwhich an airline pilot or cabin attendant is afraid to fly as dpassenger. In the case of the cabin attendant, there is noquestion of being "in control" ol the airplane when working.but the symbolic meaning of control is clearly present. Thereare even more ffequent lnstances of a person afraid to ride asa passenger in an automobile, although perfectly comfortablewhen driving. I know of at least one case of the reverse: avery domina;t and controlling woman, to the point of arro-gance, who cannot bring herself to drive a car and must bechauffeured on even minor errands.It is possible to visualize crudely the movement of the ego
  • -F-ll llte Nuture ol Drcanli ,,!over various identity patterns by picturing the complexes inthe personal unconscious as arranged in an irregular "net,"with certain groups of complexes clustering in patterns. al-though each group is in contact with all the other complexesin the network. If the archetypal core of the ego based uponthe Self is visualized as a ray of light, the particular complexesilluminated by the "light" would be the current identity of theego. The area that is illuminated always leaves part of the netdark. This unilluminated network lalls into various non-egostructural patterns the shadow. the animr. etc. lf the elo"light" is moved it changes not only the "contents" of the ego.but also the pattern of relationships associated with thesecontents. In ordinary consciousness. a person is unaware thatthe ego "light" is movable, and simply considers that the areailluminated "is" the eso.This metaphorical image of net and light requires furtherelaboration, for the net is not a fixed structure. In fact. whEnthe ego "lights" an area, it is then able to make alterations inthe net of complexes in that area. Since the complexes are allin an interrelated field, any alteration in one will affect thestructure of all the others to a greater or lesser degree. Theego not only passively experiences the "net" but actively par-ticipates in creating (or dissolving) the structure of the "illumi-nated" comnlexes.The situation becomes even more mvsterious and comDli-cated when one realizes that the eso is not the onlv force thatcan influence the structure of co"moleres. Thev cen also bealtered by the activity of the Self.-hoth direc:tl1 1as in theconstellation of a particular dream context) or indirectlythrough the Self leading the ego to face certain conflicts orgrowth stages that the ego has tried to avoid. Both the ego andthe Sell. therefore, influence the structure of the complexesupon which the ego relies fbr its own sense of identity. It isimportant also to remember that the ego is based upon thearchetype of the Self and so in a sense it is the vicar or agentoi the Self in the world of consciousness.A sense of the changing process of identity structures lsquite helpful in clinical uses of dreams. The more theoreticaland profound questions that dreams involve do not have to beunderstood inorder to do good clinical work with dreamEgo-ldcntitt ttnd the Sltuttttc ol Contple.tes llirterpretation. These larger matters primarily include l) epts-tcmoiogical questions about the nature of knowing,_ 2) reli-pious ouestions about the nature of the knower in relation toihe eniompassing mystery o1existence, and 3) the intermedi-rte range-of implementation structures (archetypal motifs)rnirrored in mvths. fairvtales and folklore. These last-namedconstitute a ric-h field foi the pure study of archetypal symbol-ism, but must be used with caution in interpreting any partlc-ular clinical situation. fbr the complexity of an individualperson is greater than the complexity of any myth.
  • TThe Jungian Approach to DreamsThere are three major steps in the Jungian approach to dreamrnterpretallon:l) a clear understanding of the exact details of the dream;2) the gathering of associations and amplifications in pro-gressive order on one or more of three levels- person al,cultural and archetypal; and3) the placing of the amplified dream in rhe context of rhedreamers life situation and process of individuation.There are, as already pointed out, many non-interpretive usesof dreams such as gestalt enactments of the various dreammotifs which may lead to an understanding of the complexessymbolized in the dream, but these do not necessarily illurni-nate the meaning of the dream itsetf, which must riways beviewed against the backdrop of the dreamers life.A clear understanding of the exact details of the remem-bered dream is essential to rninimize dangers of reductionisrn.If an analysand merely reporrs. "l dreamed of work," onedoes not know if the dream actually deals with the everydaywork situation or perhaps is using everyday events to symbol-ize more intrapsychic processes. "I dreamed of work" is likesaying that the play Hamlet deals with "family relarions."Without close attention to the internal relationshio of dreamimages (particularly over a series of drerms) the analyst is rndanger of projecting his or her own theory into the patientsmaterial. If the analyst believes that interpersonal relation-ships are of primary importance. it is all ioo easy lo "see"dream figures as relating to persons in the outer world. Simi-larly, over-emphasis on the trans ference-coun tertransferencerelation (the distortions of the analyst-patient relationshipbased on unconscious dynamics in both) can lead to too manydreams being interpreted in terms of the analytic situation. Aform of reductionism to which Jungians are especially liable rswhat may be called archetypal reductionism. Since all com-plexes are constructed upon an archetypal core, tt rs alwayspossible to overamplify a dream motif toward an archetypalAmplification oJ Inages 35meaning, with the attendant danger of substituting the (oftenfascinating) archetypal amplifications for the tensions of theindividuation process in the dreamers own life.Questions needed to fully elucidate a dream are similar tothose that would be used to clarify any situation in ordinarydiscourse or in a well-taken medical historv. lf a Datient tells adoctor of a pain, for example. there aie many additionaldetails to be clarified: Is the pain constant or intermittent? Ifintermittent, what is the frequency of recurrence? Is it a sharppain or a dull pain? Does it occur in one or several places? Ifin several, does it seem to start in one place and radiate toothers? What increases the pain? What makes it better? Doesit awaken the patient from sleep? and so on.Suppose the analysand reports the image of a turtle in adream. What is the size of the turtle? Its color? Is it still anddormant or active? Are there anv unusual features? I mvselfhave had dreams of turtles fifty meters in diameter or as smallas several inches. But the small turtle was able to reach threefeet into the air and swallow a large chunk of roast beef inone gulp! A turtle is nrljust a turtle!Amplification of ImagesAmplification of a dream image is analogous to "peeling" thethree layers of a complex. First one finds the personal assocra-tions-where the image appeared in the patients life, what hethinks of the image, feels about it, etc. These associationsreveal the nature of the complex as it has developed aroundthe archetypal core. A person known to the dreamer mayappear in a dream, for example, raising the question as towhether the dream image should be taken objectively Qefer-ring to the actual person in the outer world) or subjectively(using the other person to personify a part of the dreamersown psyche). In practice, known persons, places or events arequite likely to carry an objective meaning, but they may alsorefer to intrapsychic realities of the dreamer, especially whenaccompanied by a strong emotional tone. While it is wisealways to keep both possibilities in mind, in clinical dreamwork from a Jungian point of view the emphasis is usually onthe intrapsychic significance of the dream images.34
  • -16 The Jungiun Approuch to Dreum.tThe "middle layer" of a complex contains images that aremore cultural or transpersonal, such as the convention of redtraffic lights meaning slop, white as a bridal color; the Presi-dent representing the ruling center of the United States, etc.Cultural amplifications are often known to the dreamer con-sciously, but may not be spontaneously mentioned. If thedreamer indicates assent when a Dossible cultural amDlifica-tion is offered by the analyst. it iray safely be considered apotential part of the complex behind the dream image.The third, archetypal level of amplification is a charactens-tically Jungian addition to the general field of dream interpre-tation. Archetypes in themselves are not visible, being simplytendencies to structure experience in certain ways. Any imagestructured by an archetype becomes an image oi that arche-type (though always conveying less than the total potentialiryof the archetype). Archetypal images in dreams are often notrecognized, because l) the analyst may be unaware of themythological or archetypal significance of a certain motif, and2) since any recurrent human experience can be archetypal,many archetypal elements are too commonplace to attractattention. Archetypal images are those that have provedmeaningful enough to a large number of people over a pro-tracted period of time so as to become an accepted part ofsome large symbolic system-often depicted in a folktale, fairy-tale, mythologem or religious system, living or archaic. Thepsyches of many persons, therefore, have "filtered" an archc-{ypal lmage.It is not necessary, in my opinion, to interpret at the arche-typal level in order to do generally good dream interpretationin a clinical setting. There are often instances, however, inwhich an archetypal interpretation is much more meaningfulthan one on a more Dersonal level. The realization of archc-typal images unknown to the conscious mind of the dreamercan open an important theoretical window into the deepernature of the psyche, and also provide a healthy perspectiveon our personal everyday dramas.Context of the Dream(ontert ol the Dreon 37tory to the conscious view of the ego, offering a counterpoint(often a more inclusive viewpoint) to the attitude of the domi-nant ego-identity. The ego always has a limited view of real-ity, while the dream manifests a tendency toward enlargementof the ego (although eventual enlargement may temporarilyrequire a more constricted or focused awareness). Placing thedream in the context of the dreamers life does not supportany easy reading of the dream as a clue to future action.Likewise, taking a dream as confirmation of ones presentconscious position is too easy in most cases to yield the com-pensating information that dreams contain. As a general rule,if you already know what the dream seems to be saying, thenyou have missed its meaning.When dream interpretation is a routine part of psychother-apy, a context also develops in a series of dreams, so that onecan relate an image in a current dream to a similar image inpast dreams. The related but different images may be consid-ered different views of the same complex, often giving addi-tional elues as to the underlying meaning.There are other maxims of dream intemretation. but thethree basic movements described above conititute the essence.Our later examination of specific dream examples, as well asthe therapists own experience. will add to an understandingof how these principles are applied in actual practice. Somedreams fit easily into a classic dramatic structure a situation,comnlication. climax and result. In such dreams it is oftenDossible to trace unexDected connections between one sceneand another. so that that fbllows is in some sense "caused"by the action of the dream-ego in the preceding scene. It rsparticularly important to observe the activity (or lack of it) ofthe dream-ego, often suggesting immediate parallels in wakinglile. In general, dream activity that takes place without theparticipation of the dream-ego (or with the dream-ego as anoutside, passive observer) tends to be also "outside"-that is,unconscious-in the wakins life of the dreamer. Other maximswill be discussed in the foll-owins chaoters.The dream must be read asainst the context of the dreamerscurrent life. Jung felt that dreams were most often compensa-
  • -t-4Dreams as Diagnostic ToolsInitial Dreams in AnalysisIn the initial meeting with a prospective analysand, dreamscan offer information both as to diagnosis and prognosis.While dream interpretation can never substitute for i thor-ough clinical interview and mental status examination, drearnscan. be a gref,t help if properly integrated with the othercIn rcal materrat.Inquiry about recent or significant dreams fits naturally intoan initial interview, when one is asking questions that allowobservations of the patients intellectuai functioning: flow ofthought; ability to abstract; orientation as to Iime, place andsituation; recent and remote memory; judgment in real andhypothetical situations; level, congruence and type of affectivelesponse; and such optional but interesting aspects of mentalfunctioning as revealed hy prorerh interpretation. ew pa-trents are fiequently pleased to be asked about dreams, sincein the popular mind dream interpretation is considered a nat-urrl part of psychoanalytic practice Qtsychoanalysis in a ge-nenc sense, not srmply Freudian psychoanalysis). In fact, thepublic is generally very interested in the meaning of dreams.and even many depth psychologists are ill-prepared to re-spond to this interest.Recent dreams, particularly those dreamed after the initialappomtment was made but before it actually occurred, mayreveal aspects of the patients current unconscious functioning.Dreams that occur early in analysis sometimes point to thelong-range outcome oI the presenting problem. A man with along-standing practice of "cross-dressing," for example, had adream early in analysis that he was dressed in- womensclothes, walking across the parking garage of a hotel, when theelothing begari ro slip off witho;i hrsbeing alarmed. Thisforeshadowed a successful treatment of the transvestism(which had no elements of homosexualitv) within a comDara-tively short period of therapy (although of course there werecri:ir periodr and difficulties dunng the rrealmenr).Iniriul Drean.s in Anult.ti.s 39Another man with problems of sexual identity had twocarly dreams indicating an eventual resolution of his anxiety.Ile functioned both homosexually and bisexually, but pre-lerred to be exclusively heterosexual. His homosexual func-tioning, as well as his anxiety and poor self-esteem, seemedclearly related to oedipal problems; in more psychodynamicterms. he was looking for a male relationship to compensatelbr what he felt to be an emotionally absent father. His twoclrly dreams showed that the unconscious was prepared to seethe problem through to a successful conclusion:Dream l:I was in a "sex den" or cave. sleczv. unpleasant. I finishsomeones drink in a ritualistic manner. The scene changcs andI am in a tall trce with lots of branches. I cant get down.lhere are other pcople around ard a radio is plaving. I finallyrealize that no one will gct me down and lhal I must jump. IrJllcd oul lbr h(ll. thoutsh. JnJ lu( nten came and put rplank liom a bridge to the limb where I was hanging.Drcam 2 (lwo nights later):I was with a man in a buildins in Hololulu. We went into thehasement ro un oriental huth rnJ uere flopptng around indiffercnt pools. Then wc sat in chairs with belts on them, like aride at Disneyworld. He kncw how to put the belt on but I hadnot read the instructions. Nevertheless. I made it to the end o[the ride. The chairs wcnt in and out of thc watcr during theride.In both of these early dreams, one can see the motif ofgetting safely down to the ground (Dream l) or to the end ofihe ride (Dream 2) without serious accident. but with sometension and anxiety. In the first dream, help materializes onlywhen the dream-ego has accepted responsibiUty and decidesto jump down if necessary. In the second, the dreamer is notas accomplished as his friend, but is able to finish the ridesafely an).way. Both these dreams suggested a "good" out-come, in terms of consolidating his masculine identity. Withlna few weeks he had begun a satisfying affair with a womanand his homosexual contacts and thoughts diminished; hesimultaneously began to feel able to express a more independ-ent position in relation to his parents.These two dreams are presented here only for their prog-nostic implications, although there are clearly many other use-38
  • 10 Dreams as Dias osti( Toolsful views of them as well. Being "up a tree," for instance,colloquially suggests a difficult situation, echoing shamanisticinitiation rituals, which were sometimes pictured as takingplace in a tree, and on an archetypal level pointing to thetheme of the world tree or dirfu mundi a frequent svmbol ofthe centering process in the individual psyche.Related lmages in a Dream SeriesProgress in the dissolution of a neurotic pattern can often befollowed in dreams extending over a irearment period ofmonlhs or een years. A woman uith marked distuibance inearly family life showed such changes. As a child she hadbeen a principal source of emotional support for an alcoholicfather. If she did not try to take care of him, she felt guilty.Her mother was an accomplished professional woman whoheld out "high" standards of attainment for the girl, but gavehe r little actual emotional approval. When she went for psy-chotherapy for problems in her marriage, she decided on di-vorce, but then fell into a sexual relationshio with her lornrcrtherapist and later married him, only to eiperience a recur-rence of the sexual unresponsiveness she had felt in her firstmarnage. Attempts at intercourse often left her furious. Shethen entered Jungian treatment. In both group psychotherapyand individual analysis she was helpful and intellectually in-sightful, although persistent psychosomatic problems (alwaysrelated to emotional factors) necessitated several hospitaliza-I io ns.A very revealing incident happened in an early group ther-apy session: she was being her usual helpful and inslghtfulself (similar to her relation wirh her father), but when a malegroup member refused her help she burst into a sudden rage,showing for the first time her underlying anger (related to herdepression). At about this time she dreamed:A mother dog with two grown pups hanging on hcr teats isdragging herself down the street. One of the pups fblls off andis hit b; a c.rr. lt explode iil,e.r bomb.This striking image of an exploding puppy became a symbolfor her dependency problem and the unconscious anger asso-Reluled Imu1es in u Drean Series 4lciated with it. Many situations in waking life could be relatedto her unconscious identification with either the person whowas worn out with taking care of others (the self-sacrificingmother) or the explosive anger that developed from her owndependency (the explosive puppy) both because the depend-ency needs were never fully satisfied and because they pre-vented her from achieving her own adult maturity and inde-pendence.-After her second divorce, she continued in analysis but forsome time avoided any personal relationship with men Dur-ing this period, she dreamed:I was in an Egyptian room like in a pyrarrid. On a raised area.an altar or a 6ier. an Egyptian princess is in labor and is aboutto givc birth to a child. At the base of the raised atea. I wasbeing raped by Ia llther figure] who held ne in onc positionwhenever i tried to escape. I hoPc that thc wonlan will givebirth. so that the womans husband will come and sec the raPeand rescue me.It was clear from this dream that the father complex wasmuch more active in her psychology than was her conflictedrelationship with her mother. It also showed the possibility ofnew life (the incipient birth), suggesting a change not initiatedby the ego, but which could possibly lead to the rescue of thedreamer from the unconscious pattern symbolized in thedream as incest with the father.Sisnificantlv. soon after this dream the woman fell into asexuil relationship with the man whose wife had appeared lnthe dream as the Egyptian princess a rather obvious projec-tion of the dreamers internal rescuer onto an actual man.After a brief period of happiness, their relationship ended andshe became severely depressed, which she knew was not re-lated entirely to the external triangular situation. Alter sometime. she dreamed:I was giving my mothcr a presenl and she reactsd as shealways did in reality-she nevcr liked anything t gave her. Icould nerer please her. Then I realized n lr,r she wasnt pleasedshe was dcad! There was a doctor there from a soap opera Iuscd to watch when I rvas in my first narriage and nly kidswere little. He was a good and hclpful doctor in thc story.
  • t12 Drean.s us l)idgtlosti( Tool.Althoush this dream seemed to indicate a new awarenessassociated with the "death" of the mother comDlex. there waslittle inmediate change in her clinical depression. She strug-gled with the idea of moving to another city to get away fiomthe man who still troubled her thoughts. At this time shedreamed what proved to indicate a turning point in her neu-rosis. She had been greatly depressed the day before thedream and also suffered from her psychosomatic problems.The morning after the dream, she described herself as "hypo-manic" and happy and (most importantly) without the psy-chosomatic discomfort that usuallv olasued her. Here is thedream:I rm in a room willr my mothcr lwho wrs dead in the previousdream and also in fact]. I am begging some nlan to hxvcintercourse $ith n]e. He doesnt much want to but agreesbecru.e. ,rr ht srys. "lt. the lJrt lime. lhe rc,..n.. . hrngri.rnJI sce a pool of blood with something jn it that is either a tleadbaby or a dead dog. Its a gruesome sight. but somchow it is allright because it would have diecl anyway.Her asking the man for sex showed the previously unrecog-nized desire behind what had only been experienced as rape.Her association to the "baby or dog" was to the earlier dreamof the exploding puppy. The sense that the father complexunderlying her neurotic problems was dissolving was reflectedin the words of the man in the dream: "Its the last time." Theabrupt disappearance of her difficult psychosomatic symptomsreinfbrced the interpretation ol the dream as indicating a realchange in the pattern of complexes, the objeclrelation patternthat seemed to be the schema of her two basic neurotic identi-ties as either the caretaker or (as here) the one who feltdependent on others. The presence of her mother suggests theinvolvement of the mother complex as well, but that problemis not the active focus olthe dream. nor was it the focus in thcdream of the Egyptian princess. There is a sense that thedeath of the "baby or the dog" is connected with "the lasttime," as it would be if it were a dog, associated with theexplosive pupp) representing her dependency problem.The uncertainty as to whether it was a baby (which mightindicate the death of real human possibilities) or a dog (sug-Reluted InMges in u Dreun Series 43gestlng the sacrifice of an animal instinct that might laterreappear in human form) was apparently settled by a dreamthat occurred the next night:Idrcamed all night of two things. as il they came in and out ofmy awareness throughout the night. One was a dead and flat-tened "cockroaclr" that had legs ali around it. [A drawing ofwhat she had secn resembled a childs dra*ing olthe sun discwith ladial bcams.] Next to the "cockroach" was a dead mousethat had been caretulll wrappcd in a littlc blanket. The mousehad big. bluc penetrating eyes. almost like a person.Her association to the cockroach was to one of the mostdisgusting things in the world: "a huge Houston cockroach."She noted that the drawing had "excess legs." The form of thecockroach also reminded her of a "yarn-dog" that was popu-lar when she was a teenager (when much of the tense interac-tion with her father occurred). She remembered havine ayarn-dog on her bed, with the yrrn "hair" spread radially l.-ikethe legs of the cockroach. These associations together with theother images in the dream suggested that it was a dead dog inthe previous dream rather than a baby. The reasoning is thrs:if her nsvche is concerned with the same constellated com-nlexes inboth dreams. what was shown as dead in one dreammay be shown as dead in another, although the change rnimagery may express a nuance of the complex represented bythe different images; since the "dead" things in the seconddream are clearly non-human (although the mouse hashuman-like eyes) it is likely that the preceding dream showedthe death of a dog rather than the death of a human potentialthat would more likely have been symbolized by a dead baby.This series of dreams illustrates a number of importantpoints in clinical dream interpretation. First, the sequence ofrelated dream images permits both a sense of prognostic im-provement and some understanding of images that might oth-erwise be more ambiguous. Second, the images over a seriesof dreams are similar but not identical the "dog," the "babyor a dos." the flattened "cockroach" and the "dead mouse"showinf that different images can represent the same underly-ing complex. (Actually, the dead mouse with the human-likeeves could be associated also to an earlier dream in which the
  • lr-41 Dreums as Didgnosticloolsdream-ego cooked "a large fish with human eyes," whichseemed to have eucharistic connotations, implying self-sacri-hce in the service of others.)Third, the change in the nature or tenor of the dreamscoincides with increased activity on the part of the drearn-ego.Although not invariable (nor i! any "rule" of dream interire-tation), it seems that resolution of consrellated dream stiuc-tures often follows an action of the dream-ego. even if the"action" in the dream is simply a change in attitude ratherthan physical activity. Fourth, this series of dreams illustrateshow the dream-ego may become progressively more involvedin the neurotic complex structure pictured in the dreams: inthe exploding puppy dream the dream-ego is merely a passrveobserver: in the Egyptian princess dream, the dream-egowishes to act but cannot; in the dream of begging a man tohave intercourse with her, the dream-ego is finallv active.Could it be this activity that "causes" thi man to lnnounce"its the last time," and "causes" the death of the cockroachand the mouse? (This is simply to raise the quesrion of causeand effect in dreams, for which there are as vet no definitiveanswers.)This womans extended series of dreams (from which thosepresented here are intuitively selected) can best be viewed asrepresenting an enduring structure of complexes of a sexu-alized dominance-submission form. The driam-eso tand thewaking-ego) at various times identified with one-pole or theother of the pattern. As she moved toward basic ilinical im-provement, the series ended not in another oscillation betweenthe poles of that pattern but in the "death" of the patternitself, which pointed psychologically to the depotenriaiion ofthe underlying complex.Differential DiagnosisInitial dreams may help in differentiating various diagnoses,such-asanxiety neurosis or depressive neurosis. Dreams mzLyalso be useful in making distinctions between neurosis, psy-chosis and characterologiial or organic problems, all of wirichmay present with overlapping sympromatology. Diagnosticterms may be stated differently in various diagnostic systemsD(Jerenriul Diagnosis 15(such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual II or 111 oftheAmerican Psychiatric Association), but the basic clinical syn-dromes remain relatively constant. The basic neurotic patternspresent as mixtures of anxiety and depression with variousdegrees of dissociation.DepressionAithough there are many theories of depression, ranging frompurely psychogenic to organic, it is generally true that psycho-genic depression is somehow related to anger that is not givensufficient expression in consciousness. Anger typically arisestoward some person in the environment, either present orpast, and is secondarily turned upon the ego-image itself,iesulting in depression. This classic psychological dynamic canoften be seen with unusual clarity in dreams, and can serve asa diasnostic indicator.Wiat would be experienced by the waking-ego as depres-sion is likely to be shown in the dream as aggression towardthe dream-ego by another figure. In the case of the womanwhose dreams were discussed in the previous section, the de-pression began to lift when she was the sexual aggressor in thedream of the dead "dog or baby," but in the Egyptian prin-cess dream (when she was still depressed) she was held tightlyin an unwanted sexual embrace by an aggressive father-likehgure.Another woman who experienced consciously a mixture ofanger and depression, evoked by her husbands involvementwith another woman, had dreams of being threatened by var-ious insects and reptiles. but as she took a more assertivestand toward the outer situation her depression began to lift.The change could be followed through changes in the dreams.In an early dream she was alone in the desert at night, sur-rounded by cactus and scorpions, afraid to move; in a dreama few weeks later, she was walking on a sidewalk on a collegecampus (something to learn?) where there were many porson-ous snakes around but not actually on the sidewalks, andother people were there and it was daytime instead of night.The aggressive, non-human elements in the earlier dreams canbe seen as her own unexpressed aggression, indicating the
  • T16 Dreum.s a.y Diugnostit Toolsneed to assert her true feelings. As she did so. her dre;Lmimages hecame less I h reute n in glAnxiel.yA number of classic anxiety dreams can be seen in manypatients. There are three major types that deserve notice: i)dreams of being unprepared for an examination; 2) dreams ofbeing pursued by some threatening person or creature; and 3)dreams suggesting physical danger to the dream-ego, such asdreams of falling or being threatened by natural eventsearthquakes, tidal waves, forest fires, etc. where there is nomalicious motive toward the dream-ego. Anxietv mav ofcourse take many other forms in dreims, but tfiese ihreepatterns are particu Iarly recurrent.Examination dreams have a typical form. The dream-egorealizes that an examination is scheduled, usually a flnal examfor a college or high school course, and for some reason thedreamer is unprepared. having forgotten to study for the examor to go to the course, or not knowing where the examinationis to be held. The dream-ego may also be late for the exam-inatron. Such dreams are more structured (and more freouentin m; experience) than the more primitive dreams of pursuitan_d falling. Because examinations represent evaluarion bycollective standards, they point to persona-anxiety anxietyabout how one appears in the eyes of others. or a fear of notmeasuring up to a social role: "Is he a good musician?" "Canhe really perform his job well?" etc.Pursuit dreams indicate anxiety of a more primitive naturc.but they are not quite so unstruitured as dreims of falting ordreams of natural catastrophy, such as earthquakes or the indof the world. It is important to note whal is pursuing thedream-ego. Is it a person (male or female)? Is it an animal. amonster or "spacemen?" Is the dream-ego pursued by one"thing" or a collective, such as a mob?At times there are very revealing changes in the person orthing that pursues. At first it may appear frightening, but as itlpproaches there may be no indication of aggression to justifythe fear felt by the dream-ego. One man dreimed there was alarge monster in the darkness, coming toward the dream-egoDil/arentiul DiugnosLt 47who stood in a pool of light by a streetlamp. But when the"monster" actually reached the light, it was nothing but ilmouse. Perhaps in the dark it lr.rs a monster. but was modi-lied as it approached the "light" of consciousness surroundingthe dream-ego. Complexes in connection with the ego (dreamor waking) do not behave in the same manner as complexesunattached to the ego and therefore unconscious.A woman dreamid that when she opened the faucet in herbathroom an angry alligator came out. It pursued herthroughout the house, but when she was able to open thefront door and suide it out with a broom, it transformed intoa friendly puppy in the sunlight (consciousness). Anotherwoman dreamed that she opened the window shade andlbund a large spider entirely iovering thc scrccn of the win-dow, striking terror into the dream-ego. The spider slowlymoved, however. and walked down into the front yard (an-other symbol of consciousness), where it, too, changed into apuppy that was friendly and playful.The transformation of frightening dream images is similarto what commonly occurs in fairytales: the fiog becomes aprince, the beast a handsome young man, etc. Such transfor-mations, particularly those where an animal or thing changesinto a person, seem to picture the "desire" of unconsciouscontenti to become conscious and participate in the life of theego; this appears in dreams as a transformation of thcir primi-tive nature and a movement toward the human realnl.The terrifying unknown "thing" that pursues the dream-egomay be threatening to the dream-ego but not threatening tothe individuation process in which the ego is cmbedded. Ex-amine the dream to see if there is any overt indication that thepursuing "thing" is actually trying to harm the dream-ego. Itmay simply represent an unconscious aspect of the dreamerthat is trying to make contact with the ego, although it maybecome more aggressive and frightening if the dream-ego re-sists the contact. Remember that the contents or qualities ofthe shadow almost always appear to the dominant ego-imageas severc threats, even though potentitlly valuable to the egoftrr the ncrt stage uf individuation.For example, a woman who had worked for many yearswith a severe negative mother complex dreamed:
  • Tl l)ntt)t1 t D[d.?1otti( looltI wls aslccp in my bed, but it seenlcd to be an oldcr house,rrc built in thc 1920s or I930s. I heard a loud knockins at theliont ditor rnd was tcrrifjed. becluse nty hubJnd wJs uLlt oflown and I was aione with the clrilrlren. i rc.Llrzed th,rt I rrrruldl)avc to get up to see who it was. I saw a flashlight on the backporch ancl was very fiightencd. I purhcd the ..plnie buLt,rn" ofthc rl,lnn :y:t(m. Jn(l thc JIJrm went ,ft but rjrc linr u.rsdcad. Had it been cut? Again the loud knocking occurrcd and Iknew that I had to see who wr. Jt the d,ror. fwrs r11;1id. bLrlwhen I went to the l.ont dour i1 wus thc police. Thev had cometo tell me that lhere had been ln rir.pllne cra*h. rhc llirht nrvhusband was on. I( uus possible tltat there had been n,irurui-von. I realized how nuch I lovcd hint and how trightened Iuu, l,,r hi. srlety.The thing trying to ger into her "house" was frightening,and she felt it was trying to hurt her. Instead, when it wasactually confronted in the dream, it brought to mind a com-pensatory feeling of love antl eoncern for hcr husband anindication that she had been somewhat unconscious of thedepth of her feelings for him. She awoke realizing that he wasasleep in the bed beside her, hur the eflecr of thi dream wasso profbund that she hesitated for some minutes to touch hirrr.for fear that he might nol be there. For hours she felt theimp-act of the dream, and its lingering meaning caused aprofound shift in her awareness of her true love fbr her hus-band, whom she had tended to take fnr sranted in the midstof her neu rolic concerns.Physical danger to the dream-ego is not dangerous, ofcourse, to the waking-ego, except where the emotion asso-ciated with such a dream might place strain upon the cardio-vascular system during sleep. The most widespread type ofanret) dream associrted with real physical danger to thedream-ego is the dream of falling. ThCre seems to 6e no basrsfor the folk belief that if one ;hits rhe bottom" in such adream, there will be actual physical death. Rarelv. a persondoes dream of completing thd fill by hirring rhe ground. but ifthe dream goes on there is usually some shift ir the situationor the state of the dream-ego; it may find itself uninjured, orsee that the tall was only i few feei, or it may be ,,"rlead,inthe dream but observing the body, etc.The most common ending to such dreams is fbr the drearn-D(larenriul Dilgtlosis 49cgo to "surface" into the waking ego-identity during the fall.l his shift of the dream-ego to the waking-ego is a frequentlvsis or outcome of dreams and should be noted when itiiccurs. Such awakenings, apparently premature in terms ofthe action of the dream, may be seen as an escape fromanxiety, but at times they also carry a symbolic meaning:"Wake up to thisl" This sense of "waking up" would seem tobe part of the purpose of the dream in whrch the woman wastold by the police that her husband might be dead and awak-cned to an increased awareness of her positive feelings fbrhim.It is important to look beyond the mere presence of physi-cal danger to the dream-ego and make some assessment of itsmeaning within the dream, which will vary depending uponthe context. A man dreamed that a spear was thrown at him,just missing him, and that he handed the spear back to the"Mongolian horseman" who had thrown it; his motive was toappeaie the attacker, but his act only inflamed the attackersanger. This dream points to a noGinfrequent motif: thedream-ego is stimulated to be active in its own behalf. The"attacki;g" figure could be seen us wantinB a more aggressiveresponse from the dream-ego. The same motif is suggested bya drcam in which a trident is thrown at the dream-ego by asinister and angry female figure; the dream-ego realizes, how-ever, that the sinister woman has thereby given him a weaponto oppose her with, which he does. freeing a number of"dead" animals that return to life.Aggression against the dream-ego may thus be in the ser-vice of a deeper purpose the individuation process-which rsconcerned with the entire pattern of personal developmentover the whole lifespan, and relates to any particular doml-nant ego-image at any particular stage of life in the light ofthis underlying, ongoing process. Bccause of the individuationprocess, to which dreams seem deeply connected, action in adream may seem to oppose the dream-ego while its true pur-pose is to enlarge or transform the ego in relation to the Self.Dreams of severe natural disasters such as earthquakesshow a background shift of the ego state rather than a forcedirected against the dream-ego itself. It is theoretically possl-ble that such dreams. on an obiective level, could represent an
  • 50 Dreans as Diagnostit Toolsimminent change in the collective situation, as Jung founddreams that seemed to foreshadow the first World War. Thisis unlikely, however, as Jung himself pointed out in his sscinterview with John Freernan, because today everyone is qurreeunsciously aulre of rhe possibility of u.rrli crlrmiticr. natu-ral or man-made; such images clearly do not compensate aconscious collective expectation of peace and progress.8Disaster dreams point rather to a potentially abrupt andpossibly violent change in the tacit background of the ego-rmage that has dominated consciousness. They indicate thepotentiality of a major shift in ego-image structure. Suchchanges, if therapeutically contained, can be transformative; ifthey happen without containment they may presage a severeclinical course of depression, anxiety or even psychosis.Ps,ythosisWhen considering a possible diagnosis of schizophrenia orsome other psychotic process, dreams can be of value in bothdiagnosis and in following the course of the illness. At timesdreams can be of some aid in determining when it is advisableto increase medication or perhaps conslder other means ofincreased supporl for the embattled ego, such as hospitaliza-tion. The skill of reading dreams in such a manner is not easyto convey, because there does not seem to be any clear indica-tor that is invariablv present. Such clues as exist are oflcncontextual to the paitiiular dreamer, meaningful in the senesolthat persons dreams but not easily generalizable to others.The indicator is of1en. for example. not the dream motif ofdanger to the individual dream-ego but simply the appearancein the dream of what might be called a bizarre image. Ananimal walking about without skin, fbr instance, or an insaneperson threatening to blow up the world may show a potentialworsening of the clinical condition. Such images must alwaysbe balanced, however, against the strength of the ego. Psy-chosis occurs when the pressure of the unconscious processesoverwhelms the ego; this may happen by a surge in uncon-sclous pressure or by a decrease in the usual strength of theego due to excessive stresses or physical factors such as theeffect of osychedelic druss.Diffbrentittl Diagnttsis 5lThere would seem to be need for research in the use ofdream images to assess ego stability and psychotic pressure;such studies would require careful comparisons in a well-defined population over an extended period of observation.Such a study would not be easy or inexpensive, but couldadd to our clinical understanding of the psychological impactof antipsychotic medication. It might also provide some an-swers to the crucial questions of mind/brain interaction rnrelat ion to per5onality stability.Physical ProblemsIt is by no means an easy malter to make organic diagnosesfrom dream material, although there are many striking exam-ples of such predictions: the dream of an inner "explosion"preceding the leaking of an aortic aneuryism, the appearanceof dream figures with gall bladder disease prior to that illnessbeing suspected in the dreamer, etc. In retrospect lt is easy tosee that dreams may have been indicating an organic prob-lem, but prognostically it is difficult because of the multiplic-ity of factors to be considered. Dreams normally seem to becompensating the conscious position of the waking-ego. Thisthey do in the service of the individuation process, whosepur?oses and concerns are not necessarily the same as those ofthe waking-ego, since individuation serves the potential whole-ness of the personality rather than the perfection of any par-ticular ego configuration. Physical illness may be an over-whelming concern ol the conscious ego, but it does not seemto be of equal concern to the Self, the originator of dreams.Dreams appear to make a distinction between the personal-ity and the body, the dream-ego seeming to be associated withthe personality rather than with the body. When indicators ofactual physical conditions are represented in a dream, they donot usually appear as an illness of the ego-image within thedream; rather, they are likely to be shown in figures otherthan the dream-ego, perhaps an image that represents theorganrc body-an animal, the personal mother (the origin ofthe physical body) or other representations of organic life.
  • 152 Dreams as Di.tgtlostic Tool:iDreams oJ DeathClosely related to the question of representation of orgamcillness is the motif of death in a dream. To dream that onemay die, or even that one is dead, is not particularly rare.Patients may remember such dreams with anxiety, fearing thatthe dream is an indicator of approaching death. But dreams ofdeath are essentially dreams of transformation of the ego-image. ls long as the conscious ego identifies with a particu-lar ego-image. anything that threatens the endurance of thatparticular ego-image will seem to threaten physical death. forthe ego is also tightly identihed with the body-image al-though the frequent dream motif of looking at oneself clearlydemonstrates the dissociability of the dream-ego from theimase of the bodv.D-eath in a dream is quite different from the meaning ofdeath in the ordinary waking context. Dream images are rep-resentations of complexes or archetypes. Any number of im-ages may be associated with the same complex or archetype.Such images do not "die." One image transforms into another,a transformation which can often be followed in a series ofdreams. The dream sequence examined earlier involving the"exploding puppy," the "dog or baby," and the "mouse withhuman. eyes" - illustrates the gradual transformation of aoleam lmaee over nme.Persons-actuallyapproaching organic death have dreamsthat are not surprisingly different from other dreams anticipat-ing some significant change, Iike dreams of a journey ordreams of marriage. Such dreams may encourage the waking-ego to focus on conscious concerns and responsibilities ratherthan on the approaching death of the physical body. There isinsufficient observation and research concerning dreams of thedying for any definitive statement to be made. It would seem,however. that dreams are much less concerned with the deathof the body than with the individuation process, hence theyconsider the approaching end of life as they would othermajor changes within life. Does this suggest that the individ-ual personality survives physical death? Does it mean thatphysical death is of little more concern to the Self than signifi-cant changes of the ego within the lifespan? These are seriousquestions for science in general. hology and depth pslchologlPrirtciples to Rantentber 53and in particular for parapsy-2.3.LPrinciples to RememberThe same complexes can be personified by a numberof different images.By following a series of dreams and looking for arelated but changing structure within them, it is pos-sible to intuitively note:a) changing nuances of a complex in relation toother complexes in the same identity pattern, andb) prognostic improvement (or worsening) of theidentity pattern, such as one of a dominance-submission nature.Dreams early in analysis may indicate both a diag-nostic and prognostic element to be considered in theinitial clinical evaluation.
  • IQuestions of TechniqueThere is one basic truth about technique: the right techniquein the hands of the wrong person wont work, while the wrongtechnique in the hands of the right person wl1l work. Thesuccessful use of dream analysis in psychotherapy is not sim-ply a question of technical expertise. N, technique is entirelyadequate, for the personal equation of analyst/analysand rsmore important. It is within that relationship that all dreamwork or other therapy must take place. The therapeutic rela-tionship is the temeno.s (sacred boundary, the alchemical vasor kraterl in which the transformatire process occurs.Transference and CountertransferenceAnalysis is a process that cannot be entirely rational, hence itis similar in some respects to other skillful performances, suchas the production of music, art or poetry. The rules thatgovern such productions are not entirely specific, but serve asmaxims or general reminders of the guidelines to be observed.Perhaps the chief responsibility of the analyst or therapist rsto maintain what may be called a rransformative Jjeld in whichthe transformation of the psyche is more likely to occur. Sur-prisingly, the transformation may occur in either the analy-sand (the usual intent) or the analyst-or in both! It is impos-sible to construct an interDersonal situation in which influ-ences flow in only one dirdction. Freuds early view was thatthe analyst could be entirely objective, serving as a virtual"blank screen" onto which the analysand projected his ownpsychology and relived his neurotic process within the curativeboundary of the psychoanalysis. It soon became apparent,however, that in addition to the transference distortions of theanalyst by the patient, there were also distortions of the pa-tient by the analyst the so-called countertransference.Jungs own views on the subject take this "held" qualityclearly into account. In "The Psychology of the Transference,"Jung shows that the analyst and analysand are jointly involvedin a process that cannot be entirely conscious and may be5Alrun.sfarence und C ou n I crl run.f irerl(e -i-jtransformative ol both partners.e He sees transference andcountertransference, moreover, as specihc forms of projection,which automatically happens in any relationship.The analytic situation, nevertheless, is designed to maximizethe transformative field for the patient, while minimizing dis-ruptive countertransference by the analyst. The patients mate-rial is discussed in great depth, both historically and in thelight of current dreams, while the analyst makes relatively fewpersonal remarks, even though it is impossible for the analystto be the classic blank screen. In addition, the trained analysthas been through a lengthy period of personal analysis and ispresumably more aware of the possibility of projecting his orher own complexes onto the analysand.How do dreams enter into the transformative field of theanalytic relationship? In most instances, the analysand dreams,brings the dream to the analyst, and together they look for themeaning of the dream in the life of the Patient. The analystand analysand are thus colleagues in exploring the uncon-scious material of the analysand and relating it to his or herongoing process of individuation. There are times, however,whin working with dreams may place stress on this usualpattern. This regularly happens in the following instances:l) The analysand identifies the analyst with a hgure in -dream of the a na lysa nd.2) The analyst appears in his or her own person in thedream of the analysand3) The analysand appears in a dream of the analyst.4) There are sexual dreams, by either the analysand or theanalyst, about the other person.There are other possibilities, of course, but these four raisethe major questioni of technique involved in relating dreamsto the transformative field of analysis. Let us consider themmore carefullv in seq uence.l) The analysand identiJies the anallst with a fgure in adream, even though the figure is t?r/ manifestly the analyst.Since in Jungian theory the actions and persons in dreams atenot considered to be disguises of reality (as in Freuds view), itis a matter of inter?retation to say that a figure in a dream ts"really" someone known to the dreamer in waking life. As weshall soon see, even if the analyst actually does appear, it is.r/11l important to consider whether the dream is speaking
  • I56 Quest ions o.f Techniqueobjectively or subjectively. Overinterpretation of dream figuresas referring to the analyst may even increase the transferenceto an unnecessarily dangerous degree, particularly when thedreams have an erotic character. It is senerallv best to main-tain the position that if the dream me,r-nt the actual person ofthe analyst, it would have shown the analyst clearly in thedream. Other figures will reveal the structure of the complexesconstellated in the patient, and those figures may influence thetransference, of course, but they need not do so. The excessiveidentification of dream imageswith actual persons constitutesinlerpersonal reduclionism; it places undue pressure on theinterpersonal sphere of meaning, thereby overemphasizing thetransference aspect of the therapeutic situation.2) The analyst appears in hi.s own form in a dream of thepatienl. In such instances it is more likely that the dream isspeaking of the objective situation involving the person of theanalyst, although that is by no means certain; the analyst mayserve a symbolic function, representing a part of the patientsown psyche (the "inner analyst") based upon interaction withthe analyst, a representation that occurs more often after sig-nificant changes have occurred in the character of the neu-rosis. With dreams of this type, there is an additional responsi-bility for the analyst to objectively assess his relation to thepatient, including countertransference reactions, since the pa-tients dream may be referrinB to an unconscious aspect of theanalvsl.3i The patient appears in a tlream of the anal1sr. This shouldcause the analyst to seriously consider the possibility of coun-tertransference distortions that may impede the therapeuticprocess. The analysand in the dream may personify a complexof the analysts that has been constellated in his personal lifeor within the analytic situation. At the very least, such adream indicates a need to modily the analysts conscious viewof the patient. Jung mentions a dream in which he saw afemale patient as much more of an important person in herown right than he had consciously assessed her to be, a simplecorrection or compensation of his undervaluing of her on theconscious level.roShould such a dream be discussed with the analysand?From my own experience, the answer is generally "nb." al-though this (like all maxims) is not invariably the right course.I tunsfetenct arul CoLtfiterlruntlbrence 57When one discusses the dream of a person with that sameperson in waking lile there is a danger thal the person drexmtabout will consider the dream to be "deeper" or "more true"than the consciously stated position of the dreamer It is likeoffering an unconscious product, which may not be fully un-derstood by the dreamer, as a projection screen for the personto whom the dream is told. Since the patient does not havethe same training or experience as the analyst, it is likely thatunconscious distortions of his view of the analyst may occur,lurther increasins the likelihood of difficulties in the transfer-ence-countertranife..ttce. The same rule applies in general tosharing dreams of a friend with the friend in waking liferlthough again lhere are exceplions.The analyst must understand as far as possible the meaningof his dream of the patienr. and relate to the patient out of anincreased awareness of what is taking place between them.Thus the ego of the analyst takes responsibility for the dreamand its meaning. If the dream is particularly enigmatic, theanalyst should arrange a supervision hour with a colleague.4i Serual dreams by either analyst or analysand abollt theother. lt is particularly important to handle these with theappropriate analytical technique, since the sexualization of thetransference-countertransference can Iead to unnecessary com-plications, particulrrly when (as is rare) it is acted out. Theoccurrence of scxual dreams on either side should not besurprising, since sexual feelings are natural in any relatron-ship, particularly if there is emolional depth. In his "TavislockLeituies," Jung suggests that a patients sexual dreams of theanalyst are an attemPt to bridge an emotional gap betweenthem.rt This would seem true of sexual attraction in generalit suggests a potential value in an unknown area of a relation-ship, a value that is not yet conscious and cannot as yet beclearly specified, although its presence is announced throughthe sexual attraction. Sexual dreams may also indicate that atransformative process is beginning in the unconscious (ofeither the analysand, analyst or both), much as in the alchemi-cal drawings that Jung used to illustrate his essay on transfer-ence. (The unconscious often makes use of sexual imagery tosymbolize non-physical processes of union and transforma-tion, although the waking-ego is inclined to interpret suchdreams literally.)
  • 58 Questions of letltniqueAs an example, an analyst dreamed of having sexual inter-course with an attractive female patient. The dream occurredthree days before the woman reported a similar dream. Therewas no conscious awareness of sexual interest by either party,nor were there any seductive or flirtatious remarks or actionsby either. The theme did not recur in subsequent dreams ofeither the analysand or the analyst. The paratlil sexual dreamsseemed to indicate a new phase of analysis, in which a moretransformative tone prevailed and the analysand gained alresh perspective on the neurotic patterns in her life, whichhad included repetitive and compulsive sexual affairs.Medication in AnalysisIf the analyst is a physician, dreams may indicate when toinitiate or terminate psychotropic drugs as an adjunct treat-ment to facilitate the analytic process. Non-medical analystswill have similar questions, of course, and may wish to seekconsultation on the use of medication. There are ourists whowould object to the use of any medication during analyticalwork, but that position is becoming less tenable. The generalpurpose of analysis is to help the ego come into a responsiblerelationship with the transformative and individuative processof its own psyche. Wisely used. medication is as likely io be ahelp as a hindrance in that goal. If medication is used irsleada/ analytical work, it is an impediment. If it is used judi-ciously, so as to allow the ego to work more effectively rnanalysis, it can be a useful part of the transformative process.A patient who has too much anxiety (or too littlel cannotbe suffrciently rellective to move effectively in analysis. Theuse of one or more of the many tranquilizing medications maybe of value. Similarly, if the patient is so depressed thatnothing seems of value, including analysis, the use of antide-pressant medication can be an essential aid. The goal of anyuse of medication is to move the patients ego to the mid-range of affective pressurej the range in which neither anxietynor depression are so overwhelming as to interfere with thework of insight therapy. If the patient is not anxious or de-pressed enough, analysis may also drift aimlessly; but in theseinstances there is no medication to move the ego toward mid-range and the movement must be initiated by- either uncon-Reduclive or Prospeclirc Analvsis 59scious processes (frequently a dream) or by the analyst arous-ing sufficient affect through interpretation or exhortation. Attimes, the addition of concurrent group therapy will evoke therrllective responses that are lacking in the one-to-one analytl-cal situation.Dreams can indicate when medication is needed or when itcan safely be discontinued, although they should not be reliedupon as a sole criterion. A young man in a schizophrenlcprocess, for example (as previously discussed), had periods ofexacerbation when it was necessary to increase the dosage ofhis antipsychotic medication to avoid the necessity of rehospl-talizing him. Several recurring motifs were observed in hisdreams just before he began a regressive phase. These in-cluded a car rolling backward out of control, animals withoutskin and destructive dream figures bent on murder and eventhe destruction of the entire world. When these motils ap-pelred. his meliication was inereased. often preenting a pi-riod ol relaose.A person who is depressed may continue to report depres-sion even when there is underlying improvement; this is ap-parently a defense against resuming rhe responsibilities asso-ciated with giving up the role of an ill patient. If dreams takeon a more normal appearance, it may be safe to begin thewithdrawal of rnedication, carefully watching for any worsen-ing of the clinical condition. The "normality" of dreams isbest judged against knowledge of the patients dreams prior tothe depression, but fairly common motifs that may offer someindication of improvement are a) the absence of symbols ofaggression against the dream-ego, and b) absence of symbolsreferring to periods of the past in which the neurotic conflictswere formed or intensified.Reductire or Prospective AnalysisReductive analysis is the term suggested by Jung for the tradi-tional primary emphasis of Freudian psychoanalysis: reducingthe current conflict to its supposed origins in the past life ofthe patient. Such reductive work tends to locate the sufficientcause of the neurosis in a past event, including the past attl-tude toward the event. Jung never abandoned reductive analy-sis and felt that it was the appropriate emphasis (at any age)
  • 60 Questkn.s oJ Te< hniquewhen there were clear indicators that a maior comDonent ofthe neurotic difficulty could be traced to complexes based onpast experience. Jung simply relativized reductive analysis,showing it to have a specialized use rather than being the onlyor necessary way to the alleviation of all neurotic suffering. Incontrast to reductive analysis, prospective analysis is moreteleologically oriented, asking what the life process is movinglov)ard ruther than looking at the impediments it has encoun-tered in the past.In actual analytical practice, there are important occasionsfor both reductive and prospective analysis. Dreams can be amost sensitive indicator of when to Dlace emnhasis on onctvoe of worl tlr the other.- -Theprimary indication that reductive analysis is requiredoccurs in the personal amplifications of dream motifs, bothcharacters and setting. A man with a history of seriously re-curring depressions, all of which were triggered by psychody-namic factors associated with environmental chanees. tendedto dream of his childhood on a Door dirt-farm whenever hewas approaching a depression. Ai other times, when he wasmore stable, such motifs were rare in his dreams. These motifsindicated a need to deal with his comDlexes bv reductiveanalysis. Another man, beginning to wo;k through a severcand persistent neurosis, had a series of dreams set in thevicinity of his childhood home, which was symbolic oi a fixa-tion to an early experience of the world at about age three. Inthese dreams there were first images of Mafia-like intrusionsinto the judicial system of a non-eiistent town nerr the child-hood home, then dreams of directly leaving the home oyairplane (a physical impossibility), and finally a more sym-bolic image of underground, zombie-like figures emergirrgfrom where they had been buried (possibly indicating ihatthey had been buried in the unconscious). Subsequent to thisseries of dreams, he began to take a different attiiude towardthe regressive character of his neurotic attachments, foresha-dowing a-period of improvement marked by a decrease in hrsneurollc oeDresslon.Conversly, when images from the past are absent fromdreams, it seems less important to focus on reductive analysis.Improvement may come more rapidly with a focus on currentaffective states and their neurotic aspects. Such work mayThe AJ/ect-Ego and Dtettntt 6tl()cus on any aspect of the patients functioning that is affec-tNclv charged: the transference-countertransference, involve-,,cnis witli current famjly or friends, stresses in the workt rrvironment, relationships that are observed in group therapy,( tc.The value of dreams becomes particularly apparent inworking on current affective problems, for in all these areasorhcr tian dreams it is important to subtract the outer realitylK)m the patients descriptions. For example, if there is arrrarked affective difficulty with someone for whom the patlentworks, the analyst must allow for the difhculty to be based onthc actual nature of the other person rather than upon thedistortions of the person by the patients neurotic perceptlon.liven in assessing affective situations in the transference-coun-tertranslerence field, it may be difficult for the analyst to beobjective enough about himself to recognize his own counter-transference contributions to the difficulty. In dreams. how-cver. we are able to begin the inquiry with data that is alreadvsymbolic. Since the ego does not produce the dream. egodistortions do not have to be taken into account, although onemust still be concerned with questions of objective or subjec-tive interpretation of the dream.fhe AITect-Ego and Dreamsln his work on the word association experiment. which ante-dated his hrst meeting with Freud, Jung clearly defined thenature of a complex and of the aJfect-ego. A complex is agroup of related ideas and images, held together by a comm.onimoiional tone and based upon an archetypal core.rr In dis-cussing the acute effects of the complex upon consciousnessJung defined the affect-ego as a modification of the ego re-sulting from its connection to a strongly toned complex.rrThe energy associated with a strongly charged complex inthe personal unconscious modifies the egos ability to main-tain its usual sense of reality, resulting in an affect-ego stateThe ego expericnces a loss of its accustomed objectivity, leelsthe innux of the offect associated with the complex and mayhave dilficulty maintaining the usual boundaries of personrlidentity.The creation ol an affect-ego state is characteristic of most
  • 62 Questions 0/ Te< hniquedreams. Dreams ordintrily have a dramatic structure, with abegnning problem (including setting and cast of characters), adevelopment of the problem. some ieacrion b; the dream_cg,.r(including non-action and emotional reactio;s) and an our_come. It is important to inquire carefully into the emotionalreactlons (or lack of them) of the dream-ego, since these aswell as. actions are a part of the dream-egois response to theconstellated complexes imaged in the oiher figures of theoream.. If the dream-ego is involved in a very dramatic situation inthe dream, but does not show the emotional reaction thatwould be appropriate if the situation were a wakins one. thedream may be indicating a pathological lack of lmotionala^areness by that parricular ego conitruction. A parricularlv.ublle aspeci of the clinical use"of dreams i. rlr. ini"rpi.iutiliof th.e emotional responsiveness (or ils ab.ence) of the dream_ego rn relatton to the subsequent scenes in the dream. Con_sider a hypothetical example in which the dream-eso is ar_tacked by another figure but declines to defend itself. irvine romake friends with the attacker. This shows a particular igoattitude toward an aggressive content in the psyche. WhatIotlows next may show what the unconscious psvche..thinks"ofsuch an ego attitude. It would not be surprisine if theattack were renewed.with greater energy, suggeiting ihat theoretmmlker wrshes the dream-ego to become more active rnits own behalf._ Another frequent development within a dream occurs if thedream-ego fails ro re.pond adequately ro some challenge inthe dream fiudged by whar uould be appropriare in rhe iamesituation in waking life), and the scene-immediatelvchang""lo a more rerious challenge. For example. the aream-egoi,ll:.q *l,l a civil war setring in which i soldier on rhe ;rhersrde ts llrtng at the dream-ego. who goes into a cave to avoidthe confllct; then the scene chang6s to one in which the9r"uI.9go is in a body of warer and sees shark fins approach-ing. This sequence suggests that a more serious and piimitivethrear (rhe artacking sharksl. will appear if rhe dieam_egoattempts to avoid a confronlation on ihe more human level.As a general rule, it seems that the closer a conflict rndreams comes to a personal confrontation on a human level.The AlJact-Ego and Dreunts 6-lrlre more likely it is to be approaching a point of possiblelcsolution. Over a series of dreams it is sometimes possible toIirllow such an evolution in clear progression, from l) a fightrgainst primitive forces, such as jungle animals, spacemen orlarge impersonal battle scenes, changing into 2) a more localconflict such as a civil war, which indicates a potential unityof the two warring sides of the psyche, and finally 3) a non-lethal conflict, shown as contained within rules that apply toboth sides for instance an athletic contest or ball garne be-twe en two teams.Although one must be cautious in making generalizations, itis at least true to say that conflict motifs in dreams are oftenassociated with the differentiation of the ego from the uncon-scious, while the more developed images of individuationsuch as the alchemical imagery of the coniunctio, usually pic-tured as sexual union or marriage occur after ego autonomyhas been achieved.The affect-ego in a dream image may be seen at tlmes tocorrelate with an aflfective state observed in the waking-ego.When this connection is evident, the dream image of the egomay serve as a shorthand way of referring to the Problematicego state. Analysts and analysands thus often develop a kindoi private language using dream images "Youre acting Iikeyou did with the Mongol horseman," or "ls this your civil warego again?" Using dream images for communication in otherareas of the patients life is a very valuable part of the analyticart, although like all techniques it must not be overused.This use of the basic healing activity of analysis can hepictured as helping the patient to experience various troublingaffect-ego states simultaneorisl7 with an awareness of the con-taining and nurturing boundary of the analytical relationship,based primarily upon the reality of the conscious relationshipbetween the analyst and the analysand, even though theremay be potentially disruptive unconscious conflicts betweenthem. The analyst has the responsibility of maintaining thetemenos of the analysis (the place. setting. helpful attitude,etc.) and of helping the patient to experience within that safeboundary the disturbing affeclego states that cause neuroticinterference in thc life proces:.
  • 64 Qucstions ol Iedu queDelayed Interpretation and Non-InterpretationAs the analyst becomes familiar with the use of dreams rnclinical practice, some specialized problems may arise. Somepatients may use an overabundance of dreams to decoy theanalytical process away from areas that need urgent attenlion.Often, however, the dreams themselves will show a resistanceto such a diversion if they are fully and honestly reported.Occasionally, an analysand brings so many dreams that it isnot possible to work with all of them. A selective process lsthen necessary. The analyst may ask the patjent to -reiect thedream with the greatest affective charge (where an affect-egois most strongly constellated). Ollen such a dream is the onethat the patient least wishes to discuss, since it may containpainful shadow elements or transference problens. If the pa-tient brings all the drcams in r u rjltcn f,-im. ir is often poii-ble for the analyst to scan ovcr the reports and notice motilsthat are similar to significant dreams that have already beendiscussed in analysis; these can then be chosen for thi mostintensive work. Some dreams mav be out aside and keot inmind lor possible consideration it a iater time. Wheneverthere is an actual affeclego state of signiflcant magnitude, thediscussion of the material associated with that will properlytake precedence over dream interpretation. Such a state mightarise in the field of the transference-countertransference. inthe patients daily relationships, at work or elsewhere.As a general rule, analysis should fbcus on the mostcharged afleclego state, whether that is in waking life or tsindicated in a dream. If the affect-ego under considerationoccurs in a dream but not in wakine life. rc-enactmenr of rhedream may evoke it for analysis in the immediatc situetion. Anumber of techniques can be utilized fbr such a purpose: thewell-known gestali technique of asking the person to"be" thedream-ego image, speaking in the first person as if the actionwere happening in the present; hypnoanalytic and activeimagination techniques; group psychotherapy with some useof psychodrama techniques; the simple device of asking thepatrent to retell the dream from the point of view of one ofthe characters other than the dream-iso. Anv of these tech-niques may evoke a resurgence .rf th-e affeit-ego stare andpermit therapeutic working through of the complex.( on(urirtlt Group und lndividuul Therapl (t5llhen not to interpret u dream is a subtle question of analyt-ical technique. In general thcre are two major indicators toconsider in leaving a dream uninterpreted. The first is whenthe dream shows something about the patient that the analystbclieves is true on the basis of other observations but whichthe patient seems totally unready to acknowledge. This is theclassic situation in psychoanalysis the analyst knowing some-thing about the patient that the patient is not yet ready tolacc. In hypnoanalysis. the lack of insight is sometimes cov-ered bv temDorary amnesia. with instructions that it will beremembered "in time," when the ego is ready to assimilatc it.The second indicator lor delaying a dream interpretation isthe situation in which the waking-ego needs the affectiveexperience of the dream more than any analytical understand-ing of it. Such instances are rare but important, and fre-quently occur when there is a marked need lor repair of adamaged ego-image, often because of a low sensc of worthdating from childhood. For example, a woman who hadexperienced severe emotional deprivation from her personalmother had a dream of the Virsin Marv. with a sense ofhaving been loved and caretl ftrr bl Mar1. The dream sremedto be an attempt to have the dream-ego experience the mater-nal and caring aspect of the archetype of the mother, the sideof the archetype that was insufficiently evoked and carried bythe personal mother (perhaps because of her own neuroticconflicts). At the time of the dream. the patient was in anunstable situation, with scvere depression. and had little emo-tional support in her fhmily. The dream was not interpretedbecause the analyst felt she most needcd thc sensc of beingaffectively cared for in a loving manner. At a Iater timc. thlsdream was associated with other dreams of mothering figuresand made part of the analytical discussion of her ongoingoream senes.Concurrent Group and Individual TherapySome Jungian analysts are opposedvidual analysis. or even opposed tople, but others (including mysell)individual and group work to beapproach alone. A group proccssto mixing group and indi-group treatment on princi-olten flnd a mixture ofmore useful than e ithertends to evoke affect-ego
  • 66 Questions of Tet hnitluestates in an immediate situation, much as do dreams. Also-there is a different constellation of the persona and shadow inthe.group setting. Many parienrs feel ihat acceptance by theanalyst offers little relief from oppressive guilt because theanalyst is "special," he or she "understands but otherswouldnt." A group setting seems to constellate the archetypalse^nse of a society or family; hence acceptance b7 a gioupolten promotes a greater sense of self-acceptability in theparrenr.Good analytic technique requires that any decision aboutbeginning or ending an involvement in group therapy be con-sidered with the same care as questions of beginning or end-ing_ individual analysis. Dreams are often a greaf help rnmaking such decisions. As in deciding on any major change,such as stopping analysis. it is often wise to come to the bestconclusion possible on the basis of conscious deliberation.then delay the implementation of the decision until there rstlme to observe the reaction (if any) in the dream material.Taking a conscious position, even iiit is later revised, offers apoint of reference in consciousness for the dreams to compen-sate.Dreams may indicate the need for more involvement in thegroup process, and indeed usually do so. often by showingthat some important activity in the dream occurs in the pres-ence of group members. At times, however. dreams show thatthe analysand should refrain from entering a group, perhapsbecause there is more pressing work to be done on an individ-ual basis. One such dream showed that a neighbor wished thedream-ego_ to-cut down a large hedge. bul the dream-egodeclined, deciding to plant even more hedges. The dream-egolftez discovered that there was a vast unexnlored area. wiihmany buildings, behind his own brekyrrd. togerher with evenmore rented garden space beyond that.When one member of a therapy group dreams of another,it is. often fruitlul to bring the dream into the group setting forfurther work. One woman who had just eniered a theiapygroup had a violent reaction to a woman who had been in thegroup for some time. She felt that the other woman was,.tnedarling of the group," while she herself would be criticized furalmost anything. Her reaction, discussed in an individual ana-Poittt.s to Renenther (t7Iytic session, seemed to indicate severe sibling rivalry prob-lems that had not oreviouslv been evident. She then had adream in which she felt very lriendly toward the other womanin her therapy group, a dream that clearly seemed to compen-sate her conscious reaction. She decided to share the drearlwith the group and quickly realized, with appropriate emo-tional insight, that she did feel a sense of kinship with thewoman she had initiallv disliked and feared.LPoints to RememberThe analytic process takes place within the transfor-mative field of the transference-countertransference.It is impossible for the analysts unconscious pro-cesses not to be involved, but they should be a smallfactor in comparison to those in the analysand.Dreams in which the analysand clearly dreams of theanalyst (or vice versa) should be treated with particu-lar care, especially if they contain strongly erotic ele-ments.Dreams can orovide clues to the need lor reductiveor prospective analysis, the use of medication andother clinical choices, but they should only be part ofthe decision process.D^ream interpretation is not always the primary focusoI analvsls.In qeniral. follow the material associated with thestro;gest affect-ego state in the analysand.The transformative field of analysis consists of theexperience of affect-ego states within lhe sa,fe temenosof the analysis. Maintenance of the safety of the le-rnenas, when threatened with disruptron. takes pre-cedence over dream interpretation and other aspectsof analvtical work.The mlaning of a dream is never exhausted, even ifit seems comoletelv understood. A sense of hun.rble-ness is vital in dream interpretation.2.3.4.5.6.7.8.
  • 6Ego-Images and Complexes in DreamsThe changes occurring to the dream-ego, the ego-image in thedream, offer many indicators for the clinical course of Jungiananalysis. It is again important to remember that the dreammust be carefully amplified and then placed in the conrexr ofthe patients current life and stage of individuation.The basic structural concepts of analytical psychology havealready been discussed-the identity structures of ego andsh:rdow and the more relational structures of the persona andthe anima/animus. Dream images often can readily be as-signed to these structural concepts, but it would be a mistaketo think such identification in any way sufficed for the clinicaluse of a dream. The dream is more subtle than anv theoreticalmodel of the psyche, which must not be use<i in such areductive way. Nevertheless, when employed with proper re-straint and with respect for the movement of the dleams,Jungs structural concepts can be a helpful means of psycho-Iogical orientation for both analyst and patient, and an aid rnunderstanding the immediate task at hand.Identification of ComplexesComplexes can be identified easily in many dreams, butdreams give more information than merely identifying com-plexes; they also show what the p.syche is doing with the con-stellated complexes. Anv unstructured stimulus to which aperson free-associates wiil reveal whatever complexes are con-stellated at that time. Juns noted this in his work with theword association experirnent; his objection to the Freudiantechnique of free association was simply that it would lead tocomplexes but would not reveal their relation to the dreamimages that were the beginning of the associational chain.Since Jung did not believe in the idea of a hidden or "latent"dream meaning behind the manifest dream (which he took assymbolic but not disguised), he did not try to see behind the"disguise" of the dream images; rather, these images wereldentiJicatiotl oJ Contplcrcs 69amplified on personal, cultural and archetypal levels to revealtheir meaning through other images found naturally asso-ciated with them in the mind of the patient.As well as identifying complexes, a dream may show therrunexpected linkage to other complexes. For example, a youngwoman who had been recently divorced dreamed:I am in the house of my former husband, my own old house. Itis late at night. Im in my old bedroom when I hear voicesoutside. I see my lbrmer husband and his new girlfricnd. Ithought I had told him Id be staying in the house so that hewouldnt be there. They come up lhe stairs to Bo to bed to-gether and go into his bedroom. I realize to my surprise that Iam actually in my old bedroom at my parentshouse and thatmy former husband and his girlfiiend havc gonc into my par-entsbcdroom.The dream startled her with its suggestion that her feelings forher former husband had an oedipal overtone, putting him inthe place of her father. The surprise was even greater becauseshe realized that such an unconscious linkase could accountfor her sexual aversion to her former husband=. an attitude tharhad contributed to their divorcc.Another patient found a similar connection between a cur-rent situation and past feelings about her mother (carried inthe mother complex), in two dreams on the same night, whileshe was working through a severe problem of scrupulosity thathad dominated her life for a number of vears. Note that theconnection to the mother complex is not evident in the firstdream, but when that dream is put beside the second dreamthe mother complex becomes clearly visible:Dream I :I was on a ledge with three or four other penons and wasliightcned. I slippcd and ftll twcnty or thirty lict to thcground. When t hit I just lay there to be sure I was all right,but I hoped lhat people wouldnt think I was just trving to getatten on.Dream 2:I was on the roof of my mothers house. Other people werether€. I was afraid to jump down. Nobody sccmcd conccrned.The two dreams have a similar though slightly different68
  • 70 Ego-lnnges und Conrplexes itt Dreatnsinitial image, which serves to link them to the same pattern ofcomplexes. although showing slighttl different views of thecomplex structure. The ledge in the first dream is analogous tothe roof of her mothers house in the second dream. In thcfirst dream there is an unintentional fall, followed by an egostate in which the dream-egos legitimate concern fcrr its ownhealth is put aside in favor of the neurotic thought that ltwouldnt look right "I hoped that people wouldnt think Iwas just trying to get attention." In the second dream she doesnot fall, while other people are unconcerned about her preca-rious position, and her location on "the roof of my mothershouse" indicates that the current difficultv arises in a oarentalcomplex ralher than in the conscious concern to be scrupu-lous. In a sense, the feeling that she is "too sinful" is compen-sated (or shown in a more true light) by her being inappro-priately "too high up" and in an awkward place-the ledge orroof. She linked the concern with the family with her disap-pointment that little attention had been shown to her reccntnewborn son. in contrast to the attention she felt had beenshowered on her sisters first child.Structural Shifts: Borders and BoundariesShifts from one ego-identity to another may be symbolized indreams, frequently taking the form of crossing a border orboundary. or passing over a body of water on a bridge. Suchimagery shows two contrasting states of being and the abilityof the ego to move from one to the other as a basis for itsidentity. This is a contrast to the more neurotic movementsfrom one identity to another within a stable neurotic pattern.Of course, if the stable pattern is neurotic, a shift of identityentirely away from the pattern translates as clinical improve-ment, although the movement of identity away from an1 fa-miliar pattern causes anxiety until the new pattern is stabt-llZeO.A man spoke harshly to a woman in his group therapysession, something he was not accustomed to do as he usuallyhid his negative feelings, which kept his shadow hidden butalso prevented its coming into consciousness for possible inte-gration. He felt badly about having expressed his ncgativeRelationul und Identitt Structures 7lfeelings and was tempted to withdraw into the old pattern ofkeeping things to himself and thereby freezing himself in "neurotic and unchanging state. Immediately after the grouptherapy experience he dreamed:I am at a boundary. something like the Berlir wall but it wasin Poland. I was on the free side but lbr sonre reason I wantcdto go into the un-free side of the boundary where I might becaught and unablc to rcturn. I had to bc carcful. There wereno people around and I was fiightened.In addition to referring to his tendency to cross into an "un-free" identity because of his guilt, the dream led him to reflectupon an impulse to begin an affair with a woman he hadknown before his marriase. The "liee" versus "un-free" as-pects of his personality iould be correlated with his basicneurotic problem and its manifestation in many areas of hlsllIe.Relational and Identitv StructuresThe psychological structures identified by Jung can be a use-ful tool in understanding dreams: persona. shadow. animaand animus, Self and other archetypal images, and of coursethe various forms and roles of the ego. These are not oftenused in talking with patients about drilms. unless the patientintroduces them, but they are helpful in orienting the thera-pist. Their excessive use in ordinary discussions with the ana-Iysand runs a grave risk of promoting intellectual understand-ing at the expense of real emotional insight and transforma-tion. When the analysand is also an analys!in-training, theidentification of the structural comDonents in his or her mats-rial may be a useful teaching devici. but should he done onlyafter the affective understanding has been accomDlished.The PersonaPersona roles are often thought of as "masks" and given anegative meaning in contrast to the "true" personality experi-enced by the ego ("ljust want to be myself); however. this isa misu ndcrstanding of the function of the persona. The per-sona is simply a structure for relating to the collective con-
  • 7) Lgo-lntagcs und Conplexes in l)reunt.rscious situation, analogous to the concept of role in socialtheory. The ego usually knows it can identify with or disiden-tify from persona roles. while it is generally not aware that itcan also identrfy or not with shadow identities, which seem tobe a part of the ego but unacceptable. The persona seemsoptional, the shadow seems compulsive. although both aresimply ego-identity roles that are held in different tensions inrelation to the other structural comDonents of the nsvche.In dreams, persona aspects are often shown by clrrthing(which can be taken on or of| and by roles, such as playing apart in a drama. Identification with the persona may lead theego to feel that it is empty and "dead" without thc role toplay. This was strikingly evident in the dream of an armyolficer who found himself off-stagc and dead in his uniforrrr.while everyone else who had been on stlge was going to utherparts of their lives. Conversely. the absence of suitable cloth-ing, or being naked in a social setting. is a dream motif thatseems to indicate an inadequate persona.When it functions well, the persona simply facilitates theactivity of the ego in social interaction. The persona is also avehicle for the transformation of the ego: unconscious con-tents may first be experienced through-a personu role andthen later integrated into the ego as part of its own tacltfunctional identity. If one takes a simple enough example.such as learning to play the piano. this movement from pcr-sona to tacit ego structure is quite clear. Onc first practicesplaying the piano, exerting great effort, and then at somepoint the skill becomes automatic and unconscious, althoughit can be recallcd for conscious review if there is difficultv.When the persona is identified in a drerm, therelore, rtmust be looked at in relation to the other structures repre-sented in the dream and seen in the nersoective of the overalldream movement. The personr is not, in itself. positivc ornegatrve.The ShadowShadow images also seem to carry a sense ol bcing negative.although as mentioned earlier this too can be an illusionbased uoon the orisinal dissociation of the shadow contentsfrom th! immature"eso in childhood. The child has little orRelotiondl und Itlenlitt, Stuclure"- 73the adults autonomy and can dissociate a perfectly good partof the ego into the structure of the shadow in conformity to afamily or social situation that is itself neurotic (or simplycxpressing a transient reality situation in the family). If theshadow identity is not later brought into consciousness forrevision, the traits in the shadow are not easily available to theego for its normal functioning. Any type of psychotherapy isto some extent involved in bringing the shadow into con-sciousness and making a more adult decision as to its suitabil-ity for inclusion into the dominant ego-identity. If shadowintesration is not achieved. the shadow contents tend to beprojicted onto others (usually of the same sex as the ego) andofler irrational impediments to easy interpersonal functioning.The dream of a physician who had many immature prob-lems showed both shadow and oersona qualities and the relo-riunship between rhcse t d component of hi p.yche:Iwas an undercover agcnt Ihidden identity] up against theGerman Gestapo [syrnbol of a collective shadow]. The uniformI was wearing had thc wrong bottoms on it [persona problem].Three or four men were trying to help me llnd the rightbotk)ms for the unilbrm [possibly helplll parts of the shadow].During the day preceding the dream. this man had seen atelevision program about hunting fbr missing Nazis. He con-sidered Gestapo persons as "evil people, misfits, crazy peoplewith authority, rigid, dogmatic, constrictive." These associa-tions described, to some degree, his own shadow, but alsoexnressed his fear of dealine with such rnaterial. The dreamshbwed that the inadequate-persona(the nofquite-right unr-fbrm) and the serious nature of thc shadow problems wererelated.The shadow may contain qualities that need to be inte-grated for a more comprehensive ego structure. This is fre-quently seen in dreams of an aggressive shadow figure that rsneeded to compensate an overly passive waking-ego, althoughthe reverse configuration may also be seen a shadow figureof a more gentle or compliant nature than the waktng-ego.Anima /A nimusThe anima or animus primarily serves the function of enlarg-ing the personal sphere, which includes the inner "space" of
  • I L, l,t,| t Ltnl (t)nvl(e.t in Drt,autt r(,. I)( r olrl and shadow as well as that of the anima and,uurrrrs. lhis is ofien accomplished through projection onto aIrrtrrrc 0l the opposite sex in the outer world, but it may also()(cur through the mediation of such a ligure in dreams andllLntasies. Fairytales are a rich source ot-animaand animusiniages. Excessive reliarrce on the activity of the anima (in anran) or the animus (in a woman) impoverishes the eso. lnwaking life, the presence of the anima or animus is uiuallvevident when an emotion or thought is held with so-. emo"-tional tenacity but in an impersJnal manner. Feelings andopinions that are couched in ierms of "ought, or ,,shjuld,,hascd on eollective. generrlized rules of riccptahlc beh.Lvioror male and female stereotypes often come fiom the uncon-scious parts of the persona or fion the anima/animus. Thiscan be recognized precisely because the quality of the feelingor opinion is impersonal; it may be directed toward anotherperson, but there is no discrimination between the actualitv oflhlt oller person and the projected fantasy of what he or she"should" be.In the process of withdrawing projections of the anima oranrmus the prnonal ego is.enlarged- incrersing thc range ofconcr(,usnc5s. fatlure lo wtlhdrJw a projcctitrn onto. lor ex_ample, a loved one, may lead to an embittered and shallowrelationship - the former loved one does not live up to exDec_tations, he or she is found to be not the person th; proiectionpromised. If the projection is withdrawn and irs contenti madepart,of the subjective world of the projecting ego, there maystill be room for a good personal reiationshiI with the personuh1,wr1 previou.sly seen largell in terms of rhe projecrion.lhe dreams ol two women :hou un cxt.cssirc rclirnce uponthe animus. rather than developing necded strcngth in the egoitselL The first woman dreamed-that she was ilescendins .long staircase in a ballet class. using ccrtain brllet st.n.l Aman came to help. He carried her Jown the staircase whileshe tricd to make her feet move as though she were actuallydancing down the stairs herself. She repor-ted, .lt was quite an..ft.I. t9 move my feet so quickly. sincc there *.r" ,u -u,,ytiny.little stairs, and Im not sure I really kept up as I wascarried down."The second woman dreamed that she was fishing in a boatwith her father when something wls caught on rhe linc. Al-Thc Self and tlrc Eg,o-SelJ A.ris 75though it was her line, her father reeled in the fish, seeming torrsc all his strength. For some time she resisted the thoughtthat she was relying too much on the figure of the father aslLnimus. focusing rather on the interpretation that the dreamshowed her father "finally" doing something for her. She wasan exceptionally intelligent and creative woman who doubtedunnecessarily her own abilities that is. the abilities were pre-sent but unconscious (in the animus), not integrated into thetacit functional structure of the ego.In the classical view, as previously pointed out, the animatended to be associated with the unconscious feeling of a man,while the animus was identified with the underdevelopedthinking of a woman. These shorthand generalizations wereperhaps true in traditional European culture, in which Jungspent his formative years, but they can be decidedly untrue lnany individual case, in which the conhguration of the animaor animus is determined by the organizational structure of thepersonal sphere and the contents assigned to the persona andshadow while growing up.One man beginning a new stage of anima development inwhich his idealized feelings of women were less projected ontoactual women in the environment dreamed that he caught afleeting glimpse of a ghostly woman, laughing and singing asshe moved across a hallway toward a garden. This seemed toshow the anima as separable from his projections and as in asense connected to the past (ghost-like1.Although the anima and the animus are generally contra-sexual to the gender identity of the ego, there are certainlyclinical instances where thev are contaminated with theshadow. and the sex of the-anime or animus is thus lesscertain. If there is identity confusion in the sex role of the ego,there mav be a reflection of this confusion in the dreamimages oi the shadow and anima or animus. It must be re-membered, too, that these structural terms are to some degreegeneralizations; the actual dreams and dream images are morecomplex than the concepts.The Self and the Ego-Self ArisThe Self, the regulating center of the psyche, may also appearin dreams, along with other archetypal images. Appearances
  • t, Llo It1lagc.r end Cot11ple.c. in Dreunt.s(l the Self. the archetypal core of the ego. often indicate anccd for stabilization ol rhe ego, since ihere tends to be areciprocal^relationship berween ihe stability of the ego and theSelf manifesting in a stable form. If the egb is confuied ancl rndisarray. the Self is more likell to appeir in r ven orderedform. such as a mandall. P:ychologicllly speaking. a mandalrrmage rs one that emphastzes the totality of something, usuallysnowrng qulre ctearty a penphery and a center. In its historicalsense, the term mandala refers to certain very structured med_itation symbols used rn Buddhism. often consisting of a four-gated square_or circular city with a central image (io be medi_tated on) and lesser images surrounding it._ In dreams, the Self imagery may be more inexact. as abuilding that surrounds a central couityard with a fountain. or:y.n^ty^olarge buildings joined by a central common wing.lhe Sell ma) appear ils a voice, likc the ..voiceof God." tharse^ems to come from "everywhere" and generally has a senseof unqucslioned integriry and correcrnei. ,ecminp to .implvstlte lhings a., rhcl icrurlly ure. wirh no roum f .ir. ai"rgr!.1ment. .A cllssic. example is rhe dream alrerdy relerreJ ru.consrs ng entrrely of one scntence_an authoritative voice sav_ing "You are not leading your true life!"It is impossible to construct a list of possible imases of thcSelf,. since_ virtually any image thrr appears withsut-ficientdignity and meaning may carry the forciof this central arche_lypc. Al5o. il i5 imporlant ro distinguish belwecn lhc arehelVneol rhe Self and un) prrlicular ar"cherypal l-rg. oirh.-(Ifithat appears in dreams. As archetype,-theSelf ii the orderingcenter.of the psyche as a whole, a whole greater than the egobut,related.most intimately to the ego. Tha Self as the totaliryof the psyche is the generative field of the individuation pro_cess. But the Self is also the archetypal pattern on whichthedevelopment of the- ego is based. Conceptually. the centeringquality of the total psyche is the Self,- while the cenrerirrgquality of consciousness (and of the personal sphere) is thcego. When we speak of the Self in dreams. we rre tcruallvconsidering it as an archetypal image of the orderliness of thepsyche as a whole. Any archetypal image of the Self rndreams^is an image of tliis totaliry as seen from the point of.view of a particular dream-ego. As the contents oftheegoshift, so may the image ol the Self, although the relationshipfhe Sal/ and rhc Ego-Stl/ Axis 77bctween them always remains that of the center of conscious-ncss (ego) to the ccnter of the psyche (Self).^fhe ego-Self aris is a term sometimes used to describe therclationship between the ego and the Self. There are someobjcctions to this term, primarily to the static quality impliedby the word "axis." The actual relationship of ego and Self isrnore shifting and varied. Personally I prefer the term ego-Selfspiration (from Latin spirare, lo breathe), which emphasizesthe breathing-likc, back-and-forth flow between the ego andthe Self.In his autobiography, Jung relates two of his own dreams toillustrate the essentially enigmatic relationship between egoand SclL ln one of the dreams. Juns realized that he himselfwas being projected by a flying saucer. not the rthcr wayaround. In the second. Jung felt himself to be a dream figurein the dream of a meditating yogi who also had the face of.lung. "I knew that when he awakened, I would no longerbe."raThis movement or potential movement between ego andSelf can be seen in dreams that emphasize the ego-imagebeing observed by or dependent upon something larger andmore powerful than itself. For example, a man in his mid-fbrties dreamed he was on a Sea Scout cruise and fell over-board while roughhousing with his friends. As he began toswim back to the boat, it changed into a large ocean liner. Hethen stopped because he heard a strange sound. He realized itwas a large whale some seventy or eighty feet beneath thesurface. For a moment he "saw" himself on the surface of thcocean as if he were the whale. His surlace form looked like"no more than a waterbug." He felt a sense of alertness, as ifsomething momentous might happen, but there was no fearand the large whale was not particularly threatening.Here the dreamers somewhat adolescent ego-identity (SeaScout). when it comes into contact with the unconscious(occan), suddenly becomes aware that it is, in a sense, theobject ola superordinate subject (the whale). Simultaneously,the former carrier of the dream-ego (the small boat) becomesa large ocean liner. The ego-image in contact with the water,therefore, experiences itself as between two points of view thatare both larger than itself-the whale in the ocean and theman-made liner on thc surface. The adolescent (/rel) attitude
  • L:to l Ltgcs tutd Contple-res in Drcdn1sis being gently compensated and something awesome, but nolrlrrcrtcning. seem5 about to happen.Archetypal Amplifi cationArchetypal images in dreams often indicate a change ofcourse, in ego development or compensrtc ln inadeqiltelyformed ego structure. Since there is an archetypal core behindererl complex. ir is always porri!1. ,o ampiiiy rny molif inthe direction of irs archcrl pal foundationr. Arehctt nil rmolifi_cation, however, shouldbeused with restr,.rint iithe clinicalsetting. An unwanted and even dangerous side effect of exces-sive archetypal amplification is frs-cination with uneonsciousrmages and their archerypal meanings. This fascination canlerd one away from the process of individuation, which re_quires hnding a personal meaning among the many arche-typal possibilities offered both in the unconscious and in theouter collective world. (Indeed, some persons present thenr_selves proudly for Jungian analysis. believing that their al-ready close waking contact with what Jung cilled archet!Dcsis an eminent "qualification," only to llter realize if theydo_that it is their major problem. An u ndiJlerentialed wholenessis still unconsciousness.)As a practical matter, the rnalyst is only able to inreroretthose archetypal images that crnhe identifie,l as such. thisdepends largely. upon a brcad familiarity with mythology,folklore and religion,_ repositories of significant imiges thatnave.been.meJnrngtul enough to a sufficiently wide range ofpeople to have been carried over extended periods of-timeand embeJded in wrilren trrditions.At times there are dream images that can be amolifiedmeaningfully only with archetypal lssociations. rs Moreofren.the archetypal images are quite evident in cultural fcrrms thatare fumililr. In the following dream, for instance, there are anumber of images and molils that can be considered from anarchetypal perspective: turtle (symbol of totality, foundationof the world); egg (symbol of original beginnings, the cosmrcegg); the mysterious movement from ,,one" to .,two,: theconnectron of infant offspring to mother; and the mvsteriousvoice that speaks unquestioned truths.A rche r.t pul Anrplification 79I saw a shiny turtle sllell on thc beach. Therc was a bird cggncarby and it too rvas shinr, like the turtle shell. A discmbocliedvoice .spokc and said. "lt looks likc an egg but if lou hold it inyour hand i1 $ill be to cggs." Thc voice sounded prolcssionaland god-like. I pickeci up 1hc egg and mvstcriousl) it was 1oesss. Thc voice said thcv will both hatch and therc will be adfither bird ancl a babv-birdand thc baby will flnd its war- tothe nothcr. Then I intmediatcJy saw the bab,v. bird stumblingon the beach toward the nlother.In spite of the many archetypal possibilities for amplifica-tion. this dream was left embedded within the series of dreamsin which it occurred, with no special emphasis. It might havebeen interpreted in terms of the archetypal devclopment ofthe mother-child relationship (the onc egg becomes two, onethe child, the other the mothcr). with any number of embel-lishments from religion and mythology. But thc effect olthedream itself was enough to move the dreamer toward theresolution of a deep diificulty with the imagc of the mother.affecting both her relationship to her personal mother (whichbecame less problematical) and hcr relationship to her ownrole as mother of her childrcn (which also improved). Withina short time there was another dream which showed that shemust quickly clear away unnecessary "scaffolding" around i1building in order to prevent a dangerous explosion. Thisseemed to the analyst to confirm his decision not to amplil-vthe earlier dream. feeling that the purpose or message of thedream was better dealt with on a more personal level. and inany case had already bcen heard.
  • 7Common Dream Motifstrloutning tttlre need tbr the dreamer to assimilatc unconscious shadowlurrlities or shows that it is already happening.On the negative side. inccst motifs involving the parentsn)ly suggest thrt a maternal or Paternal imago lies behindrnore oersonal comnlexes and interfbres with the achievementol th€ coniunttio, ihe balanced pairing of male and femaleclemcnts, often expresscd in sexual imagery. For example, -nran who had experienccd difficulties in many relationshipswith women since his divorce from a cold and controlling wifetlrcamed that he met his own mother when she was about fitlyvcars of age (hc at the time was in his mid-fifiies). He em-Lraced his-mothet and as he did so hc felt her vagina vibrat-ing with scxual energy. It did not bothcr him in the dream.but when he awoke he was disturbed.That dream helped to identify an incestuous element in htsrelationships with women: additionally, it was an aid in recog-nizing the nr adonna/prostitute split in his psyche, based par-tially on the overidealization olhis mother. whom hc consid-cred non-sexual.MourningMourning processes seem to appcar naturallv in dreams. Inuncomplicated bereavement. the dead loved one may appearas if alive, the frequency ol the dreams gradually decreasing(and their symbolic content often increasing) as the mournlngprocess moves to a healthy conclusion, usually within six toeight months after the death. In cases of prolonged and path-ological mourning. where the survivor is unablc or unwillingto acccpt the death of the loved person, the dream imagesoften show the deceased in a negative light. or as if thc-dcccased is trying to abandon thc dream-ego.For crample. a woman with sevcre parental difflcultteswent througli a prolongcd and difficult mourning afler thesuicide of her husband, the only person to whom she had feltclose emotionally. Many dreams showed that he was actuallydead. that she should not try to follow him in dcath. that thercwas no room fbr her to be buried next to him, etc. One of thelast of these dreams. scveral years after his death, occurredcven after she had remarricd (not too succcssfully).It is not possible to present an encyclopedic list of dreammotils and their usual meanings. To attempt to do so wouldbe to move in the direction of a "cookbook" of dream intcr-pretations. which would be misleading as well as inappro-p rl ate.All lre^am inages dre contextLtal. The same image maymean different thtngs in different drcams of thc seme-persorr.and certainly so when it is dreamed hy strme.rne elsc. Theexperienced therapist realizes tha( ;Lny discussion of motifscannot in principle_.be cxhaustive, but sen/es only to cxemplifya style and possibilities of interpretation that miy be uselul incntirely different contexts. Perional analysis an,J sunervisionof oncs own crses h; a skilled dream interpretci with abaekground in depth pslchology rcmain the mbst direct andpractical ways to le arn how to work clinically with dre ams.The examplcs presented hcre should theietbre bc, tuken asno more than illustrative of specific cases that may give cluesto other cases, which will always differ in thcii -partrculardetails and meaning.r6IncestThe appearance of incest in dreams is not necessarily a nega-tivc sign. Prior to crossing the Rubicon and marihingonRome, Cecsar hed a drerm of incest with his mother. a diearntha-t was.lnterpreted (correctly. most likely) as indicating that"Mother" Rome would reccive him happily and not resist. lnancient Egypt incest between rolrl sitrlings wes considcredlppropriate. if not acrualll required, reflecting the brother-i5ter inccsr inhercnr in therrchctyprl mlh of ii5 antl Oiiris.Incest in a dream may representj conr;ct uf the tJrerm-cgowith the arehetyprl merning personified by a parent or sii-lrng, a contuct that may resuJt in some exceptional movementaway from fixation points in the personal lreas of thc nsvche.Similarly, incest with a sibling of rhc sumc scx otien indr.urcs80
  • ,- ( otntttott Dreun Motifsln the dream she was divorced from her dead husband andhe had another wife. The dream-ego wanted a child. but herhusband had a vasectomy (which hi had not hud in real life).He went to have it undone, but they did it again anyway.Then the dream-ego was to have the vasectomy, but the sur-geon pointed out that she had no testicles. She and her hus-band agreed that the seashore where lhey were was not asattractive as that on their honeymoon. A large wave. twostories high, was approaching and in it was "i red-skinnedthing" like "inside a female body," which reminded thedream-ego of a dream long ago about such a sea creature.The dream contains several motifs which indicate thatclinging to the marriage is unrealistic, even dangerous: thehusband is divorced and remarried. there is no ooisibilitv forchildren (new developments between them). theie is a rhreat-enlng wave (unconsclous contents), etc.HousesHouses commonly appear in dreams as images of the psyche.Many times there are unknown rooms in the house. indicatinghidden or unexplored areas of the patients potential egostructure. Distinctions between Darts of a house mav be svm-bolically important: the cellar, rhe ttic, the roof,"balconies,bedrooms, etc. Kitchens, for instance, are a place of transfor-mation of raw food into cooked dishes; in dreams they some-times have the character of the alchemieal lahoratorl,-r placeof more profound transformations. Bathrooms in dreums- mayrefer to "elimination" or the difficulty in "letting go." Some-times the mere setting of the dream action in a certain housefrom the past allows inferences as to the origin of the com-plexes involved.The house itself may stand for various parts of the egt>structure, as in the dream of a man beginning to experience asense of freedom as his excessive. neurotic self-criticisrnwaned:I was looking fbr a house. The scene was iike west Texas. withwide horizon and broad sky. A beautiful day. I went up to ahouse that was on sevcral acres. It was a used. comfbrtablehouse, with a swimming pool. I walked around it looking at it.Autonobilcs 3-lIn the same session in which he reported this dream he de-scribetl a changed feeling in his everyday life. Although thechange was not spontaneously associated with the dream, ithad much the same affective tone, suggesting that the tacitstructure of the ego, as reflected in the dream, was also beingexperienced as a more relaxed emotional state in his ordinarylife. He described himself as more stable, less aggressive sex-ually and otherwise, not disliking his wife as much and feelingthat he was not functioning so much on the basis of what hethought others wanted of him. He also felt a change in hisrelationship with other people, because "I no longer have top/ove something."AutomobilesAutomobiles and other modes of travel are other images thatseem to indicate ego structure or the way in which the egomoves throush the various activities of life. The differencebetween wal[ing and riding in an automobile is a significantsymbolic change, as is the distinction between ones own carand the collective nature of a bus. Trains. in contrast to auto-mobiles and buses, are set on a fixed track, without the optionof moving somewhat at will; they therefore tend to be asso-ciated with compulsive or habitual activities. Closely related toautomobiles are streets and highways, where distinctions mustbe noted between sizes of streets or freeways, whether thedream-ego is moving in the direction of traffic or against oracross the flow, difficulties in finding an entrance to a desiredpathway, as well as curbs, gutters, potholes, etc.The contextual nature of dream symbols is nowhere moreevident than in all these variations on the theme of transporta-tion. The automobile can even stand for self-esteem (a pointthat advertisers have not overlooked). For example, a youngwoman dreamed:While driving through an underground parking lot I broad-sided another car. Ihen I went out and bought tt really sna1lcar. Then I realized th{l I didnt n4rl lil give up my old car.tn discussing the dream, she linked the imagery to an habitualwav of handlins stress in a less than effective manner. When
  • -arr,/ ( otnnon Dreum MotiJ.rslie felt that she had made a mistake. she wanted to ,.runaway or_ clean the slate." "Im not very self-accepting," sheadmifted. The dream seemed an opportunitv to iealiZe thatself-rejection for mistakes and accidents was ;ot necessary.A major symbolic meaning of an automobile in a dreamhinges upon whether it belongs (or in the past belonged) tothe dreamer, or whether it is someone elses. A similar iienifi-cance altaches to the position of the dream-ego withii theautomobile. The most appropriate position would generally bethe drivers seat, from whe;e one is able to deiermine- thecourse and speed and direction of movement. If the dream-ego is not shown in the driving position, it is important to notewho fu in control of the car (sometimes it is no one). Whcrcdoes the dream-ego sit? Behind the driver? In the front seatbut on the passengers side? Somewhere else? Between otherfigures? Outside the car? Remembering that the Self. in mak-ing the dream. places the dream-ego in-a particular position inthe opening scene, one can gain a great deal of informationfrom such a simple matter as the initial seating arrangementwithin an automobile.I1 is difhcult to overemphasize the symbolic importance ofsuch apparently insignihcant details in-dreams.paiients oftenwill not spontaneously report such details, assimilating thememory of the dream io how it "ought" to appear rather-thandescribing the way it was actually presented to the dream-ego.Careful_inquiry is always important, but to let the patient-fillin the dream details as to what "probably" wn5 thsre wouldbe like filling in a medical laboratory report with what.prob-ably should" appear when there is no data. Dreams are sounique and individual in their relation to the wakins-eso tharit is better to clearly know that one has no dati a6out aparticular motii than to think one has a true image from thedream when it is really an interpolalion trom the waking-egoof the dreamer. Patients who add, on inquiry, such .,probibli,details. are trying to be helpful, but they do not appreciate theexquisite specihcity of the dream.Alcohol and DrugsImages,of alcohol and drug use appear in dreams particularlywhen there rs some waking problem with them. ChemicalAk:ohol and Drugs 85rrddictions are notoriously difficult to treat by psychologicalrncans, and usually require more "primitive" techniques suchirs group pressure and support. (Unfortunately such ap-proaches are often successful in terms of the addiction butinterfere with a finer understanding of psychological pro-ccsses, as if all ones problems could be solved by abstainingliom alcohol or drugs.) But when dreams are followed closely,it is sometimes possible to see the unconscious ready for achange in the addiction pattern suggesting, supporting orcven pushing for one before any steps are taken by the wak-lng-ego.A man who had been a non-drinking alcholic for manyyears decided to allow himself an occasional "harmless" glassof wine with friends. His dreams on two such occasions clearlydisapproved, as they did when he allowed himself to take apain medication that had not been prescribed for him. An-other man whose alcohol consumption had slowly and insidi-ously increased, dreamed almost a year before he decided toface the oossibilitv of alcoholism that such a move was needed-the mdtif beins the loss of his automobile associated withalcohol intake. Slill later, with the alcohol problem not yetresolved, he dreamed that his ring finger and the weddingband on it had shrunk to half size, which he interpreted asshowins him to be "not the man I should be." In the sameseries o1 dreams, a black woman played up to him sexually inorder to sell him a pint of milk that did not need refrigerationfor $6.85, which he felt might refer to pints of bourbon. Thewoman in the dream had no real interest in him, only tnselling the apparently overpriced milk.A woman making a valiant attempt to abstain from alcoholreported two dreams on the same night, both of which sheassociated with her struggle not to dnnk. In the first dreamher purse (feminine identity) was lost, submerged in water(unconscious), but she found it and everything was intactalthough wet. The "wet" she related to "drying out" fromalcohol. In the second dream she was lost in a suburb, butknew she could hnd her way home, again a Sood prognosticsisn for the eventual successful outcome of her resolve not toonnK.An imnressive examole is the case of a man in his mid-thirties whose heavy uie of marijuana had dulled his judg-
  • ,tt I tt, tt,t llt)til.||r, l|t . r(l rl;rrrr:rgcd his marriage. Soon after he entered analy-.r lr, lr,rrl ir scfics of dreams in which crowds held up largcr1rl rrrrrl cvcn billboards, proclaimins: DONT SMOKITl)( )ll| )<rrlltl)crrth in dreams including murder and the loss of relation-ships must be carefully considered in context, for the deathofdream figures seldom refers to actual death; rather it pointsI, the frofound archetypal frocc5 of translormation.A man wrestling with notable oedipal problems was unablcto date.c_omfbrtably, although hc had no dilficulty dealirrgresponsibly and assertively in his business relationships. As hehegan to impror e. hc wl. partieularl) proud of a siruarion rnwhich he and his brother were with iwo women. The brotherwent into a bedroom with his date. but the analvsand. al-though he felt pressure in the situatjon to du so, did-not reellvwant to have intercourse with the woman he was with. He wesable to honestly tell her his feelings, a victory for him in termsof asserting his independence lrom a collective .,macho,beliefthat men are always sexually aggressive. a so-called norm thathe had in any case honored more in fantasy than in actualit,.As he was experiencing a sense of freedom from the com-pulsive oedipal roles, he had two separate dreams in which hemurdered his parents. Now. patriciJe and matricide lre trulyrepulsive crimes, but in the context of dreams that occur rnthe rnidst of a dynamic process they can symbolize an altera-tion in the inner parental imagos, as seemed to be the case!r:l: Th: first dream shows quite dramarically how an image"killed" in a dream may reappear in a transfoimed state:I killed my lathcr who was threatcning me. I hcld hirn underwultr ultil he dr.,un,.J. lJl<r ir lh( Jrcrm h< urr.rill tltcrebut no longcr a thrcat to lnc. Then he came alttng with nte in ahelpfu I mrnncr.The figure in the dream did not look like his actual father..clue to its identification as a personification of a oersonalcomplex. In associations, he desiribcd his frther as u mln whowas "emotionless, stubbornly close-minded, but stablc., In thesecond dream he killed his mothcr. but when awake he"didnt remember" any details.Sla/ier 8/ln general, the death ofparental imagos in dreams points to,r lrrdical change in the oedipal structure of complexes thatr(gularly interfere with the achievement of a firm personal.,trrndpoint. When the dream-ego itself does the "killing." itrrrry show the degree to which the dreamer is actively in-volved in his or her own process.Sn:rkesSnakes appear in dreams in many forms that exemphfy thervide archetypal meanings that can be carried by a single typeof image. Snakes can of course be given a phallic meaning (oreven literally associated with the penis), but that is only a partoftheir symbolic potency. Jung considered that snakes couldt times represent the autonomic nervous system. an intcrest-ing notion in light of recent brain research that refers to thecore ol the human brain stem as the "reptilian brain" (rncontrast 10 the more elaborated mammalian brain and theuniquely human expansion of the cerebral cortex).Snakes often seem to represent simply instinctual energy,particularly when they are present in large numbers, as in thepreviously mentioned dream of snakes writhing about thesidewalks of a collegc but not actually on thc walkways, whichwere safe. The serpent can be associated with wisdom; withhealing (as on the staff of Asclepius, the physicians emblem);with poison and danger; with proving oneself (as in snake-handling cults); or even as a prefiguration ofa much highervalue as the brazen serpent lilled up in the wilderness in theOld Testament was seen as a prefiguration of Christ.These multiple possible meanings (and there are many oth-ers) show the richness and multifaceted nature of archetypalimages. In any particular case. it is important to discover amore discrete and personal meaning from the patients ownassociations; this avoids the archetypal reductionism of arbr-trarily reading in only one of the possible meanings (or read-ins in too manv).-A priest. lbi example, dreamed that he vlsited a museumand saw a stuffed snake in a simulated natural setting. Thcscene then changed and he was holding a large rattlesnakebehind the head so that it could not bite him. But it whirledand turned. frightcning him. and he let go of it. an act of
  • ,3 Comrnon Dreun ll o t iflspanic that increased the actual danger of the situation. Theseluo rlenes alread) uBgesl il conlliea wilh wharer er ir .ymbol-ized by the serpent. because they show the same content at asafe remove from the dream-ego (the stuffed snake in themuseum) and also at a closer and more lrightening rangc(when he is holding an actual live snake). His personil asso-cirtion was to having a puffing adder as a.peti when he waseighteen years old. T-his ied into a stream of issociations abourmasturbation, suggesting that the scrpent in this case would bemost appropriately taken in its phaltic meaning. but withstrong ambivalence about sexuality.. The s_ame patient had difficultj dealing with a hox of rub-ber s_nakes when working on a sandtray projection. He re-membered that he had had to refrain from masturbation fortwo months before he would allow himsell to tell anvone thathe wished to enter the priesthood, and lbstlined for an entircyear belbre a critical examination in the seminarv. He recalledthat his father spoke of abstinence tiom masturhation rs ..anangelic virtue." Once- he told his novitiate master, with fearand trembling, that he had masturbated in the shower (themaster simply said, "Forget it".y.8The Dream Frameln most dreams the frame of the dream does not come intoquestion. Usually the dream is obviously one type of experi-ence and waking life another. so that the dream is simplyremembered, analyzed and put intc the waking context as acompensation from the unconscious to the existing wakingattitude. A1 times, however, the dream itself raises the ques-tion of the correct framework for its understanding. This oc-curs in two major instances: l) the dream-within-a-dream, and2) when one dreams of things "exactly" as they appear inreality. The question is also raised by references in dreams totime and space, and by synchronistic phenomena.Dream-within-a-f)reamIn a dream-within-a-dream. since one dreams that one isdreaming, an "awakening" may occur within the dream. Themost complex instance I have seen was a dream in which thedream-ego "awoke" to a "waking state" to find itsclf (dream-ego number two) still in the dream, awoke from that intoanother "waking state" (dream-ego number three) and fiomthat into actual waking life.The dream-within-a-d ream shows changes in the tacit egostructure that are more complex than usual. Each "waking-eBo" that is within the sleeping and dreaming state shows. itseems, a possible integration that can be lived out by thcdreamer without coming fully to terms with the direct rela-tionship between the dream-ego and the waking-ego. It is likea mask over a mask, so that the first unveiling does not revealthe true ego. Classical Freudian thcory considered that dreamswere disguised, so that a dream of a dream might logically bethought to be an undisguised version of tiie hidden "latent"dream: such an interpretation would follow the rules of gram-matical structure, where a double negative statement becomesa positive assertion. There is no similar Jungian "formula" forhandline the dream-within-a-dream, but such shifts within adream ian be seen as movements of various ego-organiza-Here it can be seen that the snake dream broughtftrrefront conllicts that were to il large degree intcrna-ilyated. In analysis the dream was not interpreted at anyhul was used ls a springboard into t6e ,jiscussiunpersisting sexual confl icts.to thegener-Iength.of his89
  • )t ) lltL, l)rtutn Frunteliorrs. some of which claim fbr themselves the status of fullrvirking consciousness, although the complicated dream struc-tLrre rcveals them to be only partial integrations.To some degree, the dream-with in-a-dream is a more com-plicated form of the frequent shift from scene to scene withrna single dream. In the dream-within-a-dream it is as if theaction shifts from one entire "staee" to another. so that thefirst dream seems to have taken place upon il smaller stagethat is contained within the larger stage of the next dream_ inthe usual phenomenology of dreams, however, scene changestake place upon the same "stage."Interpretation of this complicated dream structure must becarefully undertaken and no set approach is always appropri-ate. Such dreams tend to exemplifv a truth that is seldomappreciated: the process of individuation in its fine structureresembles the creation of a "new world," not just a revision ofthe ego within the old existing world. It is not only the egothat changes-the entire structure of "world" alters, includingthe role of significant other persons. This is the reason whywhen one spouse undertakes analysis, the other is often frighi-ened that it will mean the end of the relationship- and it mayif there is movement in one person and not the other, or if theperson in analysis mistakenly identifies the old world with thespouse, a psychologically simpler (but usually less valuabrc1solution than the emergence of a larger world in which the oldworld is contained and relativized.Dreams of Reality-as-it-isThe dream lrame is also called into ouestion when oncdreams of reality "exactly as it is." ll rhe dieam is of rn actualtraumatic situation, of course, the exact duplication is likely robe for the purpose of eventual mastery of what overwhelmeclthe ego in the original traumatic event. The usual dreams ofreality-as-it-is, however, do not arise in connection with trau-matic events, and therefbre require some other rationale.Often the report of the dream is erroneous. and on carelulinquiry there are symbolic elements that are significantly dif-ferent from the reality of the dreamers waking life. The"dream" might also not be truly a dream, for there are levelsof consciousness during sleep where dreams more closely re-Iitrteand Spate Refarentes t)lsemble waking thoughts. Movement into this kind of "think-ing-dreaming" probably occurs with a shift from REM sleeptoward other stages. Some reports of mentation in meditativestates characterized by theta waves on the electroence-phalogram resemble such reveries; this may be an explanationfbr so-called lucid dreams, in which the dream-ego presumablyknows that it is dreaming and has some control over thecontent of the dream (a state that I have not, however, seenconvincingly demonstrated).A possible symbolic meaning of a dream that appears to bean exact reproduction of the waking situation is that the un-conscious intends the waking situation to be viewed as i/ itwere a dream. The waking situation might itself then be seenin a more symbolic perspective; in terms of compensation, itwould mean placing the real situation in a wider context thanits everydayness would usually evoke.Time and Space ReferencesIt is unusual for a dream to indicate directlv that action takesplace in the past or in the future. The dreim simply unfoldsas if in present time. From the contents of the dream, how-evcr, it is generally possible to place it within a particular timeframe. A setting or a person from the past included in thepresent action frequently shows the need to explore a particu-lar segment of the patients past experience. Conversely, im-ages of the future may be represented by images from anotherworld, another dimension or from an exotic place.The motif of culturally or technologically advanced personsfrom outer space may indicate the potential emergence ofcontents from the unconscious (inner space), and be symbolicof future developments of the dreamers own ego. (ln hisdoctoral dissertation, Jung noted that the various figures ap-pearing in the mediumistic state might be prefigurations ofpossible future developments in the personality of the me-dium.)7For examole. a man dreamed that what had seemed to be anatural phenomenon in the sky was actually a spaceship,which landed. The dream-ego was part of the greeting delega-tion from earth, walking with the men from space. Theywalked past a large computer and the dream-ego realized that
  • I lt, l)n 4 t l.rutna S ttlL ltro isIi( Phenonte a 9-lon a theoretical level. the occurrence of synchronistlc,lrcrms are evidence of a close connection between the uncon-,rious of one person and that of another. They may also berrkcn as evidence that the unconscious is less limited in timc,rnd space than the conscious mind. The very occurrence of arinchronistic dream constitutes some comoensation bv thetlleam fbr the limite<i state ot thc conscjous ego. sinie theLlrcam shows the dream-ego transcending to some degree theusual constraints of the waking-ego. This is a formal compen-srrtion, however, based upon the bare synchronicity; it doesnot show the meanins of the Darticular contents of the dreanr.Some rnalysands hilve frequent dreams that are truly syn-chronistic. In these cases there is a tendencv (bv analvsandiLnd perhaps aiso by the analyst) to focus too muih upon thesynchronicity itself, the formal compensatory aspect of thedrcam. But, if it is a precognitivc dream, for example. onenight ask why it is precognitive of one event and not another?lhe answer to such a question often makes it clear that thesvnchronistic comDensation deals with material that would notriecessarily be chbsen by the waking-ego if it were offeredknowledse of the future.Synchionistic dreams may occur when there is a need togenerate more interest in the analyst or the paticnt for theprocess of analysis. In this function, the synchronistic dream issimilar in effect to sexualization of the transference-counte r -transference. It both produces more energy in the analyhcsituation and calls attention to the mvsterious nature of tncinlerrction. uhich functions at a deprhand complerity that irrrre in non-anll; tic relati.rn.hip..Early in my psychiatric training, when psychotherapy wasto me still a new and exciting skill. there were a number ofsurprising synchronistic events that caught my attention andcaused me to more seriously consider the meaning of such psioccurrences. In one instance I was seeing a graduate studentin psychology for his third session of therapy. He brought"dream that was long and complicated, but ended with a po-liceman throwing away an empty cartridge clip and placing afully loaded magazine in his revolver to continue firing at aIhief. At precisely the point of this action my ballpoint pen ranout ol ink and I excused myself, took another ink cartridgefrom my desk, refilled the pen and sat down again to write,(,ur (1)nrputer was talking to their computer." The entire.,rt rrr. sccmed friendly and helplul. In eontext. this dreantrlrrtcJ rhar the psychologicrl reorgrnizaliun lrking pla(crlr(l nul eome from his ls.imilrtion of lhe plst bur from theinncr pressure of luture Dossibilities.At iinres. of course, the beings or things from .,outerspace.may appear maleficent or be more primitive within the con_text of the dream in which case analyst and analysand wouldbe.wise to be aware of the poten tial eruption oi archait rm_Dulses.Synchronistic PhenomenaSl,nchronicitl: was the term Jung used to describe the almosrsimultaneous occurrence in timiof two events. one inner andone outer, that seem to have the same meaning.rs He gave asone cx.ample a heetle flying into the room j-ust as f,e wasdrscussrng a patients reccnt dream of a scarab. Svnchronisticphenomena fall into the same crregory ot events studied byparapsychologists.under such names as telepathy. clairvoy-ance, psychokinesis. etc.. In her collection of spontaneously reported plrapsycholog_ical orpsl.events, I,ouise Rhine lbu;d rhar thc largcit;ategorywas associated with dreaming, such as dreams nif th. fuiur.(precognitive dreams) or dreams that contained informatronnot known to the waking-ego (clairvoyant or telepathicdreams).re This is certainly cJnsistent wirh the widespreadpopular belief that dreams ma1 ti.rretell the tuture or prveinfbrmation not known to the waking personality of-thedreamer. The best experimental cvidence ior p.v phenomenain dreams is contained in the llboratory stutlies ieported byUllman, Krippner and Vaughn in Draam Telepathv.liWhen synchronistic dreams or cvents occur in nsvchother_apy lhe) require speeirl awilrencs antj handling, be(1aure it iseasy for such events to evoke in the ptlicnrs mind the ideathat the therapirt 5r.rmehuw i. invohed in them (rhe shamrnir_ticshadow of the analyst). It is also importanr for the analysrto have some understanding of the posiible melninss of svn_chronistic phenomena. Although many therapists ani,.rnahlstssimply ignore such events as happenstance oi chance. they canby very helpful when dealt with ieriouslv.
  • ) | lltt l)Ru t lrunlerr()l I citlizing the similarity between my action and that in thetllcanr. But the patient noticed! His interest in the analyticalproccss markedly increased on the basis of this strange oicur-r(nc. dlthough il uas not followed by olher such erenls.ln another instance involving a graduate student early intherapy, the patient never knew ofihe synchronistic event. Ihad been trying to rememher somelhing m1 childhood denrisrhad told me. I could remember everyihing except the tradename of a product he had described. I could remember onlvthat the active organism was lactobacillus acidophilus. On theway to the patienrs early morning appointmint I was stillstruggling to recall the trade name. Barely ten sentences inrohis.free.associations. he began ln entirely new line of rhought,and suddenly mentioned the name I had been strivins f;Iaclinex granules. Although startled, I said nothing to the stu-dent because it did not seem to me to be helpful io him butiI had the effect of making me acutely aware of this patient lna way that I had not been-previously.. Synchronistic dreams may occur between drry two persons,havin_g much the same meaning as when they occur in analy-sis-that is, compensating a too-narrow view ofreality, lddingattention and energy to the situtrion, plus whatever specifiimeaning is carried by the structure and symbolism bf thedreams. Sometimes two persons who are iniimately involvedare in analysis with the same analyst, offering an unusualopportunity to observe parallel dreams, one oirhe forms rnwhrch synchronistic phenomena appear.In one such case, a man and a woman who had iust besunIiving together reported dreams lrom rhe same lieht iitlistrikingly similar motifs. The womln dreamed that-shewaswith her mother in a large old hotel lobby. The woman whoowned the hotel entered with two animais, a German shep-herd dog and an oddly colored bear. The bear was not threat-ening but the dream-ego was afraid. She was torn betweenmaking polite conversation with the manager and expressingher fear a not uncommon feeling in iealings *ith h.,motner.Her boyfriend, meanwhile, had a long and complicateddream which also took place. in part, in a lirge fancy liot.l. Inone scene, a man passed by on a motorcycle, with a bear onS:tl.htonisli( Phetutntetta 95the seat behind him. The dream-ego wanted to meet the bear,which later seemed to be molesting a dog, but turned out tobc ouite friendlv. He met the trainer of the bear but did nottrusi him. In oiher scenes. the dreamer was concerned withvarious family members, including his ex-wife. whom hefound it difficult to stand uD to in emotional situations.These two dreams are abbreviated and it is not the interr-tion here to discuss the rich psychological implications for thetwo dreamers, but merely to point out the synchronistic paral-lels: grand hotel, a relative to whom it is difficult to expressones true feelings. dog and bear. This same couple had twoother parallel dreams that were less striking because less sym-bolic. On one occasion, they both dreamed of a mutual friendon the same night; in the other, she dreamed that her ex-husband was in the room with them while he dreamed ofseeing the man walking near a synagogue.It is likely that some synchronistic dreams go unnoticedbecause they have normal explanations or appear as usualdreams. For example, a woman who felt herself to be particu-larly open to extrasensory perception was debating whether togo to work in spite of flu symptoms. She thought she wasawake when she suddenlv exoerienced in the room the forrnof a male friend who hid di;d of pulmonary problems. Hewas dressed as he had usually been in life. He told her shewas foolish to go to work with an illness that could kill her, aspneumonia had killed him. On the basis of this "vision" shedecided to stay in bed. Was this synchronistic or was it simplya dream or hypnogogic hallucination that dramatized one sideof her conflict? There is no way to know. She took it as avisitation from the dead friends spirit and acted on it as goodadvice from him. She once needed to talk with her brotherabout important family matters, but did not know where toreach him since he was on a secret govcrnment assignment.Within ten minutes, however, he called her.In summary, synchronistic dreams and events, if noticed atall, should be dealt with on the same basis as olher psychu-dynamic material, but with particular emphasis on why theunconscious used synchronicity to call attention to )hat. Oneshould not "chase" synchronicities or make too much of them,for that can distort the structure of the analysis.
  • 9Symbolism in AlchemyJung was greatly interested in the symbolic content of al-chemy. following a series of dreams that led him to investigatethe sixteenth-century culture of Europe. He found in alchemi-cal writings a prefiguration of modern depth psychology, al-though with little differentiation between the literal and thesymbolic. The alchemtsts were attempting the transformationof matter, but did not clearly distrnguish their objective workon matter from subjective work on themselves. They thereforetended to project their personal visions of transformation intothe mysterious chemical processes they saw taking place in thela0()ratorv.Some 6f the later alchemists, however, seemed to be awarethat their art was concerned primarily with personal transfor-mation, the search being not for metallic gold but for theinner "gold"; hence they used such terms as "our gold," "thewater of the wise," "the diamond body," "treasure hard toattain," etc., to distinguish the inner imlge from the rctualsubstance. Jung concluded that depth psychology had seemedto have no antecedent only because alchemy had been misun-dcrstood, discarded as simply a footnote in the history ofcnemlsrry.The processes of alchemy are several. although as describedin the literature they are by no means standard in number orin sequencc, and each has a "penumbra" of lesser images andoperations that, when seen in diagrammatic form, look like acomplicated road map with various cities surrounded bysmaller towns and villages.,rAmong the principle operations,generally speaking, are (in Anglicized fbrm) these seven: solu-tion. coagulation, sublirnation, calcination, putrefaction, mortl-fication and conjunction (coniunctio).To each of these chemical operations there are psychologi-cal parallels. Calcination. for example, is a chemical methodof heating a substance to drive off all moisture and perhapsproduce chemical change; psychologically it is related to thedrying out of unconscious. "water-logged" complexes. Puttingtll,lt, ttrttll"tt ". tlr substance into solution, chemically dtsstlr ttrl rl I trrl"F lo the psvehological process of allowing il (.rr"t lrrrr I"lrr trr Ibc ",li"solved" in the unconseious. Thc olr|osrlr 1r""ulation, is chemically like precipitation (l ir :rrlr"lrrrr lr"rrisolution and psychologically like the fbrmattott ol t ttr rr r"trtnlex of ideas from an unconscious matrix. A lrttrtott" tl lt trcal dictum. "dissolve and coagulate," suggests llr( r( 1" lrlrpschologiuJI process ol realizing that a hard "srtlrsl;tttr "1ini minJ f.,i inrtancc an aplrrenlly insoluble t"rrllr trcally capable of solution, only to be replaced b1 rttrollrt r"sub.stanie" that in its turn requires dissolutton.Alchemical Motifs in DreamsThere are dream images and motifs that fall clearly into thcranee of alchemical symbolism, and it is possible to see al-cheiiical operations bihind many others. Dreams where ob-iects of grcat intrinsic or potential value are treated in a casualwav. forinstlnce, suggest the alchemical image of the primamiteri,t that bese .rnd ..rpparently worthless substancc fromwhich. through the alchcmical operation_s. one can producewhat is of highest value, called variously the philosophersstone. clixir of the wise. aqua vitae, the panacea etc Dreamimages of minted gold coins found mixed in among the peb-bles-of a stream, tir strewn unnoticed in the dust of a super-market prrking lut rre e{ample ol prima mdrcnLt imrlcry The process"of calcinatitt can be shown by figures existingunharmed in a firel the figures may be human or animal. tnrare instances with the appearance of the fire-dwelling sala-mander (another alchemical image of lhe prina malerio)When figr:res accept their presence in a fire (in one dreamDlaying ;ards amidthe flames) it suggests that transformationtv fire"(emotional heat) is neccssary however inappropriate it-"v a.atr.r from the view of the dream-ego or howevet parn-fulit is to the waking-cgo. Consider one mans dream:A larse lioe was in the fife. It resemblcd Yoda in thc Slar,/arr inoviel I was arnazcd that it rcmaincd alive so long in thcfil.c. It looked at mc. Finally it sllrunk and $as black ln thenext scenc (naybe a sccond dream of thc samc night) it is. as ifI anr looking ihrough the eycs of rn aborigine *ho holds a96
  • 98 S.wnbolisrn iu tl/Lltcnt.tsteel grill over an opcn fire. On the grill are a Ininiature tigerand a kangllroo that are fighting each othc. and also trying toget off the grill. The aborigine llicks then bxck on the grillFinallv. like the frog. thc) are shrunken and charred.The dreamers associations were few: he considered the kzrn-garoo maternal and shy and was surprised that it was notafraid of the tiger. The dream shows the frog-like creatureacquiescing in a calcinatio experience, leading to two warringopposites that must be held in that tension by a primitive egostructure (the aborigine). The transformation of the tiger andthe kangaroo into "higher" substances is not shown in thisdream, but in a later dream of the same man a more humanpreparation for change was indicated. involving the imageryof nnrt if c a t i o (dy ing) :I uas looking over a possiblc construction sjtc. There wcrebulldozcrs clearing it. One large building seemed to bc de-scrted and would bc torn down. I went into thc building. Ir didseenl descrtcd. but wheD I got to tlle very back of tlte stluctLlrcI firund an old pricst who was taking care of a number ofterninal paticnts, all of *horn would die. Hc was naking surcthat they dicd in a dignified way. I was going to see thar thebuilding was left unclisturbcd until they wcre all gone. Thcn Iwas in a helicopter flying over thc sitc looking at plans fbr thenew construction. I could scc the ertire area llom the air.On the basis of this dream he took a brief leave of absencelrom analysis, which seemed a rcsponsible dccision.Colfee turning into golden liquid as ir circulates through apercolator suggests the alchemical motif of circulatirr, a conttn-ual recycling of the prima materid. Alchemical operations pic-tured in dreams often take place in a kitchen, a setting simiiarto the alchemical laboratory.Coniunctio: Images of UnionAlchemical imagery shows various operations that lead up tothe nniunctio, the union of the oppositesi hence coniun(tioimagery in dreams seems clinically to be more closely relatedto the final goal of alchemical processes than are the otheroperatrons.ln the alchemical illustrations to "The Psychology of ttrelransference," Jung chose images that elttpltrtstr, llt, lrrrrrr.rlike quality of Ihe coniun.tio. a king and it (lLr(crr ,rr( lrl, rrlljoined into one person following sexual uniott. lrttl llr,rl l, rrrcntity is dead and must be resurrected by thc r(lrrrrr,l ll|,soul. Sexual images in dreams frequently fit into tlrts rtl, lr, rrcal operation of coniunctio, particularly when thcy irr( rrr(r ,tuous or with an unknown dream figure. There can. ttl eotttrcbe frankly sexual dreams that are simply compensat()r) l,)sexual frustration in waking life; the context will tell.A more subtle form of the coniunctio imagery is the wcttding motif. The dream-ego may be simply an observer at thcwedding, not a principal, showing that the opposites to bcunited are outside the dream-ego (though perhaps within thestructure of the waking-ego). Indeed, in most instances lt lsnot the dream-ego that undergoes what has been compared tothe alchemical processes: rather it is the prima materia, Iheunvalued substance of ordinary psychic life, or the everyday-ness of actual outer life. that is transformed. In one case. thedream-ego of a woman was simply assisting a bride to dressfor her wedding. The only unusual image was the crown ofthe bride, which was cubical in form. open in front and backand covered with satin. In another instance, the dream-egosimply drove two women to a wedding at which they were tobe guests, while a major transformation occurred in imagerythat had frightened the dream-ego earlier in the drcam.The sexual mating of animals in dreams sometimes pro-duces not offspring but changes in the mating figures them-selves not a "natural" image, but one that Points to thetransformation within the dreamer of an instinctual conflict.Observing the appearance of coniunctio imagery in a dreamseries can give clues as to when the reconciliation of a particu-lar pair of warring opposites may be expected. Sometimes thtsis reflected in the easing of a conscious conflict; at other timesthe result on the level of conscious life may be no more than alessening of depression or anxiety. Much of the work of analy-sis, indeed. seems to be to maintain a steady and reliablecontaining structure in which preparations lor the coniuncliocan safely take place.Dreams that do not correspond naturallv with thc imageryof alchemy should not be forced to fi1, nor should motifs that
  • )lt)t) t. tl).)li,1 in Alchemyiuc. nol c_learly evident be overinterpreted. (The danger ol,irfehetypal reductionism lurks constantly in the Junsiai con_sulting room.) There are always more dreams thai are re-membered or^broughtfor analysis, and these too can be qui-etly working for change. We must never forget that analistsare lor the most parr midwives and facilitatori_ the onlookersat a mysterious process, not the originators of the process.t0Dreams and Individuationlhe Nature of Neurosisfhe most commonsense description of neurosis is this: thepsyche working against itself, like a country in civil war,rather than as a unified whole. To some extent we are allneurotic. in the sense that we seldom are "at one" with our-selves. The mere existence of parts of the psyche, such as egoand shadow, implies that they will not necessarily work inunison. But excessive incongruence or conflict between thedominant ego-image and other active parts of the psyche ischaracteristic of chronic neurosis. one of the most difhcult ofhuman conditions to alter.Dreams are compensatory in all states of psychologicalfunctioning in ordinary life (where they compensate the indi-viduation process), in psychosis (where they attempt to pro-duce a stable ego), and in neurosis, where they are active inbringing the ego out of a neurotic byway or impasse and intothe mainstream of individuation. Individuation takes place inany state of the psyche, whether a person is conscious orunconscious, but it is most facilitated when the ego con-sciously and intentionally observes the movements of the psy-che, takes an attitude toward them and responsibly partrcr-pates in the evolution oi the psyche as a whole.No true life task can be avoided, it can only be approachedin an oblique or substitute way. The symptoms of neurosis areoften substitutes for the more direct life experience that rsshunned out of fear. A lack of normal assertiveness may resultin neurotic symptoms of chronic anxiety, so that situationsnormally not fearful come to evoke fear-as if the psycheproduces a superabundance of situations in which the neededdevelopment might take place. A person seeking to motivatehimself by self-suggestion rather than characterological growthmay find the suggestions failing and depression arising. Ifintroversion is needed yet avoided, psychosomatic symptomsmav force a oeriod of introversion. These movements of thepsyche ore subtle but they are not weak.Neurotics are characterized bv an adaptation to the worldI0l
  • lt) l)rtdtns attd I ttdividuLtt iottthirt irppears quite normal when viewed from outside. TheytrsLrally accomplish the basic life tasks well enough, but at theexpcnse of excessive internal stress. In one sensel it requires anrore developed psychic structure to become neurotiC ratherthan simply suffer conflict with others in the environment.The neurotic is able to internalize conflict, setting up complexrntrapsychic structures that insullte the ego frod the originalconflict but produce substitute conflicts which appear- lessmea n ingfu I until observcd analytically.The neurotic ego is already by and large stable and wellenough formed, although identified with ego-images thatshield it from direct involvement in further individuation. Thisis sometimes in the service of maintaining a stage of the pastthat was particularly enjoyable, so that the ego is partiallyfixated through a clinging to rhe pleasures of ihe past state.Fixation may also occur because of a severe trauma in thepast, the ego trying either to reproduce the traumatic situationso that it can be solved or to compensate in the present for thetrauma of the past: in either case the present is sacrificed to adynamic relationship to the past. ll these choices were clearlyconscious there would be no problem. The individual couldsimply recognize the mistake and abandon the neurotic taskor accept a particular form of the task and devote oneself topotential solutions. Since the choices are unconscious, how-ever, what the ego experiences is a curious and perverse repe-tition of events: at a deeper level. the choice is made by iheego itseli but dissociated from the current dominant ego-lmage.Throughout life the Self exerts a continuous pressure on theego both to face reality and to perticipate in the process ofindividuation. It does this with or without the egos willingconsent, but the compensations against a reluctant ego (night-mares, accidents, physical symptoms. etc.) are usually moresevere than the complementary relationship of the uncon-scrous to an. ego that is doing its best to participate consciouslyin the individuation process.How can dreams helo?An understanding ol dreams reveals recurrent patterns tothe ego, patterns in which it is often possible to discoverrepetitive mistakes presented in diflereni ways. When theseThe Nature of Neurosis IA-lconflicts are clearly seen there is a possibility for more directaction in a responsible direction. Dreams are in the service ofthe psyche as a whole and are only secondarily opposed toany particular attitude or standpoint of the ego. By seeingwhat the dreams are already trying to accomplish, the waking-ego is able to assess its own position and participate, if it willsto, in the deeper processes. It is nol that the waking-ego cansimply turn the course of its life over to dreams as if to guides(a common misunderstanding). It is absolutely necessary forthe waking-ego to know its own position in order for thedreams to have a clear compensatory role, their natural func-tion in the healthy psyche.Dreams that show the ego forced to deal with threateningsituations are particularly indicative of neurotically delayeddevelopment. Dreams of threatening figures that become lessso as they approach the dream-ego, for instance. point up theexcessive Iear of facing unintegrated contents of the psyche. Itis in this stage of ego growth that archetypal imagery of theheroic struggle or quest is particularly applicable, for the im-mature ego rarely achieves a mature state without facing fear-ful and potentially threatening situations. There are manyparallels in mythology and folklore for these developments.Fairytales in particular seem to be a rich depository of modesof ego development and may be used to advantage in ampli-fying dreams that deal with this struggle. Fairytales also pointto the multiplicity of forms of ego development in both menand wornen. There is usually a fearful and regressive force tobe overcome (such as a dragon) or a hostile or indolent paren-tal image (the old king or the jealous stepmother queen, etc).In addition there are helpers, often talking animals that knowmore of the natural wisdom of life than the ego possesses. Thedream motif of a helpful animal capable of speech may indi-cate that the unconscious is ready to help the ego in its task;such dreams seern particularly good prognostic signs.The very multiplicity of fairytale motifs reminds us thatthere are many different ways for the immature ego to de-velop. Not all are heroic struggles; occasionally there is afairytale that shows the ego unable to accomplish anything onits own, so that it must wait for rescue from outside. Clinicallythis would involve a much more active and supporting role for
  • -101 Dreans urkl I nlitidudt iotlthe anrlyst or the therapy group; more containing and nurtur-Ine would be necessary before the ego of the analysand couldbe expected to make the first independent movements on itsown beh aif.In one case, a woman who had lived her life contained rntraditional feminine roles had a brief, unhappy and inappro-priate relationship with a man much younger than herielf,leadrng to depression and then to psychoiherapy. As shebegan to improve she dreamed of a strange flowii that wasalso an animal; and it was somehow both iale and female atone time. This motil indicated the unification of oDDosires(plant/animal, male/female) suggesrive of the Seli Shepainted the dream, and from that point onward began thedevelopment of a more independent personality.In another instance, a woman beginning to assert herselfdreamed that she was in a large room in the presence ofanother woman with a similar problem. A man who hadcarried in projected form much of her larent potential was.itting at a desk. working His wilc rpproached in an angryJerlous rlge and verbally criticized the dream-ego in a sca-thing manner. The dream-ego saw a "red king" tr:r the left ofthe scene of confrontation and threw over the king a cloakembroidered with four rabbits. She herself was somihow thecloak. The dream suggests that her own independence (theking) is still hidden with a cloak of rabbit quaiities perhapsthe old. not quite discarded rabbit-like timidiiy.In a third case, a man dreams that his guird dog. actuarrydeceased, is alive and speaks to him, asking to be iaken intothe. house rather than heing left in the yard. This dreamlndlcates an appropriarely aggressive guarding function wish-ing to be more integrated. The speaking animal shows thatcontent to be near the point ol ego integration; the qualities ofthe dog had prcviously appeared only in regressivi and de-slructle Iorm. erupling at uncrpeeted times.The Relativization of the EgoThe movement out of neurosis also involves the relativizationof a strong ego. The developed ego is asked to confront againthe unconscious matrix from which it has freed itself in thcfirst stages of the individuation process. Teleologically speak-Thc Indiliduuting Ego 105ing, it is as if the purpose of the overall process of individua-tion were for the unconscious to become known and recog-lized as the source. The ego, after all, is a specialized ouGgrowth of the unconscious, its position as the center of thelc,nscious field being analogous io its archetypal template, theSelf, as the center of the psyche as a whole. Dream imagerypointing to the need for this realization is less likely to pictureheroic tasks of confrontation, but may show the nature ofreality in a surprising manner including symbols of the Selfthat do not seem to be compensating a weak ego structure butexrst in their own right, without a strong dynamic relationshipto the current neurotic conflicts. Amplifications at this stagemay more appropriately be found in religious traditions thanin iairytales, although all "rules" must be held lightly in thisregard for there is no clear division between stages of indivt-duation: moreover, when we speak of a pattern we speak ol agenerality, while the process in any actual person is alwaysunique and more problematic.A p...on dreams of a mandala-like city, for example, whichit is possible to enter or not as the ego chooses. A variant ofthat theme is a building of immense size, often symmetrical rnshape. There may be insights into the living nature of theworld, as in a dream of seeing a large matrix of one animalwith many heads that lives simply on air; its size is awesomebut its nature is gentle and non-threateninB.The relativization of the ego may also involve impressivedreams in which no ego action is necessary, in contrast to theheroic activity often required of the dream-ego in earlierstages of differentiation. lnitiation images may appear, indi-cating that the ego is to enter another stage of activity. Dreammotifs of "letting go," referring to problems that have notbeen solved. Darticularlv tend to occur when the time avail-able for individuation is being cut short. as in terminal illness.The lndividuating EgoJungian psychology appreciates with unusual clarity the rela-tive nature of the ego.22 In most psychotherapeutic systems.the development of a strong and independent ego is the ma1oremphasis. although tempered with the need to achieve close.
  • !06 Dreuus and Indiyiduut ionloving relationships. Jungian psychology also values theseaims. but the vision of individuation as a basic life processprevents.their becom-ing overemphrsized. Any state of ego-identity is seen as relative to the persons own individuationprocess, no matter how successful one may be in terms ofadaptation to rhe environmenl or to others.The natural inclination of the ego is to see itself as thecenter of the psyche, although ir ii only the cenrer of thevirtual conscious world, in itself always a Darticular construc-tion from lhe man) archetypal possibiiiries. t he ego is like theheredltary monarch of a country who is the only availableruler, but who cannot control everything that happens withrnhis domain nor be completely conscious of all thai-happens ormlgnr nappen.The goal of Jungian analysis is not simply the therapeuticconstruction of an adequately functioning ego althoughlnany analysands choose to stop then, for a1 that point onefeels major relief from the neurotic unhappiness fhat leadsmost persons into therapy or analysis. But if work with theunconscious is carried beyond the alleviation of neurotic sut-fering, it leads imperceptibly into the consideration of phiio-sophical, religious and ethical issues on a level very difierentfrom their conrideration on a simply collecrive consiiou. basis.Questions that for a merely strong ego would be a simplematter of decision ma1 become for the individuating ego seri-ous ethical concerns, for nothing is outside the Iroi.ess ofindividuation and there is no clear, ready-made framework fordecisions. In making choices one is always also choosing oneself from among thJseveral "selves" that;ight be actuailzed.Whether to take one job or anolher. for e-xample, might bea matler of conscious preference. But the individuatineiso ismaking a more momentous decision. Dreams may shJw"this.as in lhe dream of a man who considered a iob-thar uouldtake him awa; from dealing with people end ullow him tomaintain his neurolic isolation. After deciding in favor of suchan "evasive" job, he dreamed that he was attracted to awoman he knew to be dead and was prevented from followingher onto a ship (ship of death?) only by rhe action of anotherfrgure outside the dream-ego. Similarly, recurrent drearns ofpersistent knocking at the door may symbolize contents thatTlte Drean Ego and tlrc Waking-ligt ltt/have been left out of the dreamers life and are insistins onbeing heard, although one does not know at that point;hatthey actually are.The relative nature of the ego can be seen over time but itcan also be appreciated in thi fine structure of the relation-ship of the driim-ego to the waking-ego. The archetypal coreof the ego, the Self, has a centering quality, although it alsobreaks up incomplete formations in order to bring them into amore inclusive structure. This archetypal background under-lies the sense of "I" the ego has as the center of subjectivity.Other complexes act as partial personalities, and even havewills of their own independent of the ego, as can be seen inmany situations. But until a content experiences a connectionwith the ego it does not participate in the sense of "1." This ismost evident in the relations of the ego with the identitystructures of persona and shadow. Until it is integrated intothe ego, the persona feels like a role that one can play or notplay. But new ego contents may enter via the route of apersona role, later becoming part of the ego structure itself.Similarly, the shadow classically appears in non-ego projectiononto someone in the environment; later it must be painfullyreabsorbed and experienced as a potential part of "I."Dreams offer the most microscoDic field to observe the frncstructure of the ego complex. In the day-to-day compensationsof dreams one sees the same interaction of eso and the Self(as dream maker) that can be seen in macroscopic vision overthe decades and stages of life. In addition to its clinical useful-ness, such observation of the relativity of the ego in dreamsand waking life can lead to an appreciation of the care andrectitude with which dreams compensate the waking-ego. It lsmuch like having a wise but impartial friend, who knowsthings about oneself that one may suspect but does not yetknow in full consciousness.The Dream-Ego and the Waking-EgoThe structural relationship between the dream-ego and thewaking-ego can be pictured as similar to that which prevailswithin a government. The ego is the only possible ruler butcan be swayed by the acts of otber forces that are necessary to
  • 108 Dreams ald Indifi.ludtionthe government as a whole. The waking-ego is the responsiblerepresentative for all that is done in the name of the individ-ual psyche, and is even held legally accountable in society.But in the dream state the waking-ego is not present in itscomplexity and multileveled reality. Instead, the dream-egofinds itself with the same responsibilities as the waking-egobut in a dream world that is not of its choosing. In the dreamworld (as in the waking world) persons and iituations ansethat are not to the liking of the ego; the tasks of the dream arenot chosen but are glven, just as the everyday world has anobjective reality outside rhe ego.The situation of the dream-ego may be taken as analogousto a committee structure in the government of the waking-e go.The waking-ego is the president or king, while the dream-egois chairperson of a part of the structure that participates in thewaking-egos world. The "committee," however is not illusory,not Just a dream." It is a part, albeit only a part, of the entlrewaking-ego structure, hence the actions (or lack of them) ofthe dream-ego can affect the world of the waking-ego. Actionsthat result in structural changes in the world of the dream-egomay be inherited in several ways by the waking-ego in rrsworld. The most usual way of experiencing such changes arealterations in the emotional states of the waking-ego: a lighrening of depression, a decrease or increase in anxiely. a senseof "the right decision" in a problematic situation, etc.This dialogue between the waking-ego and the dream, me-diated by the dream-ego, is part of the larger dialogue be-tween the ego and the Self. The Self is not often imaged in *dream, at least not recognizably. It is more olten evident asthe unseen constructor of the dream. that force in the nsvchewhich not only arranges the scenes and the action but"alsoassigns the dream-ego to a particular role. This does notmean, however, that the dream is entirely formed before it isexperienced by the dreamer, for the actions of the dream-egoseem to be crucial in what follows after such action. (Even inthe repetitive dreams characteristic of traumatic neurosis, it ispotentially more therapeutic to see the dream-ego as trying.however unsuccessfully, to initiate a change.)The individuating ego inevitably realizes that neither thedream-ego nor the waking-ego is the ego. The ego centrum.the sense of "I," is merely the current. subjective point ofLotal and Tucit Kttoning 109reference lbr the process of individuation, which relativizesthe waking-ego over time in a manner similar to the smallerrelativizations that occur nightly in the experience of thedream-ego.These insights have practical implications in dream inter-pretation. The relativity of the ego argues against taking anyego-state as fixed, so that it is not appropriate to speak otnght choices or wrong choices by the waking-ego. Exceptwithin very broad legal and ethical boundaries, the waking-egos choices simply influence its own constellation of its ownworld, which is not "right or wrong" but "preferred or notpreferred." or "authentic or inauthentic." The relativity of tneego in relation to the other structures of the psyche, such asshadow and persona. also lends an appreciation of how thewaking-ego can be influenced through the action of parts ofthe psyche of which it is unaware. For instance, the ego mayquite unnecessarily hide its reality behind a transient use ofthe persona not a pathological identification with the per-sona. but an autonomous manifestation of irs willl and uncon-scious aspects of the shadow can lead the waking-ego to ac-tions and attitudes that the ego itself would deem unworthy ifthey were clearly presented for judgment.Working with dreams as a part of the analytical situationgives the waking-ego a sense of its own relativity in relation tothe dream-ego. Dreams of shadow experiences (of a positiveor negative nature), as well as dramatic presentations of waysin which the waking-ego functions, can lead to a very valuableawareness by the waking-ego of its own vulnerability. Armedwith this awareness, the waking-ego is more easily able torecognize inflation, avoid identihcation with other parts of thepsyche, and minimize the consequences of projection throughmemories of how strong emotional reactions to others in thepast eventually "came home to roost" as aspects of ones ownshadow or anima/animus.Focal and Tacit KnowingAlthough good clinical work can be done with a minimum oftheoretical understanding, it is useful to have at least a skele-tal theoretical structure in order to orient oneself in the shiffing directions of the clinical situation. One way to conceptual-
  • ll0 Draants und Inditiduutionize the relativity of the ego is in terms of .focat and lacitknowing, terms derived from the epistemological work of Mi-chael Polanvi.,r....Pol"nl] speaks of thc structure of a/1 knowledge as having a"fiom-to" nature. We rely upon knowing some c-ontents tacitlyin order to know other.bnients in a more focal manner. Th-emicroscope, for instance, is a tacit structure (as is the eve) forfocal knowledge of microorganisms or other objects. Pdlanyisconclusions emphasize that there is an irreducible element ofpersonal commitment and risk in trying to be objective aboutanything at all. We make factual statements wlth universalintent, confident that any unbiased observer will corne to thesame conclusion, but we know that we cannot heln our oer-sonal involvement, which determines to some degree not onlywlrat we see but what we choose to be worthv of observatiolin the first place.The compartments of focal and tacit knowledge are theuniversal structure of knowing. Pohnyi asscrts, buitheir con-tents may shift. What is tacii at one point may be focal atanother. The tacit compartment of knowledge is similar to theunconscious but not exactly equivalent, for one can con-scrousl) choose to u5e omething in r tlcit manner. as whenspeech is considered tacit in relation to the meanins to whisnit-points.. Similarly, focal knowlcdge is unalogous to the fieldof consciousness; it may be preconscious but in general iseasily brought into the light of conscious awareness.Applying these concepts to the dream-ego and the wakirrg-ego, one could say that the waking-cgo relies in a tacit mannerupon contents of the psyche that would appear to the dream_ego as focal. A complex that lcts as pari bf the backgroundawarenes of the waking-ego trherefoie a5 a parr of rh]e racirstructure of the waking-ego) crn be personified by a dreamfigure in relation to the dream-ego. The action of ihe dream_ego with that figure would the; potenrially rlter the tilcrrslructure upon which the waking-eg6 wilJ- rely, alter thedream, for its own sense of tacit awareness of thi world. Theactivi.t) uf_the dream-ego is thus conceptualized as an exten_sron rnto the dream world of the same process of individua-tion that is the deeper task ot the waking-ego. The drelm rsseen as a symbolic structure that presents the dream-ego withFotLtl ttt,l Ittt |t,t""," tttchosen aspects of the structure of the waking epo l lrr rr I rlt"rrof the draam-ego and the waking-ego is thcrt scctt r" r lrtrloundly helpful interplay between the focal antl trtt tl t .ttr1 rtlments of eso-identitv.The anJyst is in a unique position not only to obscrrt. ttfbcal/tacit ihanges between the dream-ego and the w;tkttr,eso. but also to facilitate the analysands awareness ol llrrrpiocess. lndeed, when one is sufficiently aware of thcsc tcl:riionship.. and has some skill in dealing with dreams tlrtnecessiiv of tbrmal unalytieal sessions begins to diminish Althoueh ibrmal anulysis jlways ends at some point in time, thenrocFss of analvticit awarencss continues throughout life Atii-", u ..tu.piion of formal analysis is indicated or desiredbut the developed or different iated ego. lware of its relativity,can make good use of many dreams withour hrving to dlscussthem in an analytical relationship.
  • llThe Two Tensions of Dream InterpretationThc Personal und the Archet.ypal I l3Waking and dreaming experiences are not in primal opposi-tion. There is no mysterious dream world that is in starkcontrast to an entirely objective "dayworld." Both wzking con-scious experience and experiences in dreams are equally mys-terious components of a potential unity-the process of indivi-duation. Dreams pass quickly away, but also (although moreslowly) do the "firm" realities of waking life. Amid the flux ofchange there can appear the very mysterious process that Jungcalled individuation, involving the actualization of onesunique potentials to whatever extent and in whatever manneris oermitted bv the vicissitudes of life.in waking,"objective" existence the movement of indivr-duation is not always in terms of what is "logical" to do, justas in fairytales it is often not the older, more mature princewho rescues the endangered princess it may be his younger,stumbling, bumbling brother who uses unorthodox methodssuch as helpful animals. In any series of dreams the move-ment may be rzlo objective life situations or awaT from them.There is no set rule. In the service of individuation. dreamsmay impel the ego toward establishing itself in ordinary cul-tural identities. At other times, the dreams may pull the egostraight out of its successful waking adaptation and face itwith more subtle meanings and tasks.The final resolution of the tension between the objectiveand the subjective is a sense of what Jung described as thecircumambulation of a mysterious center of the psyche, whichcan be felt but never defined in the nets of consciousness. Inthis mysterious process, psychologically analogous to the al-chemical quest, the ego is relativized but not soft, events arereal but not overwhelming, images in dreams are guides butnot masters. The process of individuation is what is finallyserved and facilitated by dreams, although dreams can beused along the way in the ordinary psychotherapeutic tasks ofproblem solving and personality development.The Personal and the ArchetypalAnother way of stating lhe tension involved in psychologicalindividuation is in terms of the opposition of personal andarchetypal. When a person is too deeply embedded in theTwo tensions are continually present in the successful use ofdream interpretation. The first is the tension between objec-tive and subjective interpretations of dream motifs. The sec-ond is characteristic not only of dream interpretation but ofthe entire analytic process; it is the tension between the per-sonal und archetypal meanings.Objective and SubiectiveIn suggesting that the images and motifs in a dream could beconsidered either objectively (referring to persons or events lnwaking life) or subjectively (as an aspect of the dreamers ownpsyche) Jung expressed in practical clinical form a tension thathas been inherent in the study of dreams since antiquity.Freud reduced this tension by postulating that dreams weresimply lbrmer waking thouglits-and wishls that were unac-ceptable to the ego; if the "latent" dream behind the experi-enced "manifest" dream were brought into full eonsciousnessit would_ only be a former wakin! thoughr that had beenreDresseo.The tension between the obiective and the subiective mean-ing of dreams can also be reduced. perheps t-oo easily. byconsidering that dreams always refer to subjective representa-tion in the mind of the dreamer. Some of these subjectivemeanings are object representations, in the mind, of real ex-ternal persons and situations. In this view dreams are seen aschanging only the internal representation of things, which ofcourse affects the external experience, because the waking-egorelies upon such object representations in a tacit rnanner forits own sense of orientation in wakins realitv.The tension between the objectiviand the subiective. how-ever, is more profound. Theri is little danger in a non-psy-chotic state of seeing some dreams in terms of outer realityalone, and the limitation to only subjective meanings wouldrob us of a tension that is psychologically fruitful.lt2
  • I l4 The fwo T ensions of Dreum Interyreta/ioncollective. outer reality of everyday life, the discovery in his orlrer own dreams of unir ersal. archetypal imagesfrom rheobjeclive deprhs of rhe_ psyche can bea freeirig experience.tsut tl one is ordinarily prey to a rampant, ichizbphrenrccontusion ofarchetypal images, the achievement of a stableego_standpolnt ls equally experienced as liberation.._ tsoth the neurotic caught in excessive concretization of fam-rly or social "realities" and the schizophrenic drownine in a5ea.of. rrcherypal meanings find a sense of haven in"whatmlg,h t be called the personal sphere of life. personal history rsone s own. deeper sense ol meaning and continuitv. not simplythe pseudopersonal history ol- dires and outer events, lheusual clothesline of life on which various roles are huns as oldq1l,r.n, Erre.rnal.life .mai go rhrouBh profound ihangeswrthout any atlerarion in rhe subjective perception of themeaning of life. Bur every therapisr knows of the opDosite:ll:Illi9i in which ourer Iife goes atong smoorh and urr.i,ung_rng whrle the lnner subjective state is transformed into what lsessentially.an entirely new and fresh world of meaning.,The waking-ego. exists_between two equally dangJrous ar_chetypal conslellations. We are accustomed in Jurigian psy_chology to think of the archetypal realm of the "colledtrveunconscious, the objective psycir6, as a countemoint to thenBrd constructions of the waking-ego. We are lesj accustomedto think of the archetypal origins-of the world of collectrveconsoousness. Yet both these worlds that surround the ego onits inner and outer fronriers are archelrnal.The world of collective consciousness (history as we read rr.1is shaped by certain individuals expressing archetypal contentsthal arise from_ rhe objecrive pryche. Man"y do thiJ and l-ail tonave a cultural. lmpact, but others strike a particularly readyresponse in their culture or society and alte; it to a gr6ater orlesser extent. Archetypal forms that are enshrined ii culturallnstrtutions become the tacit furniture of the collective corl-scious mind. But the moment an archetypal form is embeddedin a cultural institution, the institution-iiin opposition to tnevery archetype that gave it birth, for no oneparticular formcan carry the full range of meaning of an archetypal possibil-rty.What is true on a societal level is also true of the individualThe Personal and the Archetl:pal I l5psyche. No real personal mother can embody all the range ofpossibilities inherent in the archetypal Great Mother, so thatthe mother imago in the mind is both a carrier and a restric-tion of the mother archetype. The same is true of all arche-typal forms, including Jungs visionary image of God defecat-ing on Basel Cathedral.2aThe individual ego can lose its way in either the archetypalimages of the collective unconscious particularly when theyare used as an escape from tasks in outer life-or in thearchetvoal forms embedded in the institutions of collectiveconscibusness and culture. The problem is to find a Dersonalstandpoint that can relativize ihese archetypal realms notplacing them in opposition, not identifying one as true and theother false, and without losing the personal sphere, the onlyspace in which the deep transforming processes can occur.Nothing of psychological importance occurs outside the per-sonal sphere. There may be great sound and fury, and enor-mous sweeps trf historical change, but the individual psyche isthe only carrier (and ultimately the transmitter) for the arche-typal forms that are attempting to reach a stable organrcequilibrium. Hence maintenance of the personal sphere is ofthe utmost importance, both in analysis and in everyday lifeDisruption of the personal sphere occurs in analysis whenthe archetypal realm is overemphasized, often signalled by anarchetypally distorted transference the analyst being seen astoo god-like or too devil-like. In either case, there ceases to bea human interaction. Or the analvsand mav devalue the ana-lytical process itself and seek refuge in a culturally embeddedarchetypal form, such as a political party or an organizedreligion. Such developments are tragic, for the transformativefield of the analytic interaction is a rare and valuable place;for some it is the only hope of ever finding a truly personalsphere, and the only opportunity for conscious, non-neuroticparticipation in their own process of individuation.When used with care and clinical skill, dreams are the mostappropriate and reliable guide to maintaining the personalsphere and avoiding the two forms of archetypal reductionism.
  • A Brief Summing-UpDreams are a natural part of the life of the psyche. They servethe individuation process through compensating distortedmodels of reality held by the waking-ego.The dream must be recorded as nearlv as nossible as itactually occurred. Interpolations from thewaking-ego shouldbe resisted. Even dreams that approximate waking realityoften have a symbolic nuance.tn amplifying dream motifs, personal associations shouldusually take precedence over cultural or archetypal amplifica-tions. although some dreams can be understood only in thelight of transpersonal material. The amplihed dream must befirmll plaeed in rhe cuntexr of the dreamers lifc.Dreams can be a valuable aid in such clinical concerns asdifferential diagnosis, assessment of prognosis, and in makilgdecisions about additional supports such as medication, fre-quency of analytic hours and hospitalization. Drearns are alsoguides. to. when to emphasize reductive or prospective modesoI analysrs.A series of dreams offers corrections to mistaken interDrera-tions of a particular dream. Exact motils seldom recur, moreliequently there seem to be related images that cluster aboutthe same complexes. Following images and motifs in a seriesof dreams can give the analyst and analysand a special under-standing of the underlying individuation process that dreamsare trying to further.Dreams are particularly useful in the treatment olneurosrs.Neurotic conflicts are often symDtomatic of the avoidance ofappropriate life tasks. In neuiosis the dreams are already at-temptlng to overcome the neurotic split, encouraging the egoto deal with actual life processes rather than neurotic substi-tutes. In the treatment oi neurosis the eso is brousht back tof ace the basic movement of individuatiori whrch in"volves boththe development of a strong ego and the realization by theego of its partial nature in comparison to the more completewholeness reDresented bv the Self.Dreams must not be overused or allowed to seduce thcanalytical process away from other material that obviouslyA Brial Sumning-Iip ltneeds attention. When there are no dreams. analvsis can nIo-ceed with whatever is at hand the transfere nce-io u n te.t r",-,,,-ference, review of the past, the events of daily life, occurrencesin group therapy, sandtray projections, etc. Dreams serve theprocess, but are not themselves the process of individuation.Responsible dream analysis preserves the tension betweenobjective and subjective meanings as well as the broader ten-sions between the personal sphere and the archetypal forcesthat surround it.A dream is a piece of reality whose origin is personal butobscure, whose meaning is pregnant but uncertain and whosefate in the world of the waking-ego lies in our own hands. Ifwe treat it with respect and concern, it serves us in manyways. If we disregard the dream, it moves us in any case,working its alchemical transformations in the depths of thepsyche, seeking.the same goal of individuation with or withoutour consctous alo.Dreams are mysterious entities, like messages from an un-known friend who is canng but objective. The handwritingand the language are at times obscure, but there is never anydoubt as to the underlvins concern for our ultimate welfarewhich may be different from the state of well-being that weimagine to be our goal.Humility is necessary. No dream is ever lully understood;future events and future dreams may modify what seemed tobe a perfectly complete interpretation. We must always beaware of the mysterious nature of dreams, which exist at theborder of our understanding of brain and mind, conscious andunconscious, personal and transpersonal life.t 16
  • NotesCt/ -The Collected Works of C.C. Jung (Bollingen Scrics XX). 20vols. Trans. R.F.C. Hull. Ed. H. Rcad, M. Fordham, G. Adler,Wm. McCuire. Princeton University Press. Princeton, 1953-t979.l. See "Wotan," and "Afier thc Catastrophe." rn Ciyilization inTransition, C.W 10.2.3.See Jolande J acobr, The Way of Individuatior, trans. R.F.C.Hull (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1967).See H.P. Rolfwarg, W.C. Dement, J.N. Muzio et al.""DrcamImagery: Relationship to Rapid Eye Movements of Sleep."Archives of General Psl,chiatry 7 (1962): 235-258.See Janres A. Hall, Clinical Uses o/ Dreams: Jungion Interpre-totions and Enactments (New York: Grune and Stratton,1977), pp. 163-179; and M. Polanyi, Personal Knowledge: To-ward a Post-Critical Philosophy (Chicago: University of Chi-cago Press, 1958).Redemption M otiflt in Fairltales (Toronto: [nner City Books,1980), pp. l7- 18.Hall, Clinical Uses of Dream1 pp. l5l- l6l.Ibid., pp. 331-347.Fqce to Face, BBC Production, l9ot."The Psychology of the Transference," in The Practice ofPsychotherapl, CW 16. The other major source of Jungsthoughts on transference and countertransltrence is "TheTavistock Lectures" (particularly Lecture V). in The SynbolicLrfe, Cvl 20.5.6.1.8.9.10. Ibid., pars. 334-336.11. Ibid., par. 331.12. Experimental Reseorches, CW 2. pars. 733. 1351.f3. See "The Psychology of Dcmentia Praecox." in The Psycho-genesis oJ Me tal Disease. CW 3, par. 86. I have slightlyexpanded the concept of thc affccfcgo in relating il to objectrelations theory (see my C1lrlca1 Ur^es of Dreams, pp.49-52).14. Memories, Drcam ReJleclionr, trans. Richard and Clara Win-ston, ed. Aniela Jaff6 (London: Collins Fontana Library.1967), pp.354-3ss.15. Hall, Clinical Uses oJ Dreams, pp.269-211.16. Somc of the motifs prescntc(l ltltr rrrl rrrill lrllr I rrdiscussed at more length in nly (it/r/"/ I Ir "/ lrr rrr ll215-321 .17. "On the Psychology and Pathology rrl So t rll"l t r" rrlr llrtnonrena," rn Ps)chiatric Sladles CW l I ot lrtrrl Irr I i! {on the psychological significancc ol "ottlt t lLtr lrlrrltttena, bothin waking life and in drelnls sct lltttlr rtttttA Modern Myth." in Ci|ilization in 7runitit)tt t t ltl18. See "synchronicity: An Acausal Conncclirrl lltllrll IrrThe Stiucture and D.vnanics oJ lhe Pslche, Cw 619. See Louise Rhinq llidden Channels rl the Mirrrl (Ntrr "rlSloan, t961), and "Psychological Processes in liSl ltl.trttences: L Waking Expciienccs; II Dreams." Jourtt(l tl ltttlps.ychology 2.6 (1962:88- IIl. l7l-19920. M. Ullman. S. Krippner and A Vrughn D:edn.t. lrlrl.t.tt,tl(New York: Mrcmiilan. lq7.]) See rlso M Ullmln rttFrnerimentrtl Approa(h lo I)re.trn! lnd T(lcnrthy" itr lchir,er ,y t"entr,ti P,tchidtrt l4 { lq60l: t05 bll21. An exccllent Presentation of alchemical procedures.and lhcitosrcholugicut anrlogie upperr in Ldwrrd FdinBes rrtr(lc5:Ps)eh,tf,qrxpy,,nJ alclieml-" in Qutdrtnt {Journal.ol"lltcNew York i.C. lung Foundrtion). ll-15 lSPrint lq/b. roSorine 1982). Anothei uselul sludy ()f alcl)emicrl s)mboltsnlaira ihc piycloiogical implications is Marie-.Loutse ,rrrnF ranz, Alihimy: A-n IntroJicti"n to the Svmbolism and ttrcPsychologt (Tdronto: Inner City Books 1980)wirh ii:gard to coniun(lio imag^ery sceTI t::y ,tlll"tiodrornia"andthc Unification o I bPpositcs"in The Arms of.the Ilintlmilt: frsals n Atnl,rticLtl Ps.lcholugl. in Honor. ofWerner II Engel ed Jorn ( rrson (New Yt)rk: lrr!Jtelyprinted. 1983).22. Hall. Ctinicat Llses of Dreams, pp l46-15023. Polalli, Pe6onql Knowledge24. Menories, Dreams, Refettirtns, p 564.ll8
  • Glossary of Jungian TermsAnima (Latin. "soul"). The unconscious, feminine side of a mans person-ality.. She is personified in dreams by images of women ranging fromproslitute-andseducrress to spiritual guide (Wisdom). She iJ the erospnncrple. hence a mans anima development is reflected in how he relatesto women. Identification with the anima can appear as moodiness. effcmi_nacy, and oversensitivity. Jung calls the anima the archetype of tfe itself.Animus (Latin, "spirit"). The unconscious. masculine side of a woman spersonality. He personifies the logos principle. Identification with theanlmus can cause a woman to become rigid, opinionated, and argumenta_tive. More positively, he is the inner man who acts as a bridgebetweenthe womans ego and her own creirtive resources in the uneonscioL".Archet]?es. Irrepresentable in themselves, but thcir effects apDear rn con-sciousness as^the.archetypalimages and ideas. Thesc are universal pat-terns or motifs which come from the collective unconscious and are thebasic content. of religions,-mythologies, legends. and fairytales. Theyemerge in individuals through dreams and visions.Association, A,spontaneous flow of interconnected thoughts and imagesaround a specific idea, determined by unconscious conneciions.Complex. An emotionally charged group of ideas or images. At the .,cen-ler ul a complex r an archelype or rrchetypll image.Constellate. Whenever there is a strong emotional reaetion ro !r Dersen ora situution. a complex ha,, been con.tellated (ilctivlrcd).Ego. The.central complex in the field oi consciousness. A strong cBo canrelate objectively to activated contents of the unconscious (iie.,-othercomplexes), rather than identifying with them, which appears as a state ofpossessron.Feeling. One of the four psychic functions. It is a rational function whichcvaluates the worth of relationships and situations. Feeling must be distin_guished from emotion, which is due to an activated compl-ex.Individuation. The conscious realization of ones unique psychologicalreality, including both strengths and limitations. lt leads to the-experienceof the Self as the regulating center of the psyche.Inflation. A state in which one has an unrealistically high or tow (negativeinflation) sense of identity. It indicates a regression oiconsciousnesi int.runconsciousness, which typically happens when the ego takes too manyunconscious contents upon itself and loses the faculty oi discrimination.Iotuifion. One of rhe four pychic function. It i. rhc irrari,,nrl funrtionwhich lells u the possibllities inherent in the present. In contrast ltlenation lhe fu.nctiun whieh perceives immediire realit; through thepnysrcaj_senses)lntutron percelves vla the unconscious, e.g., flashes ofinsight of unknown origin.Glossary of Jungian Terns 121Participation mystique A term derived from th€ anthropologist Levy-eiuht,a.nnting a primitive, Psychological connection with objects orbetween person.s, resulting in a strong unconscious bond. ^Persona (Latin, "actors mask") (Jnes social role, dedved from the expec-irii;;"isociety and early training A strong ego relates to.the outsideworld through a flexible persona; identification wrth a specrtrc Persona(cloctor, schiar, artist, etc i inhibits psychological developmenLProiection. lhe proce: wherebl an unconcioui qualig or chtraclerilicol 6nes own isperceived and reacted to in an outer object or personPloiectlon of the lnimr or animus onto a real women or man ls experl-"n.LJ ""fuffing in l,,ve Frustraled expectations indicate the need to*iihJtu* prqeciions, in order to relate to the reality of other peoplePuer aeternus (Latin, "eternal youth"). lndicates a certain type ()1man*hn ,..oin, too long in adolescent psychology generall; asstrciated withir strons unconciour rllachment to the mothJr lactudl or 5ymbolic) Po5i-tive trJits rre slontaneity and openness to change -Hisfemale counterpartis the puella, in "eternal girl" with a corresponding attachment to theIather-world.Self. The archetype of wholeness and the regulating center of th€ person-"tity.tt i, experienced as a ttanspersonal power which transcends the egoe.e.. God.$nex (Latin, "old man"). Associated with attitudes that come with ad-vancing age. Negatively, this can mean cynicism rigidity and extremeconseriatiim; poiitive iraits are responsrhility. orderlincss and self-disci-pline. A well-balanced personality functions apprrrpriatell wifhin thePuer-enex poldrlly.bnaOott, en unconscious part of thc personrlity chrrJcterized by traitsind atritudes, whether negative or posiitvc. hteh thc conscious ego tendstu reiecl or ign,re. lt i5 Personilied tn dreamr h) pcrson5 ol the same sexas tlie drcam"er. Consciousll assimilating ones shadow usually results inan increase of energy.Slmbol. The best possible expression for something essentially unknownSvmboLe thinking ts non-linear, right-brain oriented; it is complementaryro l.,eicrl, linear. lcft-bruin thinkingTranscendent function. The reconciling "thrrd" which emerges from theunconscious (in the form of a symbol or a new attitude.) after the conflicting oppositei have been consiiously differentiated, and the tension bc-tween them held.Transference and countertransference PJrticular cases of prolection com--nnlu ut"d to describe the unconscious. emotional bonds that arise be-tween two persons in an analytic or therapeutic relationshipUroboros. The mythical snake or dragon that-eatsits own tail lt is irsvmbol borh for i;dividuation as a self-contained circular ptocess and lotnirrcissistic sell absorPtion.120
  • acting-out.27active imagination, 12. 14. 28. 64addiclion,84-86affect, I l. 35, 58-67. 71. 74. 108-109aflcct-cgo. 6l-67aggression: 15, 45-49in dreams. 46-50. 59. 62-63,73103- 104alchemy. 21, 54. 57, 63. 82. 96- 100.I 13. 117alcoholism. 30, 40. 84-86alligator. in dreanr. 47rlter-cg, 1,1 .i^u.hrrJ,-r*t. l:- lt .30amplification. of dreams. l3-14, 33-16. 40. 60. 68-oq. 78-7q. 100103- 105, 115-ll6analysis: ofdrcam scrics. 40-44. 6u.65. 96. 99. 116initial dreams in. 38-40prospective. 59-60reductive. I4, 59-60. 68anger, and dreams. 23. 40,45-46,49anima: 10. 16-18. 32,13-15in dreams, 16. 73-75. 106identification with. l7integration of. l7- l8proJection o1. l6 17. 74-75. 109animus: 10, 16-18. 73-75in dreams. 16. 25, 73-74identification with. l7integration of. l7- 1uprojection of. l6- 17. 41,74-75,104, I09anxiery,44,46-50, 52. 58, 70.99.l0l, 108archetypal imagcs, 9- 14. 33-36. 657 l, 75-79. E7-88. 96- t00. 103-104, I14-ll5archetypal reductionism, 34. 100,I l5Indexarchetypc(s) (see a/ro archctypalimages): 9- 14. 23. 33-36. 78and complex, l2- 14. 35-36. 52.65.78identillcation with. l9-20Asclepius.8Tassociations. to dreams (.rac a1ranrplifi cation. of- drcams). 3,1-36.68-69.78-79.87-88autonobile. in dreams. 83-85ex i.s mundi, 40baby. in dreanr. 42-15.52bathroom. in dreams. 82Baumann. l)ielcr.7birth. in drean.4l-44boat. in drcans.77-18. 106Buddh a1D udd h is m. ll. 76calcination (culc ind I io). 96-98Christianit),.21.87circulation (ci rcu lnio. 96, 98clairvoyance.92Clinical U.ses of Drearns (H,rll),8coagulation (cougulutio). 97,.olleeltr ( unL,)ni,u: raa rhj.ctir.psychecompensation. 23-26, 36-37, 39. 51.56. 66-67. 70. 78,89.91.93,94. l0 r- r04. 107, H6complex(es): 9- 10. l2- 14. 23-24. 35.31. 60-62.65. 96-97. 107- 109acting-out.27bipolar. 30-31in dreams. l5-16. 35. 31.41-44.52-53. 56, 79. 82. 86,87. I l0and ego-identity. 28-33. 47e nlrctmcnt of, 26-28, 34thther,4l-45,81motlrer, 7. 10. 12. 4l-42. 41-48.65. 69-70. 79. 81, I 15parental, 12, 69-70. 8lt22conflict: ll. 13-14,27.29, 59. 62-63.65. 88. 95. 97. 99. l0l- 103dreams of. 62-63. 99(oniunctia, 63. 81. 96. 98-99. 104consciousness: collectivc. 9- I2. 2071. 106. I l4-l l5P(r(r)rl t., P.rAo cg,t. o 1,1. 6.counter-translcrcnce. 25. 34. 54-58.61. 64. 93. I 17Dai. Ilingham. 7dcath: I l. 20. 24-25in Jrc.rm. 25.41 14.4R-,1q. 528l-82. 98dcprcssion. 19 -20, 4l -42, 45-46. 50.58-60. 65, 99. 101. 104. 108dirgnuri. through rlt errnr. 2t-.2-.38-53. ll6diamond body. 96dissociation: 15. 30. 45. 72. 102in dreams.52"dissolve and coagulate." 97divine marriage. l3dog. in dreams. 40-45. 47. 52. 9495. r04dominance,,/submission pattcrn. 3 l.44.53dream(s): of aboriginc. 97-98and affect-cgo. 6 l-67aggrcssion in. 46 50.59.62-63.73. 103,104and alchemy. 97 100. ll7of alcohol. 84-86of alligator. 47ampliflcation o1, l3- 14. 33-36.40.60.68-69. 78 79. 100. 103-105. 115-116ol trnalvsand by analvst. 55-5tiof analyst by analysand. 55-56anger in. 23. ,15-46of animals without skin. 50. 59and anxiety. 46 50.52. l0lrrchetypal imagcs in. 34-36. 71.75-79. 97- 100. I 15Inde r l) -ldream(s) (cont. ):associations (lee dLroampliiication ol). 34-36, 68-69.78-79.87-88of automobiles. 83-85of baby. 42-45. 52of bathroons. 82ol birth. 42-44of boat. 77-78, 106ol border crossing. 70-71of bridge. 70cause and cflcct.44of civil war. 63clairvolant.92of clothing. T2. 104of cockroach. 43-44of communion. 30as conpensation. 23-26. 36-37.51. 56. 66-67. 70. 78, 89. 91.93-94. l0 r- 104. r07. Il6iLnd complexes. l5-16. 35. 37. 4l44. 52-53. 56. 60 62.68-79.82.u6-87. l r0. l16ol conllict. 62-63. 99ol (oniunclio.63. li l. 98-99. 104conlext. importance of, 3,1-37.50. 68. 80. 83. 86. U6conlrol ol. 9land c()untertrilrsfarcncc. 54-51,.o4oldeath. 25. 4l-,14. ,18-49. 52. .59.8l-82. 98and dcpression. 59-60. 65, 99,101. 108dctails. inr poltance of. 8,1.90.ll6and diagnosis, 2627. 38-53. ll6as disguised rcality. 55.68. 89.fi2trl dog, 40-,15. 47, 52,94-95. 104dramatic structure. 37. 62. 89-90of dreamirg. 89-90of drugs. 84-86of the dying. 52. 105
  • dream(s) (crr1.):oi carthquake. 46. 49-50of egg, 78-79of Egyptian princcss. 4l45enactmcnt ol, 26-21 . 34. 64of examinations, 46ol cxploding puppy. 40-41 , 52of cxplosion. 40. 5 1-52. 79of failing. 46, 48-4901 firc. 97of flower. 104ol flying. 3l. 98of flying saucer. 77fbrcing introvcrsion. l0 Iliame work of. 89-95liee associalion 10. 68Frcudian view. 23-21, 54-55. 68of frog. 97-98ol luture. 92-93of gold coins. 97.rnJ grou p therirp.64-h.7U--..85as guides. 103. ll3olhelpful aninals. 103- 104. ll3of houses. 48. 69. 82-83o1incest.4l. 80-81initial. in analysis. 3tl-40iritiation imagcs. 105of kitchens. 82, 98ol ietting 90. 105lucid. 9lol marriage. 52, 63, 99of matricide, 86and medication. 27. 50. 58 59of monstcr. 47and mourning, 8l-82of mouse. 13-44. 52of murder. 59. 86of natural disasters. ,16. 49-50. 59and neurosis. l0l- 108nightmares, 102numinous. 2lobjcctive interpretation. 35. 49-50. 56. 6r. lt2- l 13dream(s) (coal.):and orgaric illness, 5l-52, 105parailel,94-95()1 past, 26. 59. 75. 82, 84. 9 l-92of patricide, 86of persona roles, 72personifications in. 26. 55-58, 8o-87, 0o1physical dange r, 46. 48-50and physical problems. 5l-52precognitive.92-93untJ prtrgn.,.i.. 26-27. l8-40. 4.144as protcclor of sleep, 23-24lnd psychosis. 27. 44. 50-5 l. 59101and psychosomatic syntptonls.q-42. 101of pursc. 85of pursuit, 46-48of rape. 4l44of realitv-as-it-is. 89-9 Iand Rt M sleep. 22. 9lof Sell. 75-77. 104-105. 108series of. 34. 37, 40-14, 52. 60,65. 96. 99. I 16.( url imJE(..18 44.55-58. b.l.E0,82,99and sexuality. 30. 38-44. 55-58.69.85o1shadow activity. 30. 64,72 73.109ol sharks.62of siblings, 80-81of snakes, 45. 87-88and spacc references. 9l-92ol spacenren.63.9l-92of spider. 47subjectivc interpretation. 35. 56.61. I l2-t l3svnchronistic, U9. 92-951elepathic.92and time references. 26. 59. 75.82.84.89.91-92dream(s) (cor1.):of trains. 83!rnd transltrercc. 54-58. 64. 93117transformation in. 29. 47-50. 5286. 98-99, 104traumatic.90. 108of trec. 39-40of turtlc. 35. 78-79uninterPreted. 25-21 . 64-65of vasectonY, 82of Virgir MarY. 65and waking world. 22. I lloi whale. 77as wish-lullllment. 24. 30. I l2Drearn Teleputhv (Ullnan el a/). 92dream-ego: 22. 24. 26-21. 37. 3944-52. 64-19. rnd Pds.t/D?aggression against. 46-50. 59 62-63and $.Lking-cqo. 107- I I Itlre.rm-withinlr-Jrc.rm. 89-gUdrugs. 13. 50. 58-59. 84-86cafthquakc. in dreams. 46. 49-50egg. in dreanr. 78-79cgo (see a/so dreum-ego alta- waking-egol: l0-21. 23 64-6575. 82-81. ll2-l l6affect-. 6 l-67and bodv-image. 52on.l eornPlexeJ. 28-33. 68-7qJevcluPm(nt,t. ll. l4 l5 lb 2l49-50. 53. 58. 76,91-92. 102-las "1." 12. 24. 107-l0Einflatcd. 13. 20, 109and Persona, l8-20.71-72, 107relativizcd. 104-llland Scti I l-13. 21. 26, 32. 4v75-77. 102. 105- 108and shadow, l4- I6 30-31,47.7072-13. l0l, t01ego-Selfaxis, 13. 75-77Egyptiirrr pr rrr, , ,,,. ,,,, , , , empty ncsl Y llr lr t |l{ llcnactment. trl (llr,rrlr r I I I Iexal]linatiotl dtc lrrrr lt,lairylalcs. 33, 36. 74. l l lrrl I | |lalling, in dreams. 46. ll"i lrlalling in love. l6fathei comPIe x. 4l-45. t{lIixation. 19, 102fl.ring. in dream. 31 98tlving sauccr. in dream, 77Iiicaiknowledge. 23. 109- I I Ilrane. of dream. 89-95liee association. to dreams. 68Frccman..lohn.50F reud. Signrund. 7.9, 23-24. 54-5559. 6l. 68. E9. l12fiog. in drean. 97-98eestalt techniques. 14.26, 34 64iiod,rot1-inage . ll-13, 21. 76. I l5pr,,u n-thc rJp). 27.4U. 5q. b4-t7.70-71. 85. 104. ll7guilt. 15, 66. 7ltlcathclifl. as animus figure l7helplul animals, in dreams 103-104. I l3hieros gumos, 13Hitlcr.20homosexualitY.38-39house. in dreams. 48. 69 82-83hvpnoanalvsis, 14. 28. 64-55identification: v ith aninl a,/an imust1rvith archctYPc. l9-20uith Personu, l8-20. 72. 109iJcntir rtrueturL. ttc alo eet L!ndshadow). 14- 16. 7l-73imaginal technique s, 14.21-28ince-st. in dreams. 41. 80-81
  • 126 Indexindividuation process. 12, 14. l9-21.24-25,28-29. 3t. 34-35. 4,7 , 1,.5 t-52. 55. 58. 63. 68, 76. 78.90, l0l-tIl. 3-ll7inflation. 13, 20. 109initial dreams, in analysis, 38-40initiation dreams, 105interpc$onal reductionisnl, 56Inlcrprelalion oJ Dreams (Freud), zintroversion. forced by dreams, 101Isis.80Jesus. 11.20Jung. C.G.,7,9-12, I4-2).23, 50.54. 56-57. 59-61, 75. 77-78.87.9t-92. 96. 99, 2-113. r 15kitchen. in dreams. 82, 98Kluger. Rivkah Scharf, 7loss of soul. l6LSD, 13lucid dreams, 9lmandala. ll- 12. 76. 105marriage, I l. 13, 52, 63. 99masturbation.88matricide. in dream,86medication, 27, 50, 58-59meditation. 12.2E,9lmedium. psychology of. 9lnid-life crisis, l4Mona Lisa. as anima figurc. l7mortifi cation (mortifcatio. 96, 98mother conplcx, 7. 10. 12., 4l-42,4,7-48. 65, 69-70, 79. 81. I t5mourning, 8l-82murde r, in dreams, 59. 86Mussolini,20nyths. 33. 36, 78. 103narcissism. 19negative inflation.20neurosis, 19, 23,28. 40-44. 54, 59-60, 63, 70-7r. 73. 101-108. I l6nightmares, 102numinosiry, Il. 2lobjective drclnr intcrpretation. 35.49-50, 56, 61, l12- 113objective psyche,9-14. l6- 17, 20,I 14opposites: conflict of, I l. 13,28-29,62-63.99union oi. see coniunctioOsiris.80parallel dreans. 94-95parapsychology.53.92patricide. in dream. E6persona: 10. 12, 16. l8-19.46.66,7l-75. t07identification with. l8-20. 72.109philosophers stone, 97Polanyi. Michacl, I l0precognitive dreams. 92-93p ma mqteria, 97 -99prognosis, through dreanls. 26-27,38-40. 43-44projection(s): ll, l6-17. 54-55. 57.11. t09in alchemy. 96by analyst. 27, 54-55of anima. 16-17,14-15. 109ol animus, l6-17,41.14-15, 104,t09in sandtray, 14. 88. ll7of shadow. 16.29-31.73. 107.109withdrawal ot. 17. 1 4-1 5prospective analysis, 59-60psl phenomena. 92-95psyche. 0bjective. see objectivepsychepsychedelic drugs, 13, 50psychodrama, 28. 64"Psychology of the Translerence"(Jung),54,98-99ps)chopomp. IEpsvchosis, l2-13.20.27.44. 50 51.59. 1011;ut,r, in drclm. 78purse, in dream. 85pursuit. in dreams.46 48rape. in dream, 4 l-44reductionism: archetypal. 34. 100.lt5interpcrsonal.56leductive analysis. 14. 59-60. 68relational structures (.ice .l/soanina. animus rud pcrsona).14. t6-19.3r.68-79religious expericncc. 2 Intv sleep. 22. 9lrcprcssion. 15. 30-31Rhine. Louise. 92sandplay. 14.28. 88. I l7schizophrenia, 27. 50, 59, ll4Self: l0-13. 21. 26. 51. 53. 71, 84as dream mrkcr. 84. 107-108in drcams. 75-77. 104-105. 108and ego, I l-13.21.26.32. 49,?5-77. 102. 105- 108and Cod, 12, 21. 76scxuality,,/sexual imagcs (sce d/.r.,coniunclio. I l. 15. 30. 38 44.83and dreams. 38-44. 55-58. 63. 69.80-82.85.99shadow: 10. 12. 7l-75in dreams. 15. 30, 64. 12-13, 109and ego, l4- f6, 30-31.41,70-13.107- 109integration of. 15, 18.30.73.81plojection of, 16,29-31.73. 107shamanistic (of analyst), 92S/re (Haggard). l7snakcs, in dreams, 45, 87-88spider, in dream. 47splitting, 15. 19, 30, 8)subjectivc drcarn interpretation, 35,56. 61, 112- lt3I ndex 12 7symbols. rcconciling, 13. 29synchronicity. 89. 92-95tacit knowledge. 75. 83, 89. 109-l . lt4l oles oJ Iloffitnnrt (Offenbach), l7"Tavistock l-cctures" (Jung), 57telepathic drcams.92temenos, in anulysis. 29, 54. 63. 67,99ttme relircn,.er. trt tlt,.rrnt. 10,5975. 82. 84. rJ9. 9 r-91trains. in dreams. 83transcendent lunction. 13. 29transference. 25. 3,1. 54-58. 61. 64.93. I 15. ll7transformation: 21, 54-58. 1 | -72.82, 86. 96, 99. I 14-115. lt7ol drcam images. 29.41-50.52.86.9E-99, 104transvestism,38traumatic dreams. 90, 108tree. in dream, 39-40turtle, in dream. 35.78-19un(,n.(iour: cr)llcctive, 9. -7. ll4I l5per.onal. 9- 10. l2-lq. 12.61-62.an<1 passimvasectomy. in dre am. 82Virgin Mary. 11, 65von Franz. Marie-Louise. 7. 24wrking-cgo. 22-24. 26-21. 44.49-:52, 63, 65, 73. 84-85, E9.92-93. 98-99. 103wedding. see marriagcWhitnont, Edward, 7* ish- fu lfigmcnt, dre ms as. 24. 30.|2word association expcrimcnt. 9- 10,61, 68world tree, 40Wuthering Heigrrs (tsronte). l7
  • Studies in Jungian PsychologYby Jungian AnalystsSewn Paperbackstuices and payment in SUS (except in Canada, $Cdn)Alchemy: An Introductlon to the Symbollsm and the PsychologyMarie-Louise von Franz fzurlch) ISBN 0-919123-04x 2aa pp $22Jung and Yoga: The Psyche-Body ConnectlonJudith Haftis (London, Onta,io) ISBN 0-91 91 23-95-3 160pp $18Jungian Psychology Unplugged: My Llle as an ElephantDatylSharp (Toranto) ISBN 0-91S1 23-81-3 160pp. $18Consclous Feminlnlty: Intervlews wlth Marion woodmantntroduction by Marion Waodman (Torcnto) ISBN 0-9191 23-59-7 160pp $1BThe Sacred Psyche: A Psychological Approach to the PsalmsEdward F. Edinger (Los Angeles.) ISBN 1-8S4574-09-5 160 pp. $18Eros and Pathos: shades of Love and SufleringAldo Carotenuto (Rome) ISBN 09191 23-3S-2. 144pp. $18Descent to the Goddess: A Way ol Inillatlon lor WomenSvlvia Binton Percra (New york) ISBN 0-919123-05-8. 112 pp. $18Addlctlon to Perfectlon: The Stlll Unravlshed BrideMaion Woodman ffarorlo) ISBN0-919123-11-2 lllustrated. 208 pp $20The lllness That We Are: A Junglan Crltlque ot ChrlstlanltyJohn P. Daurley (Ottawal ISBN 0-919123-16-3. 128pp $18Comlng To Age: The Croning Years and Late-Life TransformatlonJaneR. Pretat (Providence) ISBN 0-9191 23-63-5 144pp. $18Junglan Oream tnterpretatlon: A Handbook of Theory and PractlceJames A. Hall, M.D. (Dallas) ISBN 0-91 S123-12-0 128pp $18Phallos: Sacred lmage of the MascullneEugene Manick (Scranlon) ISBN 0-91 9123-26-0 30 illustrallons l44pp $18The Sacred Prostltutei Eternal Aspect ot the FeminineNancy Quatls-Cobetl (Bimingham) ISBN O-91912331-7 20 illustrations lT6pp $20Personality Types: Jungs Model of TypologyDarylShary (Toronto) ISBN 091912330-9. 128 pp $18The Pregnant Virglni A Process ol Psychologlcal DevelopmenlMaion WoodmanlToronto) ISBN O-919123-20-1 28 illustrations 20Spp $20pb/$25hcDiscounls: any 3-5 bool<s, l0%; 6-9 books 20ok l0 or nore 25alAdd Postage/Handling: l-2 books $6 surfuce ($I0air) 3-1 books $8 sttface ($ | 2 air);5 9 books, Sl5 surfuce ($20 air); l0 ot ntore Sl0 surJitce ($25 ait)Ask for Jung at Heart newslctter and lrce Catalogue describing over 100 titlesINNER CITY BOOKSBox 1271, Station Q, Toronto, ON M4T 2P4, CanadaTel. (416) 92?-0355 / Far (416) 92l-l8lil / E-mail: sales@innercitybooks net