Jungian dream interpretatl


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Jungian dream interpretatl

  1. 1. Marie-Louise von Franz, Holorary PatronStudies in Jungian Psychologyby Jungian AnalystsDaryl Sharp. Gcneral EditorJungianDreamInterpretationA Handbook of Theory and PracticeJames A. Hall, M.D.
  2. 2. l,) 5 ,/itnnc|,ttt iIu. uma/rix, sororCanadian Cataloguing in publication DataHall. Jdrnes Albcrt. I934-Jungian dream interprelation(Sludics in Jungian psychology b1 .lungian analvstst Ij)Bibliography: p.Includes index.rsBN 0-9 r9123- 12 0L Dreaor.i 2. Psychoanalysis. 3. Jung. C.G. (CarlCu.rJvr. t875 tqbl. l. lirlc. ll Scrr..i.BF1078.H34 1983 154.63 C83_098964 ICopyright o 1983 by Jlmes A. Hall.All rights reserved.INNER CITY BOOKSBox 1271, Srarion Q. Toronro. Canacla M4T 2t,4Tclephone (416) 927-U355llonoraN Patron: Marie-Louisc 1)n Fran7.Publishcr,and General Edilor: Dlryl Sharp.Editorial Board: Fraser Boa. Daryl Sirarp. Marii.rn Woodman.INNER CITY BOOKS was founded in l9g0 1() pronror0 thcunderstanding and practical lpplicltion of the riork ol.C.C. .lung.C,rtr Kn.rrs:rnJ d,,uhle-hr.rdr..J (ru(cn,,t H(irfl. nlu. rri nlong miLuhr.. lq8U. ( ,,urrc,) Lrrl I r,uht r. Surrzrrl:irrJ(ilossary and Indcx by Dlr,vl Sharp.Printed and bound in Caoada byUoiversily of Toronto press IncorpomtedCONTENTSPreface 7I Basic Concepts ofJungian Psychology 9General Structures l0Relation between the Peruonal and the Objective PsycheComplex and Archetype l3ldentity Structures: Ego and Shadow 14Relational Structures: Anima/Animus and Persona l6The Individuation Process 192 The Nature of Dreaming 22Dreams as Compensation 23Non- Interpretive Uses of Dreams 26Dream Interpretation and Imaginal Techniques 27Ego-Identity and the Structure ofComplexes 283 The Jungian Approach to Dreams 34Amplihcation of Images 35Context of the Dream 364 Dreams as Diagnostic Tools 38lnitial Dreams in Analysis 38Related Images in a Dream Series 40DifferentialDiagnosis 44Depression 45Anxiery 46Psychosis 50Physical Problems 5lDreams of Death 52Pdnciples to Remembcr 535 Questions ofTechnique 54Transference and Coun tertransfer€ nce 54Medication in Analysis 58Reductive or Prospective Analysis 59The Affect-Ego and Dreams b IDelayed lnterpretation and Non-lnterpretation 64Concurrent Group and lndividual Therapy 65Poinls to Remember 67t2
  3. 3. Ilgo Inrugcs und (irrnplexes in Dreams 68l(l( tltrlr( ittir)r) ol (omplexes 68Slll( turirl Shilts: Borders and Boundaries iOItrIrrtioIIirI irnd Identity Structures ilI ltt Itrsone 7 |I ln, ,hadow 72tl ttitttuf Animus 73lhc Sclf and rhe Ego-SelfAxis 75Arche typal Amplification 78(irmmon Dream Motifs 80Inccst 80Mourning 8lHouses 82Automobiles 83Alcohol and Drugs 84Death 86Snakes 87The Dream Frame 89Dream-within-a-Dream 89Dreams of Reality-as-it-is 90Time and Space References 9lSynchronisticPhenomena 92Symbolism in Alchemy 96Alchemical Motifs in Dreams 97Coniunctio: Images of Union 98Dreams and Individuation l0lThe Nature of Neurosis l0lThe Relativization ofthe Ego t04The Individuating Ego 105The Dream-Ego and the Waking-Ego 107Focal and Tacit Knowing 109ll The Two Tensions of Dream Interpretation ll2Objective and Subjective ll2The Personal and the Archetypal 113A Brief Summing-Up I 16Notes I 18Glossary ofJungian Terms l2OIndex 12210See last page for descriptions oJ other lnner City BooksPrefaceDuring the first two years of my psychiatric practice I at-temDted to maintain a neutral attitude toward different theo-ries of dream interpretation. I hoped that by considering allsuch theories equally valid, I would eventually be able todiscriminate on the basis of clinical observation the advan-tages and disadvantages of each theory. I hoped rationally todecide for myself which theory of dream interpretationseemed Dreferable.The ti/o maior contenders in this contest of theories werethe approachei to dream interpretation of Freud and Jung.During my medical and psychiatric training the theories ofFreud had been exclusively emphasized when dreams werementioned, if they were mentioned at all. During psychiatricresidency at Duke University Medical Center my personalanalysis was with Dr. Bingham Dai, a Sullivanian, who em-phasized the relation of dream material to early family pat-tems and ego identities based upon those relationships. I stillremember that after seventy-five hours of analysis with him Iimpatiently remarked, "l know about my mother complex, wedont have rc frnd, that in a dream again!" He laughed kindly,knowing (as I later came to appreciate) the difference betweenknowing as a cognitive content and knowing in the sense oflived wisdom. When I left Duke to return to Texas. Dr. Daislast advice to me was: "Dont get too deeply into Jungiantheory too quickly." He sensed, it seems, my later deep attrac-tion to the Junsian view.It finallv beiame imnossible for me to deal with dreamscomfortabiy from a non-Jungian perspective. All other theo-ries of dreams seemed to be special cases of the Jungian view,but it was not possible for me to compress the broad vision ofJung into any other available theory. I became a convincedJungian.My own personal Jungian analysis was the pdmary teacherabout the meaning of dreams, for which I am continuallygrateful to my analysts: Rivkah Scharf Kluger, Dieter Bau-mann, Marie-Louise von Franz and Edward Whitmont. Workwith many analysands over a number of years of clinical7
  4. 4. Ipractice has brought confirming data. ln 1977 I published abasic text on drcam interpretation. Clinical Uses oJ Dreants:Jungian Interpretations and Enactments, in which I comparedJungian dream theory with other significrnt theories. poinringout differences and similarities. I also included a modest at-tempt to relate Jungian dream theory to the laboratory studyof sleeD and dreamins.The present volumi does not review these various compari-sons, but gives straightforward, prlcrical advice on dream in-terpretation and its use in light of the basic principles ofJungian psychology. I have highlighted recurrent clinicalproblems, giving examples and discussion of exactly why ccr-tain interpretations are preferred, and in most instanccs dem-onstrating how these interpretations relate to clinical change.Some useful references are indicated, but there is no intentionto provide again an exhaustive review of the growing literature on dream interpretation.One can give general guidelines for dream interpretation.but it is not possible to give airtight rules ofprocedure. Thereis no substitute for ones personal analysis and clinical experrence under a skilled supervisor, both essential elements of anypsychoanalytic training of whatever school or emphasis.Dreams used here fbr clinical illustrations are not presentedwith the full range ol amplification that may occur in anactual analytic hour. Nor, in most cases. have I tried to showthe rich matrix of personal meaning into which a dream canbe fitted during analysis. These omissions are neccssary forthe sake of brevity and to allow focus on the clinical problembeins illustrated.All dreams are used with the permission of the dreamer.but similar motifs and tvoes of dreams often occur in diflerentpersons. Hence none of my analysands should identily any ofthe dreams as their own. nor should they take the commentsabout a dream example as referring to any dream of theirs.These dreams are taken out of the rich matrix of clinicalJungian analysis and presented for particular illustrative pur-poses.IBasic Concepts of Jungian PsychologyJung used certain terms to describe the diffefent parts of thepsyche, both conscious and unconscious. These conccpts wereempirically dcrived from observation of a great deal of clinicalmaterial, including Jungs early work with the word associa-tion experiment, which formed the basis for polygraph testing(modern lie detectors) and fbr the concept of psychologicalcomplexes. (Jung was already deeply involved in word asso-ciation studies when he first read Freuds Interpretation ofDreanr. published in 1900.)It is useful to consider basic Jungian concepts in severalcategories, although onc must remember that the divisions aremorc or less arbitrary and for convenience of description anddiscussion: in the living psyche, different levels and variousstructures function as an organized whole. There are two basrctopographical divisions: consciousness and the unconscious.The unconscious is further divided into the personal uncon-scious and the objective psyche. Jungs earlier term for theobjective psyche was "collective unconscious," and this is stillthe term most widely used in discussing Jungian theory. Theterm objective psyche was introduced to avoid confusion withvarious collective groups of mankind, since what Jung particu-larly wanted to emphasize was that the depths of the humanpsyche are as objectively real as thc outer. "real" world ofcollective conscious exnerience.There are thus fourlevels of thc psyche:l) personal con:iciousness, or ordinary awareness;21 the personal unconscious. that which is unique to anindividual p5y(hc bul nL,l (r)nseiou5:3) lhe objectire psvche, or collective unconscious. which hasan apparently universal structure in mankind: and4) the outer world of colleclive cctnstiousness, the culturalworld of shared values and fbrms.Within these basic topographical divisions there exist gen-cral and specialized structures. The general structures are oftwo typcs: archetypal imagcs and complexes. Thc special
  5. 5. Il0 Bu.sit ( otrept; ol .lungiun P.srchalo,qrstructures ofthe personal parts of the psyche, both consciousand unconscious. are fbur: the ego, the persona, the shadowand the syzygy (paired groupingl Jf unimus,artrnu. Wirhin theobjective psyche there are archetypes and archetypal imagcs,whose number cannot be precisely stated, although therc isone notable archetype: thc Sefi which ntay also bc referred toas the central archetypc of order.Ceneral StructuresCompleres arc groupings of related images held together by acommon emotional tone. .lung discovered the presence ofemoli()nally-toneJ complcxe.. 6y noring rcgulirriiie. in .uh-jects associations to missed or delaycd responses in the wordassociation experimcnt. He found that in each subject theseitssociations tended to cluster about certain themes. such asassociations to the mother a "mother comnlex." The termcomplex has long since passed in J lr,ose ury into generalcultu_ral usage. Complexes are the basic contents of the per-sonal unconsclous.Archetvpul images tr.re thc basic contents of the objectivepsvche. Archetypes thcmselves are nr,t directl) observahlc. butlike a nragnetic field arc discernible by their inllucnce on thevisible contents of the mind. the archetypal images and pcr-sonified or imaged complexes. The archetype in itself is.rtendency to structure images ofour experience in a particularfashion, but the archetype is not the image itself. In discussingthe concept of the archetype, Jung likened it to the crystalformation in a saturated solution: the lattice-structure of aparticular crystal fbllows certain principlcs (the archcrype).while the actual form a particular crystal will take (archetypallmage) cannot be predicted in advance. Everyone is born witha tendcncy to form certain imagcs. but not with the imagesthemselves. There is a universal human tendency, for exam-ple. to form an image of the mother, hut cach individualfirrms a particular mother image based on this universalhuman archetvDe.Archetypal images are fundamental and deep imagcsfirrned by the action of archetypes upon the accumulatingexpericnce olthe individual psychc. Archetvpal images differGeneral S tructures llfrom the images of complexes in having a more universal andgeneralizcd meaning, often with numinous affective quality.Archetypal images that are meaningful to a large number ofDersons over an extended Deriod of time tend to be embeddediulturally in collective consciousness. Examples in culturalform are the image of the king and queen, the Virgin Mary.and such rcligious figures as Jesus and Buddha. Many collec-tive ligures and situations carry archetypal images withoutanyone being ordinarily aware of the projection. The strongemotional reactions after the assassination or death of a publicfigure, such as a president or king, movie star or religiousleader, show that for many persons the particular figure car-ried an archetvpal projection.Any recurrent human experience has an archetypal founda-tion: birth, death, serual union. marriage, conflict ofopposingfbrces, etc. Although archetypes may have evolved. they aresuch a slow variable that for all practical purposes they maybe considered as fixed within historical time.In .lungs model the Self is the regulating center of theentire psyche, while the ego is only the center of personalconsciousness. The Self is the ordering center which actuallycoordinates the psychic field. It is additionally the archetypaltemplate of individual ego-identity. The lerm Self is furtherused to rcfer to the Dsvche as a whole. There are thus thrccseparable meanings ol Self:l) the pslche rs a wh.rlc. funtti,rning as a unit:2) the central archetype of order. when viewed liom thepoint of view of thc cgo: and3) the archetypal basis of the ego.Because the Self is a more comorehensive entitv than thecgo, the perception by the ego of the Self often tekeis the ftrrmof a symbol olhigher value: images of God. the sun as thecenter of the solar system, the nucleus as the center of theatom. etc. The affective tone of an expericnce of the Self isoften numinous or fascinating and inspiring of awe. The egoexperiencing the Self may feel itself to be the object of asuperior power. When the ego is unstable the Self may appearas a reassuring symbol of order. often in the form of a man-dala. a figure with a clear periphery and a center, such as aquadrated circle or a square within a circle, although the
  6. 6. l2 Busit Concept.s of Jungian Ps.v-tholog.rforms are capable of endless elaboration. In Eastern religioustmdilions. m_andala rrrangement5 oflen contain god-im-agcsand are used in meditational practices. Althoush the Seliisthe least empirical of Jungs stiuctural concep$lbecause it isI the borderland ofuhar can be clinicllly demonsrraterl ir isa uselul term in describing psychologicaill whar is otheruiseindescribable.. tndeed. phenohenologically" the Self is virtuallyindistinguishable from what has traditionally been called God.Relation between the Personal and the Objective psycheOur point of reference in the psyche is the ego complex, thatstructure we refer to whenever we use the firsi-person singularpronoun "I." The personal layers of the psyche, however, restup.on an archetypal foundation in the objective psyche orcollective unconscious. The personal sphere, both-consciousand unconscious. develops oul ol the matrix of thc objectivepsyche and is continually related to these deeper areas of thepsyche in a profound and organic fashion, alth-ough the devel-oped ego inevitably tends naively to consider itself the centerof the psyche. It is similar to the difference between the sunrerulving around the earlh or vice versr.The activity of the deeper layers of the psyche is clearlyexperienced in dreaming, a universal humar eiperience, andit may break through in excessive form in acute psychosis. Inrn inten.ive Jungian analysis the anal;sand comes to appre-ciale lhe essentially helpful movements of the ubiectir e psychein furthering th_e empirical individuation proceis of tlLe-cgo.Some analysands learn the Jungian technique of active imig-ination, through which it is possible intenlionally to contactthe-re deeper la;ers of rhe psyche during waking Iiie.In structurll terms, each complex in the personal sphere(conscious or unconscious) is formed upon an- archetypai ma-trix in the objective psyche. At the core of every complex is anarchetype The ego is formed upon the arehetypal core rlf thcSelf; behind the personal mother complex is ttre Great Motherarchetype; the imago of the father and mother together has atits center the archetypal image of the divine farents: endthere are deep archetypal roots for the shadow and for manypersona roles. An archetypal form may involve the combina--Conpl?. 0nd Ar(hcl.lPc 1-l{ion ofseparable forms; for example the divine marriage orItiaros gamos can also image the unification of opposites. Thelrchettpal layer of the psyche has the ability to form symbolsthat in effect unite contents that are irreconcilable at thepcrsonal level. This ability of the objective psyche to formreconciling symbols is called the transcendent.funcllon becauseit can transcend the conscious tension of opposites ln thisprocess conllicts do not necessarily disappear, rather they aretranscended and relativized.Bccause each complex in the personal psyche rests upon anarchetypal foundation in the objective psyche, any complexthat is penetrated to sufflcient depth will reveal its archetypalassociaaions. Much of the art of Jungian analysis lies in ampli-fying images to the point where the ego experiences _ltsconnection to the archetypal world in a healing lashion, butnot to such an extcnt that the ego is swamped in a sea ofnon-unified archetypal contents. For example, if the ego is able toexperience its connection to the Self, an ego-Self axis isloimed and the ego thereafter has a more abiding sense of itsrclation to the very core of the psyche. But if a weak orundeveloped ego has this experience, it may be assimilated bythe Sell appearing as psychic inflation and the loss of a clearstandpoini in consciousness, or, at worst, temporary psychosis.The irequent experience of "being God" when taking psy-chedelic drugs such as I.sD and psilocybin is an experience bythe drugged ego of its archetypal core in the Seli but withoutsufficient grounding in reality to establish a stable ego-Selfaxts.Complex and ArchetyPeF.ach complex is a group of rclated images formed about acentral core of meaning that in its essence is archetypal. Fromthe moment of first awareness, these archetypal possibilities ofthe psyche are filled in with personal experience, so that theaduli ego feels that conscious. subjective contents are simplythe suni of its own past personal experiences. It is often onlyin analysis, in dreanrs, or in very moving emotional experi-ences that the developed ego can experience the truc arche-typal fbundations of the complexes. In the practice of analysis
  7. 7. Il4 Basit Concepts of Jungion Ps.ythologymany imaginal techniques may be used to facilitate thisawa-reness: guided imagination, gestalt techniques, drawing,work in clay. dancing, construction of projective forms in asandtray, hypnoanalytic techniques, or, the most pure fbrm.rctie imaginrtion. For indivitluarion lo procced mJst directllthe ego must always take a stance toward the contents of theobjective psyche that are revealed in these activities not slm-ply evoke them, like the sorcerers apprentice.Since each complex holds personai imtLges in an archc-typalmatrlx, there is always a danger that the personal associationswill be mistaken fbr the core of the comDlex, leadins to amerely reductive analysis, i.e.. interprering currcnt co-nflictspurely rn the light of early childhood experiences. Conversely.the excessive archetypal ampiification of images may lead tosome understanding of the archetypes but is likely to miss thehealing connection between the personal and the objectrvepsycne.In order to better understand thc dynamic interaction be-tween the various psychologieul srrucrurcs conceptualized byJung, it is helpful to separate them into two categories: iden-trty structures and relational structures. The ego and theshadow are primarily identity struetures. uhile ihc pers.rnaand the anima or animus are primarilt rclltionll structurcs.In the natural process of individuatitrn,thcre seems to be firsta need for the formation of a strong and reliable eso withwhich to establish oneself in thc worldl This is followed" bv tnetask of relating to other pcrsons und to thc collective eulturein which one exists. It is usually not until later in lile that theego expenences a need to relate to the archctypal forccs thatlie behind both the collective culture rnd the pirsonrJ pslchea need that ol1en appears as a so-called mid-life crisis.Identity Structures: Ego and ShadowA basic ego-identity is formed quite early, at first embeddedin the mother-child dyad, later enlargcd within the family unitand still later expanding to include an ever-widening culturalenvironment. In the process of ego formation, certain innateactivities and tendencies of the individual will be accepted oythe mother or the family and othcr activities and impulses willldcttitt StruLturcl: Eqo utul Shu&tt 1.5bc negatively valued and thus rejected. The crisis of toilettrainins stands for manv other more subtle interactions rnwhich ihe ego-identity olthe growing child is moldcd by thcprefercnces and tlislikes of those persons it is dependent upon.l-he tcndencies and impulses which are rejected by thc lamilyare not simply lost; they tend to cluster as an alter-ego imagejust below the surface of the personal unconscious. This alter-ego is what Jung termed thc shadow, because when one partof a pair of opposites is brought into thc "light" of conscious-ness. the other rejected part melaphorically falls into the"shadow" of unconsciousncss,Sincc the contents or qualitics of the shadow were poten-tially part of the developing ego, they continuc to carry asense of personal identity but of a rejected or unacccptablekind, and usually associated with feelings of guilt. Since theshadow was dynamically disassociated liom the dominantego-identity in the course of early development. its possiblereturn to claim a share of conscious life arouses anxietv. Muchof the routine work of psychotherapy and analysis is to createa place in which it is safe to again examine thc contents of theshadow and possibly integrate much that was previously dis-carded by early "splitting" in the formation ofthe ego. Manynatural attributes ofthe nsvche that are disassociated in childhood are actually necessiry for healthy adult tunctioning. Ag-gressivc and sexual impulses, lbr example. are olten disso-ciated, since their expression in childhood would be inappro-priate or culturally unacceptable and troublesome to parentsibut these are qualities essential to the normal adult personal-ity. where they can be modulated and integrated in a fashionnot available to the immature ego structure ofthe child. Otherqualities. even thl: easy expression of innate intelligence. maybe similarly dissociated into the shadow.Thc conscious integration olcontents of the shadow has thedual effect of enlarging the sphere of activity olthc cgo andreleasing the energy previously needed to naintain thc dissu-ciation and repression of those shadow qualitics. Ihe individ-ual often exneriences this as a new lease on life.Because the shadow is potentially ego, it tcnds to have thesame sexual identity as the ego. masculine in a man andfeminine in a wonran. In addition to being personilied indreams and fantasy material, thc shadow is commonly found
  8. 8. It 11,^r, | 1)httl)t t)l .lu giun P)&ologrlrr;rr tr.rl lrl)()r) pcrsons of the same sex, often someone both,lr,lrlrrl ;rrrtl cnvied for having qualities that are not suffi_, r rrl rlcvcl(ped in the dominJnt image of onerelf.l{clulional Structures: Anima/Animus and personal hc enhanced ego-identity formed through assimilation ofplrts of the shadow is faced more clearly with the need rorelate to others, both to other persons and io the transpersonalculture of the collective conscious world tnd the transoersonalarchetypal contents of the objecrive psyche. The two siructurallbrms that facilitate this relational tas-k are the anima or ant-mus and the oersona.Qualities that are culturally defined as inappropridte to rherexual identir; of the ego rend to be excluded even from rheshadow alter-ego and instead constellate around a contrasex_ual image: a masculine image (animus) in the psyche of awoman and a feminine image (anima) in the psyclie-of a man.Jung observed such imrges in the dreams andfintasv materialof his patients. realizing-that these images carried suth impor-tance that.estrangement from them could produce a feeiingthat primitive cultures would describe as..loisof soul.,The usual way in which the anima or animus is experiencedrs rn proJectlon upon a person of the opposite sex. Unlike theprojection of the shadow, such projeition of the anima oranimus lends a quality of fascinatjon to the person who ..car-nes" them in projected form._ "Falling in l,ove" is a classrcrnstance of mutual anima and animus prolection between aman an-d a woman. During such a mutual projection onessense of personal worth is enhanced in the preience of theperson who represents the soul image in projeited form, but acorresponding loss of soul and emptiness may result if theconnection is not maintained. This projective phase. the un-conscious identification of another p6rson with the soul imagein ones. own psyche, is always limited in time; it inevitabiyends, with varying degrees of animosity, because no actuilperson can live up to the fantastic expectations that accom-pany a projected-soul image. And with the end of projectioncom.es th^e task of establishing a genuine relationshii wlth thereallty ol a nother Derson.IiRelationul Slru(ture.; ,4 tlinu i A t1i,11t!s und Pcrsona I7Considered as structures of the psyche, the soul images ofanima and animus, cven in projection. have the function ofenlarging the personal sphere of consciousness. Their fascina-tion enlivens the ego and pulls it toward ways of being thathave not yet been integrated. The withdrawal of the projec-tion, if accompanied by integration of the projected contents.inevitably leads to increased awareness. If the projected animaor animus is not integrated when the projection is withdrawn,the process is likcly to occur again with someone else.The intrapsychic function of the anima or animus, its rolewithin the individual. is directly analogous to the way it worksin projected form: leading the individual out of accustomedways of functioning, challenging one to widen horizons andmove toward a more comprehensive understanding of oneseliThis intraosvchic function can often be followed in a series ofdreams oi seen in artistic productions, such as the Victoriannovel Sre by Rider Haggard that was frequently cited byJung. Rima, the bird-woman of the novel Green Mansions, is aless complex example. Leonardos painting of the Mona Lisacaptures the mysterious and enigmatic fascination of an animafigure, while Heathcliff in Wuthering Heights is a classic por-trayal of the animus; Offenbachs great opera Tales oJ Hofl-mann deals entirely with the difficulties of integrating variousforms of the anima. all with their inevitable fascination.Because the image of the anima or animus is an uncon-scious structure, or exists at the very border of the personalunconscious and the objective psyche, it is essentially abstractand lacks the subtle qualities and nuances of an actual person.For this reason, if a man identifies with his anima, or awoman with her animus, the conscious personality loses thecapacity for discrimination and the ability to deal with anintricate interpla) of opposile:.In traditional European culture (in which Jung lived mostof his early life) the anima of a man tended to carry hisunintegrated emotional side, and therefore was likely to mani-fest in a certain sentimentalitv rather than mature and inte-grated feeling. Similarly, the animus of the traditional womanwas likely to appear as undeveloped thinking and inteliect,often in opinionated thoughts rather than logically formulatedoositions.
  9. 9. Tl8 Bosic Conccpts of Jungian Ps.rthoktgrIt is essential not to confuse these historical and culturalstereotvDes with the functional role of the anima and animusas soui hgures. With the increasing cultural freedom for bothmen and women to adopt non-traditional roles, the generalcontent or appearance of the anima and the animus is indeedchanging. but their essential role as guide or psychopompremains as clear as in Jungs first descriptions. The partialintegration of the anima or animus (which cannot be as com-plete as that of lhe shadow) contributes to an individualsability to deal with the complexity of other persons as well asthe other parts of ones own psyche.The persona is the function ol relationship to the outercollective world. Persona is a term derived from the Greekword fbr "mask," carrying overtones of the comic and tragiemasks of classical Greek drama. Any culture provides manyrecognized social roles: father, mother. husband, wift, physi-cian, priest, advocate, etc. These roles carry with them gener-ally expectable and acceptable ways ol functioning in theparticular culture, often cven including certain styles of dressand behavior. The developing ego chooses various roles, inte-grating them more or less into the dominant ego-identity.When the persona roles fit well that is, when they trulyreflect the abilities of the ego they facilitate normal socialinteraction. The physician wearing the white coat. and psycho-logically "wearing" the persona of the medical profession, rsmore easily able to perform necessary (and potentially embar-rassing) examinations of the patients bodily functioning. (Theconverse persona, that of the patient, is one physicians havenotorious difficulty assuming when they themselves are ill.)The healthy ego can more or less successfully adopt differ-ent persona roles according to the appropriate needs of agiven situation. The shadow, in contrast, is so personal that itis something one "has" (if indeed it does not have the ego attimes). There are persona malfunctions, however, that oftenrequire psychotherapeutic intervention. Three are most proml-nenl: l) excessive development of the persona; 2) inadequatedevelopment of the persona; and 3) identihcation with thepersona to such an extent that the ego mistakenly feels itselfto be identical with the primary social role.Ercessive persona development can produce a personalityThe Indiriduutiotl Prorcss l9that precisely fills the social roles, but leaves one with a sensethat there is no real person "inside." Insufficient persona de-velopment produces a personality that is overly vulnerable tothe possibility of rejection and hurt, or ol being swept up intothe persons with whom it relates. The usual forms of individ-ual or group psychotherapy are of great help in these condi-tions.Identification with the persona is a more severe problem inwhich there is an insufllcient sense of the ego being separablefiom the social persona role, so that anything that threatensthe social role is experienced as a direct threat to the integrityof the ego itself. The "empty nest syndrome" ennui anddepression when ones children leave home betrays an over-identification with the persona of the parental role and canoccur in both men and women. The person who feels emptyand adrift except when working has misused the persona ap-propriate to work or prolession and has failed to cultivate awider sense of identity and competency. Analytic treatment isfiequently needed to work through severe problems of identi-fication with the persona.The Individuation ProcessIndividuation is a central concept in Jungian theory. It refersto the process in which a person in actual life consciouslyattempts to understand and develop the innate individual po-tentialities of his or her psyche. Because the archetypal possr-bilities are so vast, any particular individuation process inevit-ably must fail to achieve all that is innately possible. Theimportant factor, therefore, is not the amount of achievement,but whether the personality is being true to its own deeperpotentialities rather than simply following egocentric and nar-cissistic tendencies or identilying with collective cultural roles.The ego may identify with structures in the personal uncon-scious that are not in harmony with the broader individuationprocess. This most frequently causes neurosis-a feeling ofbeing split apart. never one in response and feeling. Living afamily role assigned in childhood may produce such neuroticsplitting, as can an attempt to avoid moving forward throughthe stages of life, fixating oneself at an earlier level.
  10. 10. Ttl) lltttt ( t)nt t,l)t. t)f Ju tiutl P.sttholrrytllrc cuo nray also be out of touch with its individuatlonl)r{,((ss ls a result of identifying with roles offered it in ther,rllcttivc spheres either the roles of the collective uncon-stiorrs. in which the ego identifies with an archetype andbeconres inflated, or those offered in collective consciousnesssocial roles becoming something that, however valuable. isnot true to the individual fate. Identification with a social role(identification with the persona). even if that role is acccptedand well rewarded by a wide scgment of a society, is notindividuation. Jung felt that Hitler and Mussolini exemplifiedsuch identification with figures from the collective uncon-scious, leading both themselves and whole nations to tragedy.iThe extreme ol identification with an archetvoal role in theobjectie l5yche {eolleclivc uncunseious) result. in u psychrticidentificatjon with a figure that is larger (and less hurnan)than the ego. Some archetypal identifications are confusionsof the ego with a cultural hero or savior figure Christ, Napo-leon. the mother-of-the-world. etc. Even nesative identihca-tions may achieve archetypal proportions tne-gative inflarion),as in persons with a psychotic depression who feel they havccommitted the "unpardonable sin." placing themselves. byimplication, even above Gods power to forgive.It is difficult to describe a successful or typical proccss ofindividuation because each person must be considered aunlque case of one. Certain "norms" can be stated, such ascomparing the usual process of individuation to the course ofthe sun rising toward clarity and deflnition during the firsthalf of life and declining toward death in the second half,but such generalizations have constant exceptions when onedeals with individuals at close range, as in rhe process otr nalr sis.In his emphasis on the process of individuation as a centralconcept of analytical psychology, Jung spoke clearly for thedeep importance and value of the unique human life. Thispriority is echoed in the great world religions, but is missing inmany modern mass movements, where the individual is re-duced to a social, economic or military unit. In this sensc,individuation is a countemoint to thl threatened loss ofhuman value in a world that is excessively organized on tech-nological or ideologicrl grou n tls.Ihe Individuutiott Process 2lThroughout his life Jung maintained a great interest lnreligious experience. He involved himself in the study of East-ern religions, understood alchemy as a non-orthodox religiousand psychological practice, and explored the transformationrituals he lbund still active within the Western Christian tradi-tion. Since the Self appears phenomenologically with the sameimagery that has often been associated with the deity, it func-tions to some extent as a God-image within the psyche. Therelation between this image and what theological speculationhas referred to as God is indeed an open question, althoughnot one that is frequently opened. Numinous experiencesoccur in some dreams and seem capable, if assimilated, ofproducing deep and lasting alterations in the personality struc-ture, an effect parallel to some religious conversions and tosome peak experiences in waking life.The individuation process, as understood in Jungian theoryand encouraged in analysis, involves a continuing dialoguebetween the ego, as the responsible center of consciousness.and a mysterious regulating center of the total psyche, a cen-ter Jung called the Self-both the core of the ego and tran-scendent to it, needing the ego for the rndividuation process tounfold yet seemingly separate and independent of ego states.We do not know the nature of the Self; it is a concept neededto discuss observable activities of the psyche but not capableof direct elucidation.A "successful" Jungian analysis leads one to appreciate theultimately mysterious nature of the psyche, which seems bothintimate and transpersonal, both bound by the individual egoand yct freer in time and space than the empirical personality.At this borderland of the psyche we are at the door of largercultural questions that cannot be answered by clinical insightalone.
  11. 11. TThe Nature of DreamingDreaming is a universal human experience. In a phenomenol-ogical sense, a dream is an experience of life that is recog-nized, in retrospect, to have taken place in the mind whileasleep, although at the time it was experienced it carried thesame sense of verisimilitude that we associate with wakrngexperiences; that is, it seemed to happen in a "real" worldthat was only in retrospect acknowledged to be a ,,dream"world.The phenomenology of dreams involves events that are notexperienced in the waking world: sudden shifts of time andplace, changes in age, the presence of persons known to bedeceased or of fantastic persons and animals that never ex-isted. Perhaps the most radical shift experienced in a dream rsthe shift of the ego-identity irself lrom one character to an-other, or perhaps to no character at all, the dream-ego seem-ing lo observe eventr a il from rn umniscienl floating p.rsi-tion.During the last several decades, an immense amount ofwork has been done on neurophysiological states associatedwith dreaming. Thus far such studies have allowed investiga-tors to define with some precision when a sleeping subject rsin a RFIM state, a state of ascending Stage I sleep-withrapideye movements. When awakened in such a REM st:rte there isa high probability (but no certainty) that rhe subject willreport having been dreaming just prior to awakening. Thereare some dream reports, however, from non-Rl]v stages ofsleep. Although there were earll intriguing studiei thatseemed to link the direction of eye movements to the contcnrof experienced dreams,r that obicrvation stlll lacks sufficientconfirmation to be generally accepted.Since the l{F.Nt state occupies a majority of the time ofprcmature infants, and decreases steadily during the agingprocess, it would seem to be a biologically determined staterather than one simply serving the psychollgicel necds of rhesubject. RI11 sleep is found also throughout most animal spe-Draunts us Clt1lpcllsuliotl )-lcics. where psychological factors are not a major considera-tion. It may initially represent a processing of informationrelated to binocular vision, or may serve the purpose of peri-odically alerting the central nervous system during the night.Whatever the biological basis of dreaming, it seems in thehuman to serve some process necessary to healthy psychologi-cal functioning. Freud assigned to the dream the role ofguarding sleep fiom the irruption of repressed impulses aposition not generally thought to be in accord with moremodern dream research. In contrast, Jungs position was thatthe dream compensated thc limited vicws of the waking ego, apurpose in harmony with the information-processing hypothe-iis of dreaming. but expanding far beyond mere assimilationof new data.Dre:rms as CompcnsationThe dream in Jungian psychology is seen as a natural, regula-tory psychic process, analogous to contpensatory mechanismsol bodily functioning. The conscious awarencss by which theego guides itself is inevitably only a partial view. for muchremains always outside the sphere of the ego. The unconsciouscontains fbrgotten material as well as material sucll as thearchetypes that cannot in principle bc conscious. althouBhchanges in consciousness can point toward their existenccEven within the lleld of consciousness some contents are infocus while others, although indispensable to the maintenanceof the focal awareness. are not.1Therc are three ways in which the dream may be seen ascompensatory, and all are important in understanding theclinical use of dreams. First. the dream nlay compensate tem-porary distortions in ego structure, directing one to a morecomprehensive understanding of attitudes and actions. Forexample. someone who is angry at a fiiend but finds the angerquickly waning may dream of being furious at the friend. Theremembered dream brings back for further attention a quan-tity of anger that had been suppressed, perhaps fbr neuroticreasons. It mav also be imDortant for the dreamer to realiT-cwhich complei was constellated (activated) in the situation.A second and more profound mode of compensation is the22
  12. 12. 24 The Nature of Dreaningway in which the dream as a self-representation of the psychcmay face a functioning ego structure with the need for a closeradaptation to the individuation process. This generally occurswhen one is deviating from the personally right and true path.The goal of individuation is never simply adjustment to exis!ing conditions; however adequate such adjustment seems, afurther task is always waiting (ultimately the task of facingdeath as an individual event). An example of this second typeof compensation is the dream of a person who was quite welladapted socially, in the community, family and work areas oflife. He dreamed that an impressive voice said, "You are notleading your true life!" The force of that statement, whichawoke the dreamer with a start. lasted for manv vears andinfluenced a movement toward horizons that were not clear atthe time of the dream.These two forms of compensation the dream as a "mes-sage" to the ego and as a self-representation of the psyche-comprise the classical Jungian idea of the compensatory func-tion of dreams, substantially different frorn the traditionalFreudian view of dreams as wish-fulfilment or Drotectors ofsleeD.Ii is becoming increasingly clear to me, however, that thereis a more mysterious and more subtle third process by whichdreams are compensatory. The archetypal core of the ego isthe enduring basis of "1" but can be identified with manypersonae or ego-identities. The dream may be seen as anattempt to directly alter the structure of complexes uponwhich the archetypal ego is relying for identity at more con-scious levels. For instance, many dreams seem to challense thedream-ego with various tasks, ihe achievement of whicli mayalter the structure of the waking-ego, since the identity of thedream-ego is most often a partial identity of the waking-ego.Events are experienced by the dream-ego as interactions with"outer" situations within the structure of the dream; but theouter events of the dream may directly reflect complexes thatare involved in the day-t6-6ny-functioriing and struciure of thewaking-ego. Changes in the relationship with these dreamsituations can be experienced by the waking-ego as a changein its own attitude or mood. Marie-Louise von Franz gives oparticularly clear example of this type of compensation fromDreans us Contpenxttion 25 r ()l her own dreams. After a day of feeling the nearness of,[:rlh she dreamed that a romantic young boy an animuslr 1rr rc had died.5lrr the usual course of Jungian analysis dreams are oftenrrsrtl as a point of reference for the interaction of the analytic1,rocess. Analyst and analysand are allies in attempting tornrlerstand the "message" of the dream in relation to the ego,l lhe analysand. At times dreams indicate that attention.,lrould be directed to the transference-countertransference, thep;rlticular constellation of interaction in the analytic situation.Sirrce there is no privileged position from which one can knowthc "truth" of another persons psyche. analyst and analysandrrfc engaged in an exploratory venture that involves basic trusthctween them. If the dream focuses on that relationship, therclationship must be examined analytically.In interpreting dreams, it is important never to feel that the,lrcam has been exhausted. At best one can find a useful,ctrrrent meaning to the dream, but even this may be modifiedin the light of subsequent dreams. for dream interpretationinvolves a continuing dialogue between the ego and the un-conscious, a dialogue that extends indefinitely and whose sub-jcct matter may shift both in focus and in level of reference.Even when dreams are not interpreted they seem at timesto have a profound effect upon waking consciousness. Fromobservation of the impact of unanalyzed dreams, it is possibleto infer that even when not remembered dreams are a vitalpart of the total life of the psyche.6 In the Jungian view,dreams are continually functioning to compensate and com-plement (a milder form of compensation) the egos wakingview of reality. The interpretation of a dream permits someconscious attention to be paid to the direction in which theprocess of individuation is already moving, albeit uncon-sciously. When successful, such a teaming of conscious willand unconscious dynamism furthers the process of individua-tion more rapidly than is possible when dreams are left unex-ilmlneo.An additional benefit from the interpretation of dreams isthat the ego retains in conscious memory a residue of thedream, allowing the person to identify similar motifs in every-day life and take the appropriate attitude or action. resulting
  13. 13. F)6 The Naturc of Dreuntingin less need for unconscious compensation of that Darticularproblem area.Non-Interpretive Uses of DreamsThe personifications in dreams, including images of scenesand inanimate objects, reflect the structure of psychologicalcomplexes in the personal unconscious, all of which rest uponarchetypal cores in the objective psyche and all of which aresubject to the centering and individuating force of the Self orcentral archetype. Those particular complexes which are ob-jectified and imaged in the dream (including the particularconstellation of the dream-ego) reflect the autonomous activityof the Self in relation to the ego (both waking-ego and dream-ego). It is therefore possible to see, if only dimly, what the Selfis doing with the complexes that comprise the ego and othercontents of the psyche. Such observations may be used in non-interpretative ways, which is in fact their most usual use innon-Jungian therapies.The motils of a dream may refer to the present or the past,and may indicate actual persons, living or dead, or figures thatare unknown in waking life. Persons that are not known rnwaking life are more likely to be personified parts of thedreamers own psyche. By careful attention to these details ltis possible to infer what parts of the psyche and what parts ofthe egos past experience are constellated in the mind at thetlme of the dream. Psychotherapeutic attention to those areas,even without formal interpretation of the dream, may lead thetherapeutic process in the same direction as the natural flowof individuation.When complexes are enacted, as in gestalt techniques, addi-tional psychic energy is focused upon them and the outcomeis likely to be increased awareness. Such enactment, however,does not constitute the same use of the dream as does Jungianinterpretation, for the focus in such enactments is upon thecomplex that is constellated and not upon the usc made ofthat complex in the total structure of the dream.When the clinician has acquired skill in the use of dreaminterpretation, dreams may serve as an added factor in diag-nostic and prognostic evaluation, as well as serving as a subtleDtedn Inlery)rctulitttt und Inuginul Tcclltliques )7indicator of when to institute or alter medication. considerhospitalization, and vary the frequency of psychotherapeutlcilppointments. A very seriously ill young schizophrenic, forexample, often dreamed of his car beginning to roll backwardout of control just before he developed an exacerbation of hispsychotic symptoms and required increased medication. Inseveral instances the reverse seemed true-he would dream ofmarked successes or mastery (such as easily defeating themythological Minotaur) when he was beginning a phase ofimprovement. He once dreamed that a circus con man had allthe parts for an atomic bomb except for the piece the dream-ego had. The dream-ego lied about having the part when thecon man asked for it. This seemed at the time to represent anaverted "explosion" of his psychotic process, paralleling hrsconscious reparative efforts. (Many years and many therapistslater this young man committed suicide: his last dreams areunknown to me.)Dreams can be taken as referring to the other materialdiscussed in the analytic hour rn which they are reported or tothe group therapy session in which they are mentioned, and tothe specific life situation of the dreamer at the time of thedream. Careful reference of the dream images to the contextof the waking-ego at the time of the drcam minimizes thcmost serious error in the clinical use of dreams: the therapi5tprojecting onto the dream his own thoughts about the palient,rather than using the dream as a corrective message from theunconscious of the patient.Dream Interpretation and Imaginal TechniquesModern psychotherapy makes use of many imaginal tech-niques other than dream interpretation. lmaginal techniquesare enactments designed to utilize human imagination, oftenconceptualized as increased activity of the right cerebral hemi-sphere, to modify inappropriate assumptions and identitiesthat underlie neurotic unhappiness. I have referred to suchimaginal techniques as ena(tments to differentiate them froma ing-out, which is the unconscious (and generally undesira-ble) structuring of experience according to unrecognized, un-conscious conflicts.7
  14. 14. 28 l hc Nolure of DrauningBoth dream interpretation and imaginal techniques appearto influence the pattern of complexes in the mind, as dc.emotional experiences in everyday life and in psychotherapy.Working with dreams is perhaps the most direct and naturalapproach to ahering the complexes, while the next most directis Jungs method of active imagination, in which unconsciouscontents are encouraged to "come up." while the ego main-tains its waking role of mediating the conflicting pressure ofconstellated opposites in the psyche.Other imaginal techniques include hypnoanalytic imagery,painting and molding images frorn the unconscious, the use ofsandplay to construct scenes with small figures in a tray ofsand, psychodrama, guided imagination and meditationalpractices in which a free flow of imagery is permitted. Theresulting material is so closely akin to that which appears indreams that an understanding of the clinical use of dreamsshould be a fundamental discioline for the use of all imasinaltechniques in psychotherapy.Ego-Identity and the Structure of ComplexesIn most clinical uses of dreams. the aim is to helo the dreamersee clearly the various forms of his or her own personalitystructure that are usually unconscious and simply acted out rnthe world, often causing the neurotic unhappiness that moti-vates a person to seek professional help. This work by thetherapist is essentially similar to the natural spontaneous activ-ity of dreams, for dreams are already attempting to lead theperson out of his neurosis and into the process of individua-tion. Dreams are not dreamed to be analyzed and understood,but an understanding of dreams tells us where the uncon-scious is already trying to alter the ego-image in the directionof health and individuation.Health and individuation, however, are not always aligned;what is "healthy" for one dominant ego-image at a particularstage of Iife may be decidedly anhealthy for the nascent ego-image of the next stage of life. Psychologically, as in otherareas of Iife, the good is the enemy of the better. lndividua-tion is a larger and more complex concept than "health "Individuation is a dynamic process; it involves constantEEt ldcntit.t und rhe Srnttrttre of Cornple.xes 29change and eventually leads to an acceptance of the finitudeof lile and the inevitabilitv of death.Changes in mood may be visualized as changes in thestructure of complexes underlying the image of the ego. Tosome degree, the ego is capable of making such alterations. aswhen one reminds oneself of important personal priorities in asituation of ambivalence. This mav be no more serious thanremembering the intention to lose weight when faced with amcnu of attractive desserts. In dealing with more importantissues. requiring more profound levels of identity change,however, the necessary alterations are not within the sphere ofconscious ego choice. At that level the cgo must simply dowhat it can and then wait upon thc action of the transcendentfunction, the symbol-making capacity of the psyche. which isable to alter the conflict of opposites through creation of asymbolic solution that relativizes both warring opposites in awider frame of meaning.Clinical work with dreams involves helping the ego do whatis within its power to do. While the underlying necessarytransformations can at times be observed in dream images,they cannot be ordered up at the will trf either the patieniorthe analyst. The answer to the insistent (and understandable)cry of the patient to be told "what to do" is to do what onecan. follow as closelv as oossible the forms in which theconflict presents itself, make whatever impact one can on thesituation and lhen wait, watch and trust. Support of thisprocess is an important ingredient in the transfrrrmarion of thepsyche. The analytical situation (and the person of the ana-lyst) may be the only temenos the patient has, a safe placewhere life is held together during the unsettling movementfrom an old ego-image toward an emerging. more comprehcn-slve one.The crucial point to remember is that the ego-image itselfmay alter depending upon which complex (or combination ofcomplexes) the ego uses for a dominant identity. This is fairlyeasy to see in shadow projections, where the ego feelsJusti-fied" in actively not liking someone (usually ofthe same sexas the ego) who embodies qualities that (to everyone otherthan the person doing the projecting) are present in the ego-image of the patient. If such a shadow projection is indeed an
  15. 15. 30 The Natura ctf Dreuningintegral part of ones own character structure, dreams oflenshow the dream-ego engaged in that shadow activity or atti-tuoe.If the shadow is not projected but is acted out by the ego, acurious type of dream may occur when the shadow is beingintegrated or is being dissociated from the dominant ego-image. N-on-drinking alcholics, for example, not infrequenllydream of drinking soon after they have ceased to drink iirtheir daily lives. The same type of dream can be observed incigarette smokers who give up tobacco. Such dreams, simpleln structure, suggest that the pattern of ego-identity in whichthe shadow activity was embedded still persists. alihough theego no longer identifies with it. (To see these dreams simplisti-cally as wish-fulfilment risks miring rhe ego in past atritudesand behavior patterns, rather than encouraging its movementaway from them.)More complex dreams illustrate the same principle. A mid-dle-aged man who at one time had wanted Io be a ministcr,but who was long-since successful in an unrelated career, hadar. excessively active sex life, of a counter-phobic quality.While separated from his wife (with whom he still had sexuilrelations) he had a standing weekly date with a married girl-friend, and at other liee moments went to a local pick-up bar,having casual sexual contact with a variety of other women.During this hectic sexual aclivity, his dreams showed himgoing to church and raking communionl His shadow crln-tained what hrd previously been a positive value his reli-gious commitment and interest which had been dissociated,perhaps because of an extreme fundamentalist split betweenerualitr and reliciositv.This-example "also "re.uesto emphasize that in itself therhadow is not posirive or negarive. lhe shldow is .imply analter-egu image prrsonilying those contents that have not beenassigned to the conscious personality. The shadow may appearnegative from the point of view of the dominant ego-irnagebccause of rlissociarion and partial repression from-theego,but rts acturl contents may be either positive or negative,depending upon the state of the present ego-image. .A complex structure that is attached to the ego-identity rsolien bipolar, or even more complicated. A relatively simpleEgo-ldentit. ond tlte Structure oJ Conplere.s -l Ibipolar complex has two identity patterns (or complexes) ar-ranged in a particular way. One pole is often assigned to theego as a pattern of identity, while the coordinated oppositepole is either repressed into the shadow (with occasional man-ifestations) or is projected onto a person in the environment,usually a close family member, where it determines a non-personal pattern of relationship between the ego and the per-son upon whom the opposite pattern is projected. This isessentially an impersonal relational structure, which both in-terferes with the individuation of the Derson who uncon-sciously makes the projection and inhibits the achievement ofa stable personal relationship with the person upon whom theDroiection falls.-Another example of a bipolar structure is a dominance/submission pattern, where one pole of the relationship is con-sidered dominant, the other submissive. ln the impersonalrelationship based upon such a pattern, most interactions be-tween the two persons in the relationship will fall into thatpattern: one will be submissive, the other dominant. But thereare often symptomatic evidences of the reversal of the pattern.For instance, a very successful businessman, who had takencare of everyone around him for decades. retired and foundthat he had irrational fears of sudden illness in which hewould lbel helpless and dcpendent. Discussion revealed thatthe fear of death was not a major component. What he ac-tually feared was experiencing the opposite (dependent andsubmissive) identity that he had avoided since an early age bycompulsive work and taking care of others-A similar dynamic underlies the not infrequent situation lnwhich an airline pilot or cabin attendant is afraid to fly as dpassenger. In the case of the cabin attendant, there is noquestion of being "in control" ol the airplane when working.but the symbolic meaning of control is clearly present. Thereare even more ffequent lnstances of a person afraid to ride asa passenger in an automobile, although perfectly comfortablewhen driving. I know of at least one case of the reverse: avery domina;t and controlling woman, to the point of arro-gance, who cannot bring herself to drive a car and must bechauffeured on even minor errands.It is possible to visualize crudely the movement of the ego
  16. 16. -F-ll llte Nuture ol Drcanli ,,!over various identity patterns by picturing the complexes inthe personal unconscious as arranged in an irregular "net,"with certain groups of complexes clustering in patterns. al-though each group is in contact with all the other complexesin the network. If the archetypal core of the ego based uponthe Self is visualized as a ray of light, the particular complexesilluminated by the "light" would be the current identity of theego. The area that is illuminated always leaves part of the netdark. This unilluminated network lalls into various non-egostructural patterns the shadow. the animr. etc. lf the elo"light" is moved it changes not only the "contents" of the ego.but also the pattern of relationships associated with thesecontents. In ordinary consciousness. a person is unaware thatthe ego "light" is movable, and simply considers that the areailluminated "is" the eso.This metaphorical image of net and light requires furtherelaboration, for the net is not a fixed structure. In fact. whEnthe ego "lights" an area, it is then able to make alterations inthe net of complexes in that area. Since the complexes are allin an interrelated field, any alteration in one will affect thestructure of all the others to a greater or lesser degree. Theego not only passively experiences the "net" but actively par-ticipates in creating (or dissolving) the structure of the "illumi-nated" comnlexes.The situation becomes even more mvsterious and comDli-cated when one realizes that the eso is not the onlv force thatcan influence the structure of co"moleres. Thev cen also bealtered by the activity of the Self.-hoth direc:tl1 1as in theconstellation of a particular dream context) or indirectlythrough the Self leading the ego to face certain conflicts orgrowth stages that the ego has tried to avoid. Both the ego andthe Sell. therefore, influence the structure of the complexesupon which the ego relies fbr its own sense of identity. It isimportant also to remember that the ego is based upon thearchetype of the Self and so in a sense it is the vicar or agentoi the Self in the world of consciousness.A sense of the changing process of identity structures lsquite helpful in clinical uses of dreams. The more theoreticaland profound questions that dreams involve do not have to beunderstood inorder to do good clinical work with dreamEgo-ldcntitt ttnd the Sltuttttc ol Contple.tes llirterpretation. These larger matters primarily include l) epts-tcmoiogical questions about the nature of knowing,_ 2) reli-pious ouestions about the nature of the knower in relation toihe eniompassing mystery o1existence, and 3) the intermedi-rte range-of implementation structures (archetypal motifs)rnirrored in mvths. fairvtales and folklore. These last-namedconstitute a ric-h field foi the pure study of archetypal symbol-ism, but must be used with caution in interpreting any partlc-ular clinical situation. fbr the complexity of an individualperson is greater than the complexity of any myth.
  17. 17. TThe Jungian Approach to DreamsThere are three major steps in the Jungian approach to dreamrnterpretallon:l) a clear understanding of the exact details of the dream;2) the gathering of associations and amplifications in pro-gressive order on one or more of three levels- person al,cultural and archetypal; and3) the placing of the amplified dream in rhe context of rhedreamers life situation and process of individuation.There are, as already pointed out, many non-interpretive usesof dreams such as gestalt enactments of the various dreammotifs which may lead to an understanding of the complexessymbolized in the dream, but these do not necessarily illurni-nate the meaning of the dream itsetf, which must riways beviewed against the backdrop of the dreamers life.A clear understanding of the exact details of the remem-bered dream is essential to rninimize dangers of reductionisrn.If an analysand merely reporrs. "l dreamed of work," onedoes not know if the dream actually deals with the everydaywork situation or perhaps is using everyday events to symbol-ize more intrapsychic processes. "I dreamed of work" is likesaying that the play Hamlet deals with "family relarions."Without close attention to the internal relationshio of dreamimages (particularly over a series of drerms) the analyst is rndanger of projecting his or her own theory into the patientsmaterial. If the analyst believes that interpersonal relation-ships are of primary importance. it is all ioo easy lo "see"dream figures as relating to persons in the outer world. Simi-larly, over-emphasis on the trans ference-coun tertransferencerelation (the distortions of the analyst-patient relationshipbased on unconscious dynamics in both) can lead to too manydreams being interpreted in terms of the analytic situation. Aform of reductionism to which Jungians are especially liable rswhat may be called archetypal reductionism. Since all com-plexes are constructed upon an archetypal core, tt rs alwayspossible to overamplify a dream motif toward an archetypalAmplification oJ Inages 35meaning, with the attendant danger of substituting the (oftenfascinating) archetypal amplifications for the tensions of theindividuation process in the dreamers own life.Questions needed to fully elucidate a dream are similar tothose that would be used to clarify any situation in ordinarydiscourse or in a well-taken medical historv. lf a Datient tells adoctor of a pain, for example. there aie many additionaldetails to be clarified: Is the pain constant or intermittent? Ifintermittent, what is the frequency of recurrence? Is it a sharppain or a dull pain? Does it occur in one or several places? Ifin several, does it seem to start in one place and radiate toothers? What increases the pain? What makes it better? Doesit awaken the patient from sleep? and so on.Suppose the analysand reports the image of a turtle in adream. What is the size of the turtle? Its color? Is it still anddormant or active? Are there anv unusual features? I mvselfhave had dreams of turtles fifty meters in diameter or as smallas several inches. But the small turtle was able to reach threefeet into the air and swallow a large chunk of roast beef inone gulp! A turtle is nrljust a turtle!Amplification of ImagesAmplification of a dream image is analogous to "peeling" thethree layers of a complex. First one finds the personal assocra-tions-where the image appeared in the patients life, what hethinks of the image, feels about it, etc. These associationsreveal the nature of the complex as it has developed aroundthe archetypal core. A person known to the dreamer mayappear in a dream, for example, raising the question as towhether the dream image should be taken objectively Qefer-ring to the actual person in the outer world) or subjectively(using the other person to personify a part of the dreamersown psyche). In practice, known persons, places or events arequite likely to carry an objective meaning, but they may alsorefer to intrapsychic realities of the dreamer, especially whenaccompanied by a strong emotional tone. While it is wisealways to keep both possibilities in mind, in clinical dreamwork from a Jungian point of view the emphasis is usually onthe intrapsychic significance of the dream images.34
  18. 18. -16 The Jungiun Approuch to Dreum.tThe "middle layer" of a complex contains images that aremore cultural or transpersonal, such as the convention of redtraffic lights meaning slop, white as a bridal color; the Presi-dent representing the ruling center of the United States, etc.Cultural amplifications are often known to the dreamer con-sciously, but may not be spontaneously mentioned. If thedreamer indicates assent when a Dossible cultural amDlifica-tion is offered by the analyst. it iray safely be considered apotential part of the complex behind the dream image.The third, archetypal level of amplification is a charactens-tically Jungian addition to the general field of dream interpre-tation. Archetypes in themselves are not visible, being simplytendencies to structure experience in certain ways. Any imagestructured by an archetype becomes an image oi that arche-type (though always conveying less than the total potentialiryof the archetype). Archetypal images in dreams are often notrecognized, because l) the analyst may be unaware of themythological or archetypal significance of a certain motif, and2) since any recurrent human experience can be archetypal,many archetypal elements are too commonplace to attractattention. Archetypal images are those that have provedmeaningful enough to a large number of people over a pro-tracted period of time so as to become an accepted part ofsome large symbolic system-often depicted in a folktale, fairy-tale, mythologem or religious system, living or archaic. Thepsyches of many persons, therefore, have "filtered" an archc-{ypal lmage.It is not necessary, in my opinion, to interpret at the arche-typal level in order to do generally good dream interpretationin a clinical setting. There are often instances, however, inwhich an archetypal interpretation is much more meaningfulthan one on a more Dersonal level. The realization of archc-typal images unknown to the conscious mind of the dreamercan open an important theoretical window into the deepernature of the psyche, and also provide a healthy perspectiveon our personal everyday dramas.Context of the Dream(ontert ol the Dreon 37tory to the conscious view of the ego, offering a counterpoint(often a more inclusive viewpoint) to the attitude of the domi-nant ego-identity. The ego always has a limited view of real-ity, while the dream manifests a tendency toward enlargementof the ego (although eventual enlargement may temporarilyrequire a more constricted or focused awareness). Placing thedream in the context of the dreamers life does not supportany easy reading of the dream as a clue to future action.Likewise, taking a dream as confirmation of ones presentconscious position is too easy in most cases to yield the com-pensating information that dreams contain. As a general rule,if you already know what the dream seems to be saying, thenyou have missed its meaning.When dream interpretation is a routine part of psychother-apy, a context also develops in a series of dreams, so that onecan relate an image in a current dream to a similar image inpast dreams. The related but different images may be consid-ered different views of the same complex, often giving addi-tional elues as to the underlying meaning.There are other maxims of dream intemretation. but thethree basic movements described above conititute the essence.Our later examination of specific dream examples, as well asthe therapists own experience. will add to an understandingof how these principles are applied in actual practice. Somedreams fit easily into a classic dramatic structure a situation,comnlication. climax and result. In such dreams it is oftenDossible to trace unexDected connections between one sceneand another. so that that fbllows is in some sense "caused"by the action of the dream-ego in the preceding scene. It rsparticularly important to observe the activity (or lack of it) ofthe dream-ego, often suggesting immediate parallels in wakinglile. In general, dream activity that takes place without theparticipation of the dream-ego (or with the dream-ego as anoutside, passive observer) tends to be also "outside"-that is,unconscious-in the wakins life of the dreamer. Other maximswill be discussed in the foll-owins chaoters.The dream must be read asainst the context of the dreamerscurrent life. Jung felt that dreams were most often compensa-
  19. 19. -t-4Dreams as Diagnostic ToolsInitial Dreams in AnalysisIn the initial meeting with a prospective analysand, dreamscan offer information both as to diagnosis and prognosis.While dream interpretation can never substitute for i thor-ough clinical interview and mental status examination, drearnscan. be a gref,t help if properly integrated with the othercIn rcal materrat.Inquiry about recent or significant dreams fits naturally intoan initial interview, when one is asking questions that allowobservations of the patients intellectuai functioning: flow ofthought; ability to abstract; orientation as to Iime, place andsituation; recent and remote memory; judgment in real andhypothetical situations; level, congruence and type of affectivelesponse; and such optional but interesting aspects of mentalfunctioning as revealed hy prorerh interpretation. ew pa-trents are fiequently pleased to be asked about dreams, sincein the popular mind dream interpretation is considered a nat-urrl part of psychoanalytic practice Qtsychoanalysis in a ge-nenc sense, not srmply Freudian psychoanalysis). In fact, thepublic is generally very interested in the meaning of dreams.and even many depth psychologists are ill-prepared to re-spond to this interest.Recent dreams, particularly those dreamed after the initialappomtment was made but before it actually occurred, mayreveal aspects of the patients current unconscious functioning.Dreams that occur early in analysis sometimes point to thelong-range outcome oI the presenting problem. A man with along-standing practice of "cross-dressing," for example, had adream early in analysis that he was dressed in- womensclothes, walking across the parking garage of a hotel, when theelothing begari ro slip off witho;i hrsbeing alarmed. Thisforeshadowed a successful treatment of the transvestism(which had no elements of homosexualitv) within a comDara-tively short period of therapy (although of course there werecri:ir periodr and difficulties dunng the rrealmenr).Iniriul Drean.s in Anult.ti.s 39Another man with problems of sexual identity had twocarly dreams indicating an eventual resolution of his anxiety.Ile functioned both homosexually and bisexually, but pre-lerred to be exclusively heterosexual. His homosexual func-tioning, as well as his anxiety and poor self-esteem, seemedclearly related to oedipal problems; in more psychodynamicterms. he was looking for a male relationship to compensatelbr what he felt to be an emotionally absent father. His twoclrly dreams showed that the unconscious was prepared to seethe problem through to a successful conclusion:Dream l:I was in a "sex den" or cave. sleczv. unpleasant. I finishsomeones drink in a ritualistic manner. The scene changcs andI am in a tall trce with lots of branches. I cant get down.lhere are other pcople around ard a radio is plaving. I finallyrealize that no one will gct me down and lhal I must jump. IrJllcd oul lbr h(ll. thoutsh. JnJ lu( nten came and put rplank liom a bridge to the limb where I was hanging.Drcam 2 (lwo nights later):I was with a man in a buildins in Hololulu. We went into thehasement ro un oriental huth rnJ uere flopptng around indiffercnt pools. Then wc sat in chairs with belts on them, like aride at Disneyworld. He kncw how to put the belt on but I hadnot read the instructions. Nevertheless. I made it to the end o[the ride. The chairs wcnt in and out of thc watcr during theride.In both of these early dreams, one can see the motif ofgetting safely down to the ground (Dream l) or to the end ofihe ride (Dream 2) without serious accident. but with sometension and anxiety. In the first dream, help materializes onlywhen the dream-ego has accepted responsibiUty and decidesto jump down if necessary. In the second, the dreamer is notas accomplished as his friend, but is able to finish the ridesafely an).way. Both these dreams suggested a "good" out-come, in terms of consolidating his masculine identity. Withlna few weeks he had begun a satisfying affair with a womanand his homosexual contacts and thoughts diminished; hesimultaneously began to feel able to express a more independ-ent position in relation to his parents.These two dreams are presented here only for their prog-nostic implications, although there are clearly many other use-38
  20. 20. 10 Dreams as Dias osti( Toolsful views of them as well. Being "up a tree," for instance,colloquially suggests a difficult situation, echoing shamanisticinitiation rituals, which were sometimes pictured as takingplace in a tree, and on an archetypal level pointing to thetheme of the world tree or dirfu mundi a frequent svmbol ofthe centering process in the individual psyche.Related lmages in a Dream SeriesProgress in the dissolution of a neurotic pattern can often befollowed in dreams extending over a irearment period ofmonlhs or een years. A woman uith marked distuibance inearly family life showed such changes. As a child she hadbeen a principal source of emotional support for an alcoholicfather. If she did not try to take care of him, she felt guilty.Her mother was an accomplished professional woman whoheld out "high" standards of attainment for the girl, but gavehe r little actual emotional approval. When she went for psy-chotherapy for problems in her marriage, she decided on di-vorce, but then fell into a sexual relationshio with her lornrcrtherapist and later married him, only to eiperience a recur-rence of the sexual unresponsiveness she had felt in her firstmarnage. Attempts at intercourse often left her furious. Shethen entered Jungian treatment. In both group psychotherapyand individual analysis she was helpful and intellectually in-sightful, although persistent psychosomatic problems (alwaysrelated to emotional factors) necessitated several hospitaliza-I io ns.A very revealing incident happened in an early group ther-apy session: she was being her usual helpful and inslghtfulself (similar to her relation wirh her father), but when a malegroup member refused her help she burst into a sudden rage,showing for the first time her underlying anger (related to herdepression). At about this time she dreamed:A mother dog with two grown pups hanging on hcr teats isdragging herself down the street. One of the pups fblls off andis hit b; a c.rr. lt explode iil,e.r bomb.This striking image of an exploding puppy became a symbolfor her dependency problem and the unconscious anger asso-Reluled Imu1es in u Drean Series 4lciated with it. Many situations in waking life could be relatedto her unconscious identification with either the person whowas worn out with taking care of others (the self-sacrificingmother) or the explosive anger that developed from her owndependency (the explosive puppy) both because the depend-ency needs were never fully satisfied and because they pre-vented her from achieving her own adult maturity and inde-pendence.-After her second divorce, she continued in analysis but forsome time avoided any personal relationship with men Dur-ing this period, she dreamed:I was in an Egyptian room like in a pyrarrid. On a raised area.an altar or a 6ier. an Egyptian princess is in labor and is aboutto givc birth to a child. At the base of the raised atea. I wasbeing raped by Ia llther figure] who held ne in onc positionwhenever i tried to escape. I hoPc that thc wonlan will givebirth. so that the womans husband will come and sec the raPeand rescue me.It was clear from this dream that the father complex wasmuch more active in her psychology than was her conflictedrelationship with her mother. It also showed the possibility ofnew life (the incipient birth), suggesting a change not initiatedby the ego, but which could possibly lead to the rescue of thedreamer from the unconscious pattern symbolized in thedream as incest with the father.Sisnificantlv. soon after this dream the woman fell into asexuil relationship with the man whose wife had appeared lnthe dream as the Egyptian princess a rather obvious projec-tion of the dreamers internal rescuer onto an actual man.After a brief period of happiness, their relationship ended andshe became severely depressed, which she knew was not re-lated entirely to the external triangular situation. Alter sometime. she dreamed:I was giving my mothcr a presenl and she reactsd as shealways did in reality-she nevcr liked anything t gave her. Icould nerer please her. Then I realized n lr,r she wasnt pleasedshe was dcad! There was a doctor there from a soap opera Iuscd to watch when I rvas in my first narriage and nly kidswere little. He was a good and hclpful doctor in thc story.
  21. 21. t12 Drean.s us l)idgtlosti( Tool.Althoush this dream seemed to indicate a new awarenessassociated with the "death" of the mother comDlex. there waslittle inmediate change in her clinical depression. She strug-gled with the idea of moving to another city to get away fiomthe man who still troubled her thoughts. At this time shedreamed what proved to indicate a turning point in her neu-rosis. She had been greatly depressed the day before thedream and also suffered from her psychosomatic problems.The morning after the dream, she described herself as "hypo-manic" and happy and (most importantly) without the psy-chosomatic discomfort that usuallv olasued her. Here is thedream:I rm in a room willr my mothcr lwho wrs dead in the previousdream and also in fact]. I am begging some nlan to hxvcintercourse $ith n]e. He doesnt much want to but agreesbecru.e. ,rr ht srys. "lt. the lJrt lime. lhe rc,..n.. . hrngri.rnJI sce a pool of blood with something jn it that is either a tleadbaby or a dead dog. Its a gruesome sight. but somchow it is allright because it would have diecl anyway.Her asking the man for sex showed the previously unrecog-nized desire behind what had only been experienced as rape.Her association to the "baby or dog" was to the earlier dreamof the exploding puppy. The sense that the father complexunderlying her neurotic problems was dissolving was reflectedin the words of the man in the dream: "Its the last time." Theabrupt disappearance of her difficult psychosomatic symptomsreinfbrced the interpretation ol the dream as indicating a realchange in the pattern of complexes, the objeclrelation patternthat seemed to be the schema of her two basic neurotic identi-ties as either the caretaker or (as here) the one who feltdependent on others. The presence of her mother suggests theinvolvement of the mother complex as well, but that problemis not the active focus olthe dream. nor was it the focus in thcdream of the Egyptian princess. There is a sense that thedeath of the "baby or the dog" is connected with "the lasttime," as it would be if it were a dog, associated with theexplosive pupp) representing her dependency problem.The uncertainty as to whether it was a baby (which mightindicate the death of real human possibilities) or a dog (sug-Reluted InMges in u Dreun Series 43gestlng the sacrifice of an animal instinct that might laterreappear in human form) was apparently settled by a dreamthat occurred the next night:Idrcamed all night of two things. as il they came in and out ofmy awareness throughout the night. One was a dead and flat-tened "cockroaclr" that had legs ali around it. [A drawing ofwhat she had secn resembled a childs dra*ing olthe sun discwith ladial bcams.] Next to the "cockroach" was a dead mousethat had been caretulll wrappcd in a littlc blanket. The mousehad big. bluc penetrating eyes. almost like a person.Her association to the cockroach was to one of the mostdisgusting things in the world: "a huge Houston cockroach."She noted that the drawing had "excess legs." The form of thecockroach also reminded her of a "yarn-dog" that was popu-lar when she was a teenager (when much of the tense interac-tion with her father occurred). She remembered havine ayarn-dog on her bed, with the yrrn "hair" spread radially l.-ikethe legs of the cockroach. These associations together with theother images in the dream suggested that it was a dead dog inthe previous dream rather than a baby. The reasoning is thrs:if her nsvche is concerned with the same constellated com-nlexes inboth dreams. what was shown as dead in one dreammay be shown as dead in another, although the change rnimagery may express a nuance of the complex represented bythe different images; since the "dead" things in the seconddream are clearly non-human (although the mouse hashuman-like eyes) it is likely that the preceding dream showedthe death of a dog rather than the death of a human potentialthat would more likely have been symbolized by a dead baby.This series of dreams illustrates a number of importantpoints in clinical dream interpretation. First, the sequence ofrelated dream images permits both a sense of prognostic im-provement and some understanding of images that might oth-erwise be more ambiguous. Second, the images over a seriesof dreams are similar but not identical the "dog," the "babyor a dos." the flattened "cockroach" and the "dead mouse"showinf that different images can represent the same underly-ing complex. (Actually, the dead mouse with the human-likeeves could be associated also to an earlier dream in which the
  22. 22. lr-41 Dreums as Didgnosticloolsdream-ego cooked "a large fish with human eyes," whichseemed to have eucharistic connotations, implying self-sacri-hce in the service of others.)Third, the change in the nature or tenor of the dreamscoincides with increased activity on the part of the drearn-ego.Although not invariable (nor i! any "rule" of dream interire-tation), it seems that resolution of consrellated dream stiuc-tures often follows an action of the dream-ego. even if the"action" in the dream is simply a change in attitude ratherthan physical activity. Fourth, this series of dreams illustrateshow the dream-ego may become progressively more involvedin the neurotic complex structure pictured in the dreams: inthe exploding puppy dream the dream-ego is merely a passrveobserver: in the Egyptian princess dream, the dream-egowishes to act but cannot; in the dream of begging a man tohave intercourse with her, the dream-ego is finallv active.Could it be this activity that "causes" thi man to lnnounce"its the last time," and "causes" the death of the cockroachand the mouse? (This is simply to raise the quesrion of causeand effect in dreams, for which there are as vet no definitiveanswers.)This womans extended series of dreams (from which thosepresented here are intuitively selected) can best be viewed asrepresenting an enduring structure of complexes of a sexu-alized dominance-submission form. The driam-eso tand thewaking-ego) at various times identified with one-pole or theother of the pattern. As she moved toward basic ilinical im-provement, the series ended not in another oscillation betweenthe poles of that pattern but in the "death" of the patternitself, which pointed psychologically to the depotenriaiion ofthe underlying complex.Differential DiagnosisInitial dreams may help in differentiating various diagnoses,such-asanxiety neurosis or depressive neurosis. Dreams mzLyalso be useful in making distinctions between neurosis, psy-chosis and characterologiial or organic problems, all of wirichmay present with overlapping sympromatology. Diagnosticterms may be stated differently in various diagnostic systemsD(Jerenriul Diagnosis 15(such as the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual II or 111 oftheAmerican Psychiatric Association), but the basic clinical syn-dromes remain relatively constant. The basic neurotic patternspresent as mixtures of anxiety and depression with variousdegrees of dissociation.DepressionAithough there are many theories of depression, ranging frompurely psychogenic to organic, it is generally true that psycho-genic depression is somehow related to anger that is not givensufficient expression in consciousness. Anger typically arisestoward some person in the environment, either present orpast, and is secondarily turned upon the ego-image itself,iesulting in depression. This classic psychological dynamic canoften be seen with unusual clarity in dreams, and can serve asa diasnostic indicator.Wiat would be experienced by the waking-ego as depres-sion is likely to be shown in the dream as aggression towardthe dream-ego by another figure. In the case of the womanwhose dreams were discussed in the previous section, the de-pression began to lift when she was the sexual aggressor in thedream of the dead "dog or baby," but in the Egyptian prin-cess dream (when she was still depressed) she was held tightlyin an unwanted sexual embrace by an aggressive father-likehgure.Another woman who experienced consciously a mixture ofanger and depression, evoked by her husbands involvementwith another woman, had dreams of being threatened by var-ious insects and reptiles. but as she took a more assertivestand toward the outer situation her depression began to lift.The change could be followed through changes in the dreams.In an early dream she was alone in the desert at night, sur-rounded by cactus and scorpions, afraid to move; in a dreama few weeks later, she was walking on a sidewalk on a collegecampus (something to learn?) where there were many porson-ous snakes around but not actually on the sidewalks, andother people were there and it was daytime instead of night.The aggressive, non-human elements in the earlier dreams canbe seen as her own unexpressed aggression, indicating the
  23. 23. T16 Dreum.s a.y Diugnostit Toolsneed to assert her true feelings. As she did so. her dre;Lmimages hecame less I h reute n in glAnxiel.yA number of classic anxiety dreams can be seen in manypatients. There are three major types that deserve notice: i)dreams of being unprepared for an examination; 2) dreams ofbeing pursued by some threatening person or creature; and 3)dreams suggesting physical danger to the dream-ego, such asdreams of falling or being threatened by natural eventsearthquakes, tidal waves, forest fires, etc. where there is nomalicious motive toward the dream-ego. Anxietv mav ofcourse take many other forms in dreims, but tfiese ihreepatterns are particu Iarly recurrent.Examination dreams have a typical form. The dream-egorealizes that an examination is scheduled, usually a flnal examfor a college or high school course, and for some reason thedreamer is unprepared. having forgotten to study for the examor to go to the course, or not knowing where the examinationis to be held. The dream-ego may also be late for the exam-inatron. Such dreams are more structured (and more freouentin m; experience) than the more primitive dreams of pursuitan_d falling. Because examinations represent evaluarion bycollective standards, they point to persona-anxiety anxietyabout how one appears in the eyes of others. or a fear of notmeasuring up to a social role: "Is he a good musician?" "Canhe really perform his job well?" etc.Pursuit dreams indicate anxiety of a more primitive naturc.but they are not quite so unstruitured as dreims of falting ordreams of natural catastrophy, such as earthquakes or the indof the world. It is important to note whal is pursuing thedream-ego. Is it a person (male or female)? Is it an animal. amonster or "spacemen?" Is the dream-ego pursued by one"thing" or a collective, such as a mob?At times there are very revealing changes in the person orthing that pursues. At first it may appear frightening, but as itlpproaches there may be no indication of aggression to justifythe fear felt by the dream-ego. One man dreimed there was alarge monster in the darkness, coming toward the dream-egoDil/arentiul DiugnosLt 47who stood in a pool of light by a streetlamp. But when the"monster" actually reached the light, it was nothing but ilmouse. Perhaps in the dark it lr.rs a monster. but was modi-lied as it approached the "light" of consciousness surroundingthe dream-ego. Complexes in connection with the ego (dreamor waking) do not behave in the same manner as complexesunattached to the ego and therefore unconscious.A woman dreamid that when she opened the faucet in herbathroom an angry alligator came out. It pursued herthroughout the house, but when she was able to open thefront door and suide it out with a broom, it transformed intoa friendly puppy in the sunlight (consciousness). Anotherwoman dreamed that she opened the window shade andlbund a large spider entirely iovering thc scrccn of the win-dow, striking terror into the dream-ego. The spider slowlymoved, however. and walked down into the front yard (an-other symbol of consciousness), where it, too, changed into apuppy that was friendly and playful.The transformation of frightening dream images is similarto what commonly occurs in fairytales: the fiog becomes aprince, the beast a handsome young man, etc. Such transfor-mations, particularly those where an animal or thing changesinto a person, seem to picture the "desire" of unconsciouscontenti to become conscious and participate in the life of theego; this appears in dreams as a transformation of thcir primi-tive nature and a movement toward the human realnl.The terrifying unknown "thing" that pursues the dream-egomay be threatening to the dream-ego but not threatening tothe individuation process in which the ego is cmbedded. Ex-amine the dream to see if there is any overt indication that thepursuing "thing" is actually trying to harm the dream-ego. Itmay simply represent an unconscious aspect of the dreamerthat is trying to make contact with the ego, although it maybecome more aggressive and frightening if the dream-ego re-sists the contact. Remember that the contents or qualities ofthe shadow almost always appear to the dominant ego-imageas severc threats, even though potentitlly valuable to the egoftrr the ncrt stage uf individuation.For example, a woman who had worked for many yearswith a severe negative mother complex dreamed:
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