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  • 3. Dream Psychology (SolarResearch Archive)Sigmund Freud
  • 4. 2 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)Books iReadhttp://booksiread.org Sigmund FreudRelease Date: March 28, 2005 [EBook #15489]Language: EnglishProduced by David Newman, Joel Schlos-
  • 5. 3berg and the Online Distributed ProofreadingTeam.DREAM PSYCHOLOGY-PSYCHOANALYSIS FOR BEGINNERS-BY PROF. DR. SIGMUND FREUDAUTHORIZED ENGLISH TRANSLATION BYM.D. EDERWITH AN INTRODUCTION BY ANDRE TRI-DON Author of ”Psychoanalysis, its History, The-ory and Practice.” ”Psychoanalysis and Behav-ior” and ”Psychoanalysis, Sleep and Dreams”NEW YORK THE JAMES A. McCANN COM-PANY 1920THE JAMES A. McCANN COMPANY
  • 6. 4 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)
  • 7. PRINTED IN THEU.S.A.INTRODUCTIONThe medical profession is justly conservative.Human life should not be considered as theproper material for wild experiments.Conservatism, however, is too often a wel-come excuse for lazy minds, loath to adapt them-selves to fast changing conditions.Remember the scornful reception which firstwas accorded to Freud’s discoveries in the do-5
  • 8. 6 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)main of the unconscious.When after years of patient observations, hefinally decided to appear before medical bod-ies to tell them modestly of some facts whichalways recurred in his dream and his patients’dreams, he was first laughed at and then avoidedas a crank.The words ”dream interpretation” were andstill are indeed fraught with unpleasant, un-scientific associations. They remind one of allsorts of childish, superstitious notions, whichmake up the thread and woof of dream books,read by none but the ignorant and the primi-tive.The wealth of detail, the infinite care neverto let anything pass unexplained, with which hepresented to the public the result of his investi-gations, are impressing more and more serious-minded scientists, but the examination of his
  • 9. 7evidential data demands arduous work and pre-supposes an absolutely open mind.This is why we still encounter men, totallyunfamiliar with Freud’s writings, men who werenot even interested enough in the subject to at-tempt an interpretation of their dreams or theirpatients’ dreams, deriding Freud’s theories andcombatting them with the help of statementswhich he never made.Some of them, like Professor Boris Sidis, reachat times conclusions which are strangely simi-lar to Freud’s, but in their ignorance of psycho-analytic literature, they fail to credit Freud forobservations antedating theirs.Besides those who sneer at dream study, be-cause they have never looked into the subject,there are those who do not dare to face the factsrevealed by dream study. Dreams tell us manyan unpleasant biological truth about ourselves
  • 10. 8 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)and only very free minds can thrive on sucha diet. Self-deception is a plant which withersfast in the pellucid atmosphere of dream inves-tigation.The weakling and the neurotic attached tohis neurosis are not anxious to turn such apowerful searchlight upon the dark corners oftheir psychology.Freud’s theories are anything but theoreti-cal.He was moved by the fact that there alwaysseemed to be a close connection between hispatients’ dreams and their mental abnormali-ties, to collect thousands of dreams and to com-pare them with the case histories in his posses-sion.He did not start out with a preconceived bias,hoping to find evidence which might supporthis views. He looked at facts a thousand times
  • 11. 9”until they began to tell him something.”His attitude toward dream study was, in otherwords, that of a statistician who does not know,and has no means of foreseeing, what conclu-sions will be forced on him by the informationhe is gathering, but who is fully prepared to ac-cept those unavoidable conclusions.This was indeed a novel way in psychology.Psychologists had always been wont to build,in what Bleuler calls ”autistic ways,” that isthrough methods in no wise supported by evi-dence, some attractive hypothesis, which sprungfrom their brain, like Minerva from Jove’s brain,fully armed.After which, they would stretch upon thatunyielding frame the hide of a reality which theyhad previously killed.It is only to minds suffering from the samedistortions, to minds also autistically inclined,
  • 12. 10 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)that those empty, artificial structures appearacceptable molds for philosophic thinking.The pragmatic view that ”truth is what works”had not been as yet expressed when Freud pub-lished his revolutionary views on the psychol-ogy of dreams.Five facts of first magnitude were made obvi-ous to the world by his interpretation of dreams.First of all, Freud pointed out a constantconnection between some part of every dreamand some detail of the dreamer’s life during theprevious waking state. This positively estab-lishes a relation between sleeping states andwaking states and disposes of the widely preva-lent view that dreams are purely nonsensicalphenomena coming from nowhere and leadingnowhere.Secondly, Freud, after studying the dreamer’slife and modes of thought, after noting down
  • 13. 11all his mannerisms and the apparently insignif-icant details of his conduct which reveal hissecret thoughts, came to the conclusion thatthere was in every dream the attempted or suc-cessful gratification of some wish, conscious orunconscious.Thirdly, he proved that many of our dreamvisions are symbolical, which causes us to con-sider them as absurd and unintelligible; theuniversality of those symbols, however, makesthem very transparent to the trained observer.Fourthly, Freud showed that sexual desiresplay an enormous part in our unconscious, apart which puritanical hypocrisy has always triedto minimize, if not to ignore entirely.Finally, Freud established a direct connec-tion between dreams and insanity, between thesymbolic visions of our sleep and the symbolicactions of the mentally deranged.
  • 14. 12 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)There were, of course, many other observa-tions which Freud made while dissecting thedreams of his patients, but not all of them presentas much interest as the foregoing nor were theyas revolutionary or likely to wield as much in-fluence on modern psychiatry.Other explorers have struck the path blazedby Freud and leading into man’s unconscious.Jung of Zurich, Adler of Vienna and Kempf ofWashington, D.C., have made to the study ofthe unconscious, contributions which have broughtthat study into fields which Freud himself neverdreamt of invading.One fact which cannot be too emphaticallystated, however, is that but for Freud’s wishful-fillment theory of dreams, neither Jung’s ”ener-gic theory,” nor Adler’s theory of ”organ inferi-ority and compensation,” nor Kempf’s ”dynamicmechanism” might have been formulated.
  • 15. 13Freud is the father of modern abnormal psy-chology and he established the psychoanalyti-cal point of view. No one who is not well groundedin Freudian lore can hope to achieve any workof value in the field of psychoanalysis.On the other hand, let no one repeat the ab-surd assertion that Freudism is a sort of reli-gion bounded with dogmas and requiring an actof faith. Freudism as such was merely a stagein the development of psychoanalysis, a stageout of which all but a few bigoted camp follow-ers, totally lacking in originality, have evolved.Thousands of stones have been added to thestructure erected by the Viennese physician andmany more will be added in the course of time.But the new additions to that structure wouldcollapse like a house of cards but for the origi-nal foundations which are as indestructible asHarvey’s statement as to the circulation of the
  • 16. 14 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)blood.Regardless of whatever additions or changeshave been made to the original structure, theanalytic point of view remains unchanged.That point of view is not only revolutionis-ing all the methods of diagnosis and treatmentof mental derangements, but compelling the in-telligent, up-to-date physician to revise entirelyhis attitude to almost every kind of disease.The insane are no longer absurd and pitiablepeople, to be herded in asylums till nature ei-ther cures them or relieves them, through death,of their misery. The insane who have not beenmade so by actual injury to their brain or ner-vous system, are the victims of unconsciousforces which cause them to do abnormally thingswhich they might be helped to do normally.Insight into one’s psychology is replacing vic-toriously sedatives and rest cures.
  • 17. 15Physicians dealing with ”purely” physical caseshave begun to take into serious considerationthe ”mental” factors which have predisposed apatient to certain ailments.Freud’s views have also made a revision ofall ethical and social values unavoidable andhave thrown an unexpected flood of light uponliterary and artistic accomplishment.But the Freudian point of view, or more broadlyspeaking, the psychoanalytic point of view, shallever remain a puzzle to those who, from lazi-ness or indifference, refuse to survey with thegreat Viennese the field over which he carefullygroped his way. We shall never be convinceduntil we repeat under his guidance all his lab-oratory experiments.We must follow him through the thickets ofthe unconscious, through the land which hadnever been charted because academic philoso-
  • 18. 16 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)phers, following the line of least effort, had de-cided -a priori- that it could not be charted.Ancient geographers, when exhausting theirstore of information about distant lands, yieldedto an unscientific craving for romance and, with-out any evidence to support their day dreams,filled the blank spaces left on their maps by un-explored tracts with amusing inserts such as”Here there are lions.”Thanks to Freud’s interpretation of dreamsthe ”royal road” into the unconscious is nowopen to all explorers. They shall not find lions,they shall find man himself, and the record ofall his life and of his struggle with reality.And it is only after seeing man as his uncon-scious, revealed by his dreams, presents him tous that we shall understand him fully. For asFreud said to Putnam: ”We are what we are be-cause we have been what we have been.”
  • 19. 17Not a few serious-minded students, however,have been discouraged from attempting a studyof Freud’s dream psychology.The book in which he originally offered tothe world his interpretation of dreams was ascircumstantial as a legal record to be ponderedover by scientists at their leisure, not to be as-similated in a few hours by the average alertreader. In those days, Freud could not leaveout any detail likely to make his extremely novelthesis evidentially acceptable to those willing tosift data.Freud himself, however, realized the mag-nitude of the task which the reading of his -magnum opus- imposed upon those who havenot been prepared for it by long psychologicaland scientific training and he abstracted fromthat gigantic work the parts which constitutethe essential of his discoveries.
  • 20. 18 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)The publishers of the present book deservecredit for presenting to the reading public thegist of Freud’s psychology in the master’s ownwords, and in a form which shall neither dis-courage beginners, nor appear too elementaryto those who are more advanced in psychoana-lytic study.Dream psychology is the key to Freud’s worksand to all modern psychology. With a simple,compact manual such as -Dream Psychology-there shall be no longer any excuse for igno-rance of the most revolutionary psychologicalsystem of modern times.
  • 23. DREAMPSYCHOLOGY IDREAMS HAVE AMEANINGIn what we may term ”prescientific days” peo-ple were in no uncertainty about the interpre-tation of dreams. When they were recalled af-ter awakening they were regarded as either thefriendly or hostile manifestation of some higherpowers, demoniacal and Divine. With the rise21
  • 24. 22 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)of scientific thought the whole of this expres-sive mythology was transferred to psychology;to-day there is but a small minority among ed-ucated persons who doubt that the dream isthe dreamer’s own psychical act.But since the downfall of the mythologicalhypothesis an interpretation of the dream hasbeen wanting. The conditions of its origin; itsrelationship to our psychical life when we areawake; its independence of disturbances which,during the state of sleep, seem to compel no-tice; its many peculiarities repugnant to ourwaking thought; the incongruence between itsimages and the feelings they engender; thenthe dream’s evanescence, the way in which, onawakening, our thoughts thrust it aside as some-thing bizarre, and our reminiscences mutilat-ing or rejecting it–all these and many other prob-lems have for many hundred years demanded
  • 25. 23answers which up till now could never havebeen satisfactory. Before all there is the ques-tion as to the meaning of the dream, a questionwhich is in itself double-sided. There is, firstly,the psychical significance of the dream, its po-sition with regard to the psychical processes,as to a possible biological function; secondly,has the dream a meaning–can sense be madeof each single dream as of other mental synthe-ses?Three tendencies can be observed in the es-timation of dreams. Many philosophers havegiven currency to one of these tendencies, onewhich at the same time preserves something ofthe dream’s former over-valuation. The foun-dation of dream life is for them a peculiar stateof psychical activity, which they even celebrateas elevation to some higher state. Schubert, forinstance, claims: ”The dream is the liberation
  • 26. 24 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)of the spirit from the pressure of external na-ture, a detachment of the soul from the fettersof matter.” Not all go so far as this, but manymaintain that dreams have their origin in realspiritual excitations, and are the outward man-ifestations of spiritual powers whose free move-ments have been hampered during the day (”DreamPhantasies,” Scherner, Volkelt). A large num-ber of observers acknowledge that dream life iscapable of extraordinary achievements–at anyrate, in certain fields (”Memory”).In striking contradiction with this the ma-jority of medical writers hardly admit that thedream is a psychical phenomenon at all. Ac-cording to them dreams are provoked and ini-tiated exclusively by stimuli proceeding fromthe senses or the body, which either reach thesleeper from without or are accidental distur-bances of his internal organs. The dream has
  • 27. 25no greater claim to meaning and importancethan the sound called forth by the ten fingersof a person quite unacquainted with music run-ning his fingers over the keys of an instrument.The dream is to be regarded, says Binz, ”asa physical process always useless, frequentlymorbid.” All the peculiarities of dream life areexplicable as the incoherent effort, due to somephysiological stimulus, of certain organs, or ofthe cortical elements of a brain otherwise asleep.But slightly affected by scientific opinion anduntroubled as to the origin of dreams, the pop-ular view holds firmly to the belief that dreamsreally have got a meaning, in some way theydo foretell the future, whilst the meaning canbe unravelled in some way or other from its oftbizarre and enigmatical content. The reading ofdreams consists in replacing the events of thedream, so far as remembered, by other events.
  • 28. 26 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)This is done either scene by scene, -accordingto some rigid key-, or the dream as a wholeis replaced by something else of which it wasa -symbol-. Serious-minded persons laugh atthese efforts–”Dreams are but sea-foam!”One day I discovered to my amazement thatthe popular view grounded in superstition, andnot the medical one, comes nearer to the truthabout dreams. I arrived at new conclusionsabout dreams by the use of a new method ofpsychological investigation, one which had ren-dered me good service in the investigation ofphobias, obsessions, illusions, and the like, andwhich, under the name ”psycho-analysis,” hadfound acceptance by a whole school of inves-tigators. The manifold analogies of dream lifewith the most diverse conditions of psychicaldisease in the waking state have been rightlyinsisted upon by a number of medical observers.
  • 29. 27It seemed, therefore, -a priori-, hopeful to applyto the interpretation of dreams methods of in-vestigation which had been tested in psychopatho-logical processes. Obsessions and those pe-culiar sensations of haunting dread remain asstrange to normal consciousness as do dreamsto our waking consciousness; their origin is asunknown to consciousness as is that of dreams.It was practical ends that impelled us, in thesediseases, to fathom their origin and formation.Experience had shown us that a cure and aconsequent mastery of the obsessing ideas didresult when once those thoughts, the connect-ing links between the morbid ideas and the restof the psychical content, were revealed whichwere heretofore veiled from consciousness. Theprocedure I employed for the interpretation ofdreams thus arose from psychotherapy.This procedure is readily described, although
  • 30. 28 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)its practice demands instruction and experience.Suppose the patient is suffering from intensemorbid dread. He is requested to direct his at-tention to the idea in question, without, how-ever, as he has so frequently done, meditatingupon it. Every impression about it, without anyexception, which occurs to him should be im-parted to the doctor. The statement which willbe perhaps then made, that he cannot concen-trate his attention upon anything at all, is tobe countered by assuring him most positivelythat such a blank state of mind is utterly im-possible. As a matter of fact, a great numberof impressions will soon occur, with which oth-ers will associate themselves. These will be in-variably accompanied by the expression of theobserver’s opinion that they have no meaningor are unimportant. It will be at once noticedthat it is this self-criticism which prevented the
  • 31. 29patient from imparting the ideas, which hadindeed already excluded them from conscious-ness. If the patient can be induced to abandonthis self-criticism and to pursue the trains ofthought which are yielded by concentrating theattention, most significant matter will be ob-tained, matter which will be presently seen tobe clearly linked to the morbid idea in question.Its connection with other ideas will be manifest,and later on will permit the replacement of themorbid idea by a fresh one, which is perfectlyadapted to psychical continuity.This is not the place to examine thoroughlythe hypothesis upon which this experiment rests,or the deductions which follow from its invari-able success. It must suffice to state that weobtain matter enough for the resolution of everymorbid idea if we especially direct our attentionto the -unbidden- associations -which disturb
  • 32. 30 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)our thoughts—those which are otherwise putaside by the critic as worthless refuse. If theprocedure is exercised on oneself, the best planof helping the experiment is to write down atonce all one’s first indistinct fancies.I will now point out where this method leadswhen I apply it to the examination of dreams.Any dream could be made use of in this way.From certain motives I, however, choose a dreamof my own, which appears confused and mean-ingless to my memory, and one which has theadvantage of brevity. Probably my dream of lastnight satisfies the requirements. Its content,fixed immediately after awakening, runs as fol-lows:-”Company; at table or table d’hote.... Spinachis served. Mrs. E.L., sitting next to me, givesme her undivided attention, and places her handfamiliarly upon my knee. In defence I remove
  • 33. 31her hand. Then she says: ’But you have alwayshad such beautiful eyes.’.... I then distinctlysee something like two eyes as a sketch or asthe contour of a spectacle lens....”-This is the whole dream, or, at all events, allthat I can remember. It appears to me not onlyobscure and meaningless, but more especiallyodd. Mrs. E.L. is a person with whom I amscarcely on visiting terms, nor to my knowledgehave I ever desired any more cordial relation-ship. I have not seen her for a long time, anddo not think there was any mention of her re-cently. No emotion whatever accompanied thedream process.Reflecting upon this dream does not make ita bit clearer to my mind. I will now, however,present the ideas, without premeditation andwithout criticism, which introspection yielded.I soon notice that it is an advantage to break up
  • 34. 32 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the dream into its elements, and to search outthe ideas which link themselves to each frag-ment.-Company; at table or table d’hote.- The rec-ollection of the slight event with which the eveningof yesterday ended is at once called up. I lefta small party in the company of a friend, whooffered to drive me home in his cab. ”I prefera taxi,” he said; ”that gives one such a pleas-ant occupation; there is always something tolook at.” When we were in the cab, and thecab-driver turned the disc so that the first sixtyhellers were visible, I continued the jest. ”Wehave hardly got in and we already owe sixtyhellers. The taxi always reminds me of the ta-ble d’hote. It makes me avaricious and selfishby continuously reminding me of my debt. Itseems to me to mount up too quickly, and Iam always afraid that I shall be at a disadvan-
  • 35. 33tage, just as I cannot resist at table d’hote thecomical fear that I am getting too little, that Imust look after myself.” In far-fetched connec-tion with this I quote:”To earth, this weary earth, ye bring us, Toguilt ye let us heedless go.”Another idea about the table d’hote. A fewweeks ago I was very cross with my dear wifeat the dinner-table at a Tyrolese health resort,because she was not sufficiently reserved withsome neighbors with whom I wished to have ab-solutely nothing to do. I begged her to occupyherself rather with me than with the strangers.That is just as if I had -been at a disadvantageat the table d’hote-. The contrast between thebehavior of my wife at the table and that of Mrs.E.L. in the dream now strikes me: -”Addressesherself entirely to me.”-Further, I now notice that the dream is the
  • 36. 34 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)reproduction of a little scene which transpiredbetween my wife and myself when I was secretlycourting her. The caressing under cover of thetablecloth was an answer to a wooer’s passion-ate letter. In the dream, however, my wife isreplaced by the unfamiliar E.L.Mrs. E.L. is the daughter of a man to whom I-owed money-! I cannot help noticing that herethere is revealed an unsuspected connectionbetween the dream content and my thoughts. Ifthe chain of associations be followed up whichproceeds from one element of the dream one issoon led back to another of its elements. Thethoughts evoked by the dream stir up associ-ations which were not noticeable in the dreamitself.Is it not customary, when some one expectsothers to look after his interests without anyadvantage to themselves, to ask the innocent
  • 37. 35question satirically: ”Do you think this will bedone -for the sake of your beautiful eyes-?” HenceMrs. E.L.’s speech in the dream. ”You have al-ways had such beautiful eyes,” means nothingbut ”people always do everything to you for loveof you; you have had -everything for nothing-.”The contrary is, of course, the truth; I have al-ways paid dearly for whatever kindness othershave shown me. Still, the fact that -I had a ridefor nothing- yesterday when my friend drove mehome in his cab must have made an impressionupon me.In any case, the friend whose guests we wereyesterday has often made me his debtor. Re-cently I allowed an opportunity of requiting himto go by. He has had only one present from me,an antique shawl, upon which eyes are paintedall round, a so-called Occhiale, as a -charm-against the -Malocchio-. Moreover, he is an -
  • 38. 36 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)eye specialist-. That same evening I had askedhim after a patient whom I had sent to him for-glasses-.As I remarked, nearly all parts of the dreamhave been brought into this new connection. Istill might ask why in the dream it was -spinach-that was served up. Because spinach called upa little scene which recently occurred at our ta-ble. A child, whose -beautiful eyes- are reallydeserving of praise, refused to eat spinach. Asa child I was just the same; for a long time Iloathed -spinach-, until in later life my tastesaltered, and it became one of my favorite dishes.The mention of this dish brings my own child-hood and that of my child’s near together. ”Youshould be glad that you have some spinach,”his mother had said to the little gourmet. ”Somechildren would be very glad to get spinach.”Thus I am reminded of the parents’ duties to-
  • 39. 37wards their children. Goethe’s words–”To earth, this weary earth, ye bring us, Toguilt ye let us heedless go”–take on another meaning in this connection.Here I will stop in order that I may recapitu-late the results of the analysis of the dream. Byfollowing the associations which were linked tothe single elements of the dream torn from theircontext, I have been led to a series of thoughtsand reminiscences where I am bound to rec-ognize interesting expressions of my psychicallife. The matter yielded by an analysis of thedream stands in intimate relationship with thedream content, but this relationship is so spe-cial that I should never have been able to haveinferred the new discoveries directly from thedream itself. The dream was passionless, dis-connected, and unintelligible. During the timethat I am unfolding the thoughts at the back
  • 40. 38 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)of the dream I feel intense and well-groundedemotions. The thoughts themselves fit beau-tifully together into chains logically bound to-gether with certain central ideas which ever re-peat themselves. Such ideas not represented inthe dream itself are in this instance the antithe-ses -selfish, unselfish, to be indebted, to workfor nothing-. I could draw closer the threadsof the web which analysis has disclosed, andwould then be able to show how they all runtogether into a single knot; I am debarred frommaking this work public by considerations of aprivate, not of a scientific, nature. After havingcleared up many things which I do not willinglyacknowledge as mine, I should have much toreveal which had better remain my secret. Why,then, do not I choose another dream whose anal-ysis would be more suitable for publication, sothat I could awaken a fairer conviction of the
  • 41. 39sense and cohesion of the results disclosed byanalysis? The answer is, because every dreamwhich I investigate leads to the same difficultiesand places me under the same need of discre-tion; nor should I forgo this difficulty any themore were I to analyze the dream of some oneelse. That could only be done when opportunityallowed all concealment to be dropped withoutinjury to those who trusted me.The conclusion which is now forced uponme is that the dream is a -sort of substitution-for those emotional and intellectual trains ofthought which I attained after complete analy-sis. I do not yet know the process by which thedream arose from those thoughts, but I per-ceive that it is wrong to regard the dream aspsychically unimportant, a purely physical pro-cess which has arisen from the activity of iso-lated cortical elements awakened out of sleep.
  • 42. 40 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)I must further remark that the dream is farshorter than the thoughts which I hold it re-places; whilst analysis discovered that the dreamwas provoked by an unimportant occurrencethe evening before the dream.Naturally, I would not draw such far-reachingconclusions if only one analysis were known tome. Experience has shown me that when theassociations of any dream are honestly followedsuch a chain of thought is revealed, the con-stituent parts of the dream reappear correctlyand sensibly linked together; the slight suspi-cion that this concatenation was merely an ac-cident of a single first observation must, there-fore, be absolutely relinquished. I regard it,therefore, as my right to establish this new viewby a proper nomenclature. I contrast the dreamwhich my memory evokes with the dream andother added matter revealed by analysis: the
  • 43. 41former I call the dream’s -manifest content-;the latter, without at first further subdivision,its -latent content-. I arrive at two new prob-lems hitherto unformulated: (1) What is thepsychical process which has transformed thelatent content of the dream into its manifestcontent? (2) What is the motive or the motiveswhich have made such transformation exigent?The process by which the change from latentto manifest content is executed I name the -dream-work-. In contrast with this is the -workof analysis-, which produces the reverse trans-formation. The other problems of the dream–the inquiry as to its stimuli, as to the sourceof its materials, as to its possible purpose, thefunction of dreaming, the forgetting of dreams–these I will discuss in connection with the la-tent dream-content.I shall take every care to avoid a confusion
  • 44. 42 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)between the -manifest- and the -latent content-, for I ascribe all the contradictory as well asthe incorrect accounts of dream-life to the igno-rance of this latent content, now first laid barethrough analysis.The conversion of the latent dream thoughtsinto those manifest deserves our close studyas the first known example of the transforma-tion of psychical stuff from one mode of expres-sion into another. From a mode of expressionwhich, moreover, is readily intelligible into an-other which we can only penetrate by effort andwith guidance, although this new mode mustbe equally reckoned as an effort of our own psy-chical activity. From the standpoint of the re-lationship of latent to manifest dream-content,dreams can be divided into three classes. Wecan, in the first place, distinguish those dreamswhich have a -meaning- and are, at the same
  • 45. 43time, -intelligible-, which allow us to penetrateinto our psychical life without further ado. Suchdreams are numerous; they are usually short,and, as a general rule, do not seem very no-ticeable, because everything remarkable or ex-citing surprise is absent. Their occurrence is,moreover, a strong argument against the doc-trine which derives the dream from the isolatedactivity of certain cortical elements. All signs ofa lowered or subdivided psychical activity arewanting. Yet we never raise any objection tocharacterizing them as dreams, nor do we con-found them with the products of our wakinglife.A second group is formed by those dreamswhich are indeed self-coherent and have a dis-tinct meaning, but appear strange because weare unable to reconcile their meaning with ourmental life. That is the case when we dream,
  • 46. 44 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)for instance, that some dear relative has diedof plague when we know of no ground for ex-pecting, apprehending, or assuming anythingof the sort; we can only ask ourself wonder-ingly: ”What brought that into my head?” Tothe third group those dreams belong which arevoid of both meaning and intelligibility; they are-incoherent, complicated, and meaningless-. Theoverwhelming number of our dreams partakeof this character, and this has given rise to thecontemptuous attitude towards dreams and themedical theory of their limited psychical activ-ity. It is especially in the longer and more com-plicated dream-plots that signs of incoherenceare seldom missing.The contrast between manifest and latentdream-content is clearly only of value for thedreams of the second and more especially forthose of the third class. Here are problems
  • 47. 45which are only solved when the manifest dreamis replaced by its latent content; it was an ex-ample of this kind, a complicated and unin-telligible dream, that we subjected to analysis.Against our expectation we, however, struck uponreasons which prevented a complete cognizanceof the latent dream thought. On the repeti-tion of this same experience we were forced tothe supposition that there is an -intimate bond,with laws of its own, between the unintelligi-ble and complicated nature of the dream andthe difficulties attending communication of thethoughts connected with the dream-. Before in-vestigating the nature of this bond, it will beadvantageous to turn our attention to the morereadily intelligible dreams of the first class where,the manifest and latent content being identical,the dream work seems to be omitted.The investigation of these dreams is also ad-
  • 48. 46 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)visable from another standpoint. The dreams of-children- are of this nature; they have a mean-ing, and are not bizarre. This, by the way, is afurther objection to reducing dreams to a dis-sociation of cerebral activity in sleep, for whyshould such a lowering of psychical functionsbelong to the nature of sleep in adults, but notin children? We are, however, fully justifiedin expecting that the explanation of psychicalprocesses in children, essentially simplified asthey may be, should serve as an indispensablepreparation towards the psychology of the adult.I shall therefore cite some examples of dreamswhich I have gathered from children. A girl ofnineteen months was made to go without foodfor a day because she had been sick in themorning, and, according to nurse, had madeherself ill through eating strawberries. Dur-ing the night, after her day of fasting, she was
  • 49. 47heard calling out her name during sleep, andadding: ”-Tawberry, eggs, pap-.” She is dream-ing that she is eating, and selects out of hermenu exactly what she supposes she will notget much of just now.The same kind of dream about a forbiddendish was that of a little boy of twenty-two months.The day before he was told to offer his uncle apresent of a small basket of cherries, of whichthe child was, of course, only allowed one totaste. He woke up with the joyful news: ”Her-mann eaten up all the cherries.”A girl of three and a half years had madeduring the day a sea trip which was too shortfor her, and she cried when she had to get outof the boat. The next morning her story wasthat during the night she had been on the sea,thus continuing the interrupted trip.A boy of five and a half years was not at
  • 50. 48 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)all pleased with his party during a walk in theDachstein region. Whenever a new peak cameinto sight he asked if that were the Dachstein,and, finally, refused to accompany the party tothe waterfall. His behavior was ascribed to fa-tigue; but a better explanation was forthcomingwhen the next morning he told his dream: -hehad ascended the Dachstein-. Obviously he ex-pected the ascent of the Dachstein to be the ob-ject of the excursion, and was vexed by not get-ting a glimpse of the mountain. The dream gavehim what the day had withheld. The dream of agirl of six was similar; her father had cut shortthe walk before reaching the promised objec-tive on account of the lateness of the hour. Onthe way back she noticed a signpost giving thename of another place for excursions; her fa-ther promised to take her there also some otherday. She greeted her father next day with the
  • 51. 49news that she had dreamt that -her father hadbeen with her to both places-.What is common in all these dreams is ob-vious. They completely satisfy wishes excitedduring the day which remain unrealized. Theyare simply and undisguisedly realizations of wishes.The following child-dream, not quite under-standable at first sight, is nothing else than awish realized. On account of poliomyelitis agirl, not quite four years of age, was broughtfrom the country into town, and remained overnight with a childless aunt in a big–for her, nat-urally, huge–bed. The next morning she statedthat she had dreamt that -the bed was muchtoo small for her, so that she could find noplace in it-. To explain this dream as a wishis easy when we remember that to be ”big” is afrequently expressed wish of all children. Thebigness of the bed reminded Miss Little-Would-
  • 52. 50 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)be-Big only too forcibly of her smallness. Thisnasty situation became righted in her dream,and she grew so big that the bed now becametoo small for her.Even when children’s dreams are complicatedand polished, their comprehension as a realiza-tion of desire is fairly evident. A boy of eightdreamt that he was being driven with Achillesin a war-chariot, guided by Diomedes. The daybefore he was assiduously reading about greatheroes. It is easy to show that he took theseheroes as his models, and regretted that he wasnot living in those days.From this short collection a further charac-teristic of the dreams of children is manifest—their connection with the life of the day-. Thedesires which are realized in these dreams areleft over from the day or, as a rule, the dayprevious, and the feeling has become intently
  • 53. 51emphasized and fixed during the day thoughts.Accidental and indifferent matters, or what mustappear so to the child, find no acceptance in thecontents of the dream.Innumerable instances of such dreams of theinfantile type can be found among adults also,but, as mentioned, these are mostly exactly likethe manifest content. Thus, a random selectionof persons will generally respond to thirst atnight-time with a dream about drinking, thusstriving to get rid of the sensation and to letsleep continue. Many persons frequently havethese comforting -dreams- before waking, justwhen they are called. They then dream thatthey are already up, that they are washing, oralready in school, at the office, etc., where theyought to be at a given time. The night before anintended journey one not infrequently dreamsthat one has already arrived at the destination;
  • 54. 52 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)before going to a play or to a party the dreamnot infrequently anticipates, in impatience, asit were, the expected pleasure. At other timesthe dream expresses the realization of the de-sire somewhat indirectly; some connection, somesequel must be known–the first step towardsrecognizing the desire. Thus, when a husbandrelated to me the dream of his young wife, thather monthly period had begun, I had to be-think myself that the young wife would haveexpected a pregnancy if the period had beenabsent. The dream is then a sign of pregnancy.Its meaning is that it shows the wish realizedthat pregnancy should not occur just yet. Un-der unusual and extreme circumstances, thesedreams of the infantile type become very fre-quent. The leader of a polar expedition tells us,for instance, that during the wintering amid theice the crew, with their monotonous diet and
  • 55. 53slight rations, dreamt regularly, like children,of fine meals, of mountains of tobacco, and ofhome.It is not uncommon that out of some long,complicated and intricate dream one speciallylucid part stands out containing unmistakablythe realization of a desire, but bound up withmuch unintelligible matter. On more frequentlyanalyzing the seemingly more transparent dreamsof adults, it is astonishing to discover that theseare rarely as simple as the dreams of children,and that they cover another meaning beyondthat of the realization of a wish.It would certainly be a simple and conve-nient solution of the riddle if the work of anal-ysis made it at all possible for us to trace themeaningless and intricate dreams of adults backto the infantile type, to the realization of someintensely experienced desire of the day. But
  • 56. 54 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)there is no warrant for such an expectation.Their dreams are generally full of the most in-different and bizarre matter, and no trace of therealization of the wish is to be found in theircontent.Before leaving these infantile dreams, whichare obviously unrealized desires, we must notfail to mention another chief characteristic ofdreams, one that has been long noticed, andone which stands out most clearly in this class.I can replace any of these dreams by a phraseexpressing a desire. If the sea trip had onlylasted longer; if I were only washed and dressed;if I had only been allowed to keep the cherriesinstead of giving them to my uncle. But thedream gives something more than the choice,for here the desire is already realized; its real-ization is real and actual. The dream presen-tations consist chiefly, if not wholly, of scenes
  • 57. 55and mainly of visual sense images. Hence akind of transformation is not entirely absent inthis class of dreams, and this may be fairly des-ignated as the dream work. -An idea merely ex-isting in the region of possibility is replaced bya vision of its accomplishment.-
  • 58. 56 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)
  • 59. II THE DREAMMECHANISMWe are compelled to assume that such trans-formation of scene has also taken place in in-tricate dreams, though we do not know whetherit has encountered any possible desire. Thedream instanced at the commencement, whichwe analyzed somewhat thoroughly, did give usoccasion in two places to suspect something ofthe kind. Analysis brought out that my wifewas occupied with others at table, and that Idid not like it; in the dream itself -exactly the57
  • 60. 58 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)opposite- occurs, for the person who replacesmy wife gives me her undivided attention. Butcan one wish for anything pleasanter after adisagreeable incident than that the exact con-trary should have occurred, just as the dreamhas it? The stinging thought in the analysis,that I have never had anything for nothing, issimilarly connected with the woman’s remarkin the dream: ”You have always had such beau-tiful eyes.” Some portion of the opposition be-tween the latent and manifest content of thedream must be therefore derived from the real-ization of a wish.Another manifestation of the dream work whichall incoherent dreams have in common is stillmore noticeable. Choose any instance, and com-pare the number of separate elements in it, orthe extent of the dream, if written down, withthe dream thoughts yielded by analysis, and of
  • 61. 59which but a trace can be refound in the dreamitself. There can be no doubt that the dreamworking has resulted in an extraordinary com-pression or -condensation-. It is not at firsteasy to form an opinion as to the extent of thecondensation; the more deeply you go into theanalysis, the more deeply you are impressed byit. There will be found no factor in the dreamwhence the chains of associations do not leadin two or more directions, no scene which hasnot been pieced together out of two or moreimpressions and events. For instance, I oncedreamt about a kind of swimming-bath wherethe bathers suddenly separated in all directions;at one place on the edge a person stood bend-ing towards one of the bathers as if to drag himout. The scene was a composite one, made upout of an event that occurred at the time ofpuberty, and of two pictures, one of which I
  • 62. 60 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)had seen just shortly before the dream. Thetwo pictures were The Surprise in the Bath,from Schwind’s Cycle of the Melusine (note thebathers suddenly separating), and The Flood,by an Italian master. The little incident wasthat I once witnessed a lady, who had tarriedin the swimming-bath until the men’s hour, be-ing helped out of the water by the swimming-master. The scene in the dream which was se-lected for analysis led to a whole group of rem-iniscences, each one of which had contributedto the dream content. First of all came the littleepisode from the time of my courting, of whichI have already spoken; the pressure of a handunder the table gave rise in the dream to the”under the table,” which I had subsequently tofind a place for in my recollection. There was, ofcourse, at the time not a word about ”undividedattention.” Analysis taught me that this factor
  • 63. 61is the realization of a desire through its contra-dictory and related to the behavior of my wife atthe table d’hote. An exactly similar and muchmore important episode of our courtship, onewhich separated us for an entire day, lies hid-den behind this recent recollection. The inti-macy, the hand resting upon the knee, refers toa quite different connection and to quite otherpersons. This element in the dream becomesagain the starting-point of two distinct series ofreminiscences, and so on.The stuff of the dream thoughts which hasbeen accumulated for the formation of the dreamscene must be naturally fit for this application.There must be one or more common factors.The dream work proceeds like Francis Galtonwith his family photographs. The different el-ements are put one on top of the other; whatis common to the composite picture stands out
  • 64. 62 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)clearly, the opposing details cancel each other.This process of reproduction partly explains thewavering statements, of a peculiar vagueness,in so many elements of the dream. For theinterpretation of dreams this rule holds good:When analysis discloses -uncertainty-, as to -either—-or- read -and-, -taking- each sectionof the apparent alternatives as a separate out-let for a series of impressions.When there is nothing in common betweenthe dream thoughts, the dream work takes thetrouble to create a something, in order to makea common presentation feasible in the dream.The simplest way to approximate two dreamthoughts, which have as yet nothing in com-mon, consists in making such a change in theactual expression of one idea as will meet aslight responsive recasting in the form of theother idea. The process is analogous to that of
  • 65. 63rhyme, when consonance supplies the desiredcommon factor. A good deal of the dream workconsists in the creation of those frequently verywitty, but often exaggerated, digressions. Thesevary from the common presentation in the dreamcontent to dream thoughts which are as variedas are the causes in form and essence whichgive rise to them. In the analysis of our exam-ple of a dream, I find a like case of the transfor-mation of a thought in order that it might agreewith another essentially foreign one. In follow-ing out the analysis I struck upon the thought:-I should like to have something for nothing-. But this formula is not serviceable to thedream. Hence it is replaced by another one: ”Ishould like to enjoy something free of cost.”[1]The word ”kost” (taste), with its double mean-ing, is appropriate to a table d’hote; it, more-over, is in place through the special sense in
  • 66. 64 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the dream. At home if there is a dish which thechildren decline, their mother first tries gen-tle persuasion, with a ”Just taste it.” That thedream work should unhesitatingly use the dou-ble meaning of the word is certainly remark-able; ample experience has shown, however, thatthe occurrence is quite usual.Through condensation of the dream certainconstituent parts of its content are explicablewhich are peculiar to the dream life alone, andwhich are not found in the waking state. Suchare the composite and mixed persons, the ex-traordinary mixed figures, creations compara-ble with the fantastic animal compositions ofOrientals; a moment’s thought and these arereduced to unity, whilst the fancies of the dreamare ever formed anew in an inexhaustible pro-fusion. Every one knows such images in hisown dreams; manifold are their origins. I can
  • 67. 65build up a person by borrowing one feature fromone person and one from another, or by giv-ing to the form of one the name of another inmy dream. I can also visualize one person, butplace him in a position which has occurred toanother. There is a meaning in all these caseswhen different persons are amalgamated intoone substitute. Such cases denote an ”and,”a ”just like,” a comparison of the original per-son from a certain point of view, a comparisonwhich can be also realized in the dream itself.As a rule, however, the identity of the blendedpersons is only discoverable by analysis, andis only indicated in the dream content by theformation of the ”combined” person.The same diversity in their ways of forma-tion and the same rules for its solution holdgood also for the innumerable medley of dreamcontents, examples of which I need scarcely ad-
  • 68. 66 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)duce. Their strangeness quite disappears whenwe resolve not to place them on a level withthe objects of perception as known to us whenawake, but to remember that they represent theart of dream condensation by an exclusion ofunnecessary detail. Prominence is given to thecommon character of the combination. Anal-ysis must also generally supply the commonfeatures. The dream says simply: -All thesethings have an ”x” in common-. The decom-position of these mixed images by analysis isoften the quickest way to an interpretation ofthe dream. Thus I once dreamt that I was sit-ting with one of my former university tutors ona bench, which was undergoing a rapid con-tinuous movement amidst other benches. Thiswas a combination of lecture-room and movingstaircase. I will not pursue the further resultof the thought. Another time I was sitting in a
  • 69. 67carriage, and on my lap an object in shape likea top-hat, which, however, was made of trans-parent glass. The scene at once brought to mymind the proverb: ”He who keeps his hat inhis hand will travel safely through the land.”By a slight turn the -glass hat- reminded me of-Auer’s light-, and I knew that I was about to in-vent something which was to make me as richand independent as his invention had made mycountryman, Dr. Auer, of Welsbach; then I shouldbe able to travel instead of remaining in Vienna.In the dream I was traveling with my inven-tion, with the, it is true, rather awkward glasstop-hat. The dream work is peculiarly adept atrepresenting two contradictory conceptions bymeans of the same mixed image. Thus, for in-stance, a woman dreamt of herself carrying atall flower-stalk, as in the picture of the An-nunciation (Chastity-Mary is her own name),
  • 70. 68 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)but the stalk was bedecked with thick whiteblossoms resembling camellias (contrast withchastity: La dame aux Camelias).A great deal of what we have called ”dreamcondensation” can be thus formulated. Eachone of the elements of the dream content is-overdetermined- by the matter of the dreamthoughts; it is not derived from one element ofthese thoughts, but from a whole series. Theseare not necessarily interconnected in any way,but may belong to the most diverse spheresof thought. The dream element truly repre-sents all this disparate matter in the dreamcontent. Analysis, moreover, discloses anotherside of the relationship between dream contentand dream thoughts. Just as one element ofthe dream leads to associations with severaldream thoughts, so, as a rule, the -one dreamthought represents more than one dream element-
  • 71. 69. The threads of the association do not simplyconverge from the dream thoughts to the dreamcontent, but on the way they overlap and inter-weave in every way.Next to the transformation of one thoughtin the scene (its ”dramatization”), condensationis the most important and most characteristicfeature of the dream work. We have as yet noclue as to the motive calling for such compres-sion of the content.In the complicated and intricate dreams withwhich we are now concerned, condensation anddramatization do not wholly account for the dif-ference between dream contents and dream thoughts.There is evidence of a third factor, which de-serves careful consideration.When I have arrived at an understanding ofthe dream thoughts by my analysis I notice,above all, that the matter of the manifest is very
  • 72. 70 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)different from that of the latent dream content.That is, I admit, only an apparent differencewhich vanishes on closer investigation, for inthe end I find the whole dream content carriedout in the dream thoughts, nearly all the dreamthoughts again represented in the dream con-tent. Nevertheless, there does remain a certainamount of difference.The essential content which stood out clearlyand broadly in the dream must, after analy-sis, rest satisfied with a very subordinate roleamong the dream thoughts. These very dreamthoughts which, going by my feelings, have aclaim to the greatest importance are either notpresent at all in the dream content, or are rep-resented by some remote allusion in some ob-scure region of the dream. I can thus describethese phenomena: -During the dream work thepsychical intensity of those thoughts and con-
  • 73. 71ceptions to which it properly pertains flows toothers which, in my judgment, have no claimto such emphasis-. There is no other processwhich contributes so much to concealment ofthe dream’s meaning and to make the connec-tion between the dream content and dream ideasirrecognizable. During this process, which I willcall -the dream displacement-, I notice also thepsychical intensity, significance, or emotionalnature of the thoughts become transposed insensory vividness. What was clearest in thedream seems to me, without further consider-ation, the most important; but often in someobscure element of the dream I can recognizethe most direct offspring of the principal dreamthought.I could only designate this dream displace-ment as the -transvaluation of psychical values-. The phenomena will not have been considered
  • 74. 72 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)in all its bearings unless I add that this dis-placement or transvaluation is shared by differ-ent dreams in extremely varying degrees. Thereare dreams which take place almost withoutany displacement. These have the same time,meaning, and intelligibility as we found in thedreams which recorded a desire. In other dreamsnot a bit of the dream idea has retained its ownpsychical value, or everything essential in thesedream ideas has been replaced by unessentials,whilst every kind of transition between theseconditions can be found. The more obscure andintricate a dream is, the greater is the part tobe ascribed to the impetus of displacement inits formation.The example that we chose for analysis shows,at least, this much of displacement–that its con-tent has a different center of interest from thatof the dream ideas. In the forefront of the dream
  • 75. 73content the main scene appears as if a womanwished to make advances to me; in the dreamidea the chief interest rests on the desire to en-joy disinterested love which shall ”cost noth-ing”; this idea lies at the back of the talk aboutthe beautiful eyes and the far-fetched allusionto ”spinach.”If we abolish the dream displacement, we at-tain through analysis quite certain conclusionsregarding two problems of the dream which aremost disputed–as to what provokes a dreamat all, and as to the connection of the dreamwith our waking life. There are dreams whichat once expose their links with the events ofthe day; in others no trace of such a connec-tion can be found. By the aid of analysis itcan be shown that every dream, without anyexception, is linked up with our impression ofthe day, or perhaps it would be more correct
  • 76. 74 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)to say of the day previous to the dream. Theimpressions which have incited the dream maybe so important that we are not surprised atour being occupied with them whilst awake; inthis case we are right in saying that the dreamcarries on the chief interest of our waking life.More usually, however, when the dream con-tains anything relating to the impressions ofthe day, it is so trivial, unimportant, and sodeserving of oblivion, that we can only recallit with an effort. The dream content appears,then, even when coherent and intelligible, tobe concerned with those indifferent trifles ofthought undeserving of our waking interest. Thedepreciation of dreams is largely due to the pre-dominance of the indifferent and the worthlessin their content.Analysis destroys the appearance upon whichthis derogatory judgment is based. When the
  • 77. 75dream content discloses nothing but some in-different impression as instigating the dream,analysis ever indicates some significant event,which has been replaced by something indiffer-ent with which it has entered into abundant as-sociations. Where the dream is concerned withuninteresting and unimportant conceptions, anal-ysis reveals the numerous associative paths whichconnect the trivial with the momentous in thepsychical estimation of the individual. -It isonly the action of displacement if what is indif-ferent obtains recognition in the dream contentinstead of those impressions which are reallythe stimulus, or instead of the things of realinterest-. In answering the question as to whatprovokes the dream, as to the connection ofthe dream, in the daily troubles, we must say,in terms of the insight given us by replacingthe manifest latent dream content: -The dream
  • 78. 76 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)does never trouble itself about things which arenot deserving of our concern during the day,and trivialities which do not trouble us dur-ing the day have no power to pursue us whilstasleep-.What provoked the dream in the examplewhich we have analyzed? The really unimpor-tant event, that a friend invited me to a -freeride in his cab-. The table d’hote scene in thedream contains an allusion to this indifferentmotive, for in conversation I had brought thetaxi parallel with the table d’hote. But I canindicate the important event which has as itssubstitute the trivial one. A few days before Ihad disbursed a large sum of money for a mem-ber of my family who is very dear to me. Smallwonder, says the dream thought, if this per-son is grateful to me for this–this love is notcost-free. But love that shall cost nothing is
  • 79. 77one of the prime thoughts of the dream. Thefact that shortly before this I had had several-drives- with the relative in question puts theone drive with my friend in a position to re-call the connection with the other person. Theindifferent impression which, by such ramifi-cations, provokes the dream is subservient toanother condition which is not true of the realsource of the dream–the impression must be arecent one, everything arising from the day ofthe dream.I cannot leave the question of dream dis-placement without the consideration of a re-markable process in the formation of dreamsin which condensation and displacement worktogether towards one end. In condensation wehave already considered the case where two con-ceptions in the dream having something in com-mon, some point of contact, are replaced in the
  • 80. 78 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)dream content by a mixed image, where thedistinct germ corresponds to what is common,and the indistinct secondary modifications towhat is distinctive. If displacement is added tocondensation, there is no formation of a mixedimage, but a -common mean- which bears thesame relationship to the individual elements asdoes the resultant in the parallelogram of forcesto its components. In one of my dreams, forinstance, there is talk of an injection with -propyl-. On first analysis I discovered an indif-ferent but true incident where -amyl- played apart as the excitant of the dream. I cannot yetvindicate the exchange of amyl for propyl. Tothe round of ideas of the same dream, however,there belongs the recollection of my first visit toMunich, when the -Propyloea- struck me. Theattendant circumstances of the analysis renderit admissible that the influence of this second
  • 81. 79group of conceptions caused the displacementof amyl to propyl. -Propyl- is, so to say, themean idea between -amyl- and -propyloea-; itgot into the dream as a kind of -compromise- bysimultaneous condensation and displacement.The need of discovering some motive for thisbewildering work of the dream is even more calledfor in the case of displacement than in conden-sation.Although the work of displacement must beheld mainly responsible if the dream thoughtsare not refound or recognized in the dream con-tent (unless the motive of the changes be guessed),it is another and milder kind of transforma-tion which will be considered with the dreamthoughts which leads to the discovery of a newbut readily understood act of the dream work.The first dream thoughts which are unravelledby analysis frequently strike one by their un-
  • 82. 80 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)usual wording. They do not appear to be ex-pressed in the sober form which our thinkingprefers; rather are they expressed symbolicallyby allegories and metaphors like the figurativelanguage of the poets. It is not difficult to findthe motives for this degree of constraint in theexpression of dream ideas. The dream con-tent consists chiefly of visual scenes; hence thedream ideas must, in the first place, be pre-pared to make use of these forms of presen-tation. Conceive that a political leader’s or abarrister’s address had to be transposed intopantomime, and it will be easy to understandthe transformations to which the dream workis constrained by regard for this -dramatizationof the dream content-.Around the psychical stuff of dream thoughtsthere are ever found reminiscences of impres-sions, not infrequently of early childhood–scenes
  • 83. 81which, as a rule, have been visually grasped.Whenever possible, this portion of the dreamideas exercises a definite influence upon themodelling of the dream content; it works likea center of crystallization, by attracting and re-arranging the stuff of the dream thoughts. Thescene of the dream is not infrequently noth-ing but a modified repetition, complicated byinterpolations of events that have left such animpression; the dream but very seldom repro-duces accurate and unmixed reproductions ofreal scenes.The dream content does not, however, con-sist exclusively of scenes, but it also includesscattered fragments of visual images, conver-sations, and even bits of unchanged thoughts.It will be perhaps to the point if we instancein the briefest way the means of dramatizationwhich are at the disposal of the dream work for
  • 84. 82 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the repetition of the dream thoughts in the pe-culiar language of the dream.The dream thoughts which we learn fromthe analysis exhibit themselves as a psychicalcomplex of the most complicated superstruc-ture. Their parts stand in the most diverse rela-tionship to each other; they form backgroundsand foregrounds, stipulations, digressions, il-lustrations, demonstrations, and protestations.It may be said to be almost the rule that onetrain of thought is followed by its contradictory.No feature known to our reason whilst awake isabsent. If a dream is to grow out of all this,the psychical matter is submitted to a pres-sure which condenses it extremely, to an in-ner shrinking and displacement, creating at thesame time fresh surfaces, to a selective inter-weaving among the constituents best adaptedfor the construction of these scenes. Having
  • 85. 83regard to the origin of this stuff, the term -regression- can be fairly applied to this process.The logical chains which hitherto held the psy-chical stuff together become lost in this trans-formation to the dream content. The dreamwork takes on, as it were, only the essentialcontent of the dream thoughts for elaboration.It is left to analysis to restore the connectionwhich the dream work has destroyed.The dream’s means of expression must there-fore be regarded as meager in comparison withthose of our imagination, though the dream doesnot renounce all claims to the restitution of log-ical relation to the dream thoughts. It rathersucceeds with tolerable frequency in replacingthese by formal characters of its own.By reason of the undoubted connection ex-isting between all the parts of dream thoughts,the dream is able to embody this matter into a
  • 86. 84 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)single scene. It upholds a -logical connection-as -approximation in time and space-, just asthe painter, who groups all the poets for his pic-ture of Parnassus who, though they have neverbeen all together on a mountain peak, yet formideally a community. The dream continues thismethod of presentation in individual dreams,and often when it displays two elements closetogether in the dream content it warrants somespecial inner connection between what they rep-resent in the dream thoughts. It should be,moreover, observed that all the dreams of onenight prove on analysis to originate from thesame sphere of thought.The causal connection between two ideas iseither left without presentation, or replaced bytwo different long portions of dreams one af-ter the other. This presentation is frequently areversed one, the beginning of the dream be-
  • 87. 85ing the deduction, and its end the hypothesis.The direct -transformation- of one thing intoanother in the dream seems to serve the rela-tionship of -cause- and -effect-.The dream never utters the -alternative ”either-or,”- but accepts both as having equal rights inthe same connection. When ”either-or” is usedin the reproduction of dreams, it is, as I havealready mentioned, to be replaced by ”-and-.”Conceptions which stand in opposition to oneanother are preferably expressed in dreams bythe same element.[2] There seems no ”not” indreams. Opposition between two ideas, the re-lation of conversion, is represented in dreamsin a very remarkable way. It is expressed bythe reversal of another part of the dream con-tent just as if by way of appendix. We shalllater on deal with another form of expressingdisagreement. The common dream sensation of
  • 88. 86 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)-movement checked- serves the purpose of rep-resenting disagreement of impulses–a -conflictof the will-.Only one of the logical relationships–that of -similarity, identity, agreement—is found highlydeveloped in the mechanism of dream forma-tion. Dream work makes use of these cases asa starting-point for condensation, drawing to-gether everything which shows such agreementto a -fresh unity-.These short, crude observations naturally donot suffice as an estimate of the abundance ofthe dream’s formal means of presenting the log-ical relationships of the dream thoughts. Inthis respect, individual dreams are worked upmore nicely or more carelessly, our text willhave been followed more or less closely, aux-iliaries of the dream work will have been takenmore or less into consideration. In the latter
  • 89. 87case they appear obscure, intricate, incoherent.When the dream appears openly absurd, whenit contains an obvious paradox in its content,it is so of purpose. Through its apparent dis-regard of all logical claims, it expresses a partof the intellectual content of the dream ideas.Absurdity in the dream denotes -disagreement,scorn, disdain- in the dream thoughts. As thisexplanation is in entire disagreement with theview that the dream owes its origin to dissoci-ated, uncritical cerebral activity, I will empha-size my view by an example:-”One of my acquaintances, Mr. M—-, hasbeen attacked by no less a person than Goethein an essay with, we all maintain, unwarrantableviolence. Mr. M—- has naturally been ruinedby this attack. He complains very bitterly ofthis at a dinner-party, but his respect for Goethehas not diminished through this personal ex-
  • 90. 88 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)perience. I now attempt to clear up the chrono-logical relations which strike me as improba-ble. Goethe died in 1832. As his attack uponMr. M—- must, of course, have taken placebefore, Mr. M—- must have been then a veryyoung man. It seems to me plausible that hewas eighteen. I am not certain, however, whatyear we are actually in, and the whole calcula-tion falls into obscurity. The attack was, more-over, contained in Goethe’s well-known essayon ’Nature.’”-The absurdity of the dream becomes the moreglaring when I state that Mr. M—- is a youngbusiness man without any poetical or literaryinterests. My analysis of the dream will showwhat method there is in this madness. Thedream has derived its material from three sources:1. Mr. M—-, to whom I was introducedat a dinner-party, begged me one day to ex-
  • 91. 89amine his elder brother, who showed signs ofmental trouble. In conversation with the pa-tient, an unpleasant episode occurred. Withoutthe slightest occasion he disclosed one of hisbrother’s -youthful escapades-. I had asked thepatient the -year of his birth- (-year of death-in dream), and led him to various calculationswhich might show up his want of memory.2. A medical journal which displayed myname among others on the cover had publisheda -ruinous- review of a book by my friend F—-of Berlin, from the pen of a very -juvenile- re-viewer. I communicated with the editor, who,indeed, expressed his regret, but would not promiseany redress. Thereupon I broke off my connec-tion with the paper; in my letter of resignation Iexpressed the hope that our -personal relationswould not suffer from this-. Here is the realsource of the dream. The derogatory reception
  • 92. 90 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)of my friend’s work had made a deep impres-sion upon me. In my judgment, it containeda fundamental biological discovery which onlynow, several years later, commences to find fa-vor among the professors.3. A little while before, a patient gave me themedical history of her brother, who, exclaiming”-Nature, Nature!-” had gone out of his mind.The doctors considered that the exclamation arosefrom a study of -Goethe’s- beautiful essay, andindicated that the patient had been overwork-ing. I expressed the opinion that it seemedmore -plausible- to me that the exclamation ”Na-ture!” was to be taken in that sexual meaningknown also to the less educated in our country.It seemed to me that this view had somethingin it, because the unfortunate youth afterwardsmutilated his genital organs. The patient waseighteen years old when the attack occurred.
  • 93. 91The first person in the dream-thoughts be-hind the ego was my friend who had been soscandalously treated. -”I now attempted to clearup the chronological relation.”- My friend’s bookdeals with the chronological relations of life,and, amongst other things, correlates -Goethe’s-duration of life with a number of days in manyways important to biology. The ego is, however,represented as a general paralytic (-”I am notcertain what year we are actually in”-). Thedream exhibits my friend as behaving like ageneral paralytic, and thus riots in absurdity.But the dream thoughts run ironically. ”Of coursehe is a madman, a fool, and you are the geniuswho understands all about it. But shouldn’t itbe the -other way round-?” This inversion obvi-ously took place in the dream when Goethe at-tacked the young man, which is absurd, whilstany one, however young, can to-day easily at-
  • 94. 92 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)tack the great Goethe.I am prepared to maintain that no dream isinspired by other than egoistic emotions. Theego in the dream does not, indeed, representonly my friend, but stands for myself also. Iidentify myself with him because the fate of hisdiscovery appears to me typical of the accep-tance of -my own-. If I were to publish my owntheory, which gives sexuality predominance inthe aetiology of psychoneurotic disorders (seethe allusion to the eighteen-year-old patient—”Nature, Nature!”-), the same criticism wouldbe leveled at me, and it would even now meetwith the same contempt.When I follow out the dream thoughts closely,I ever find only -scorn- and -contempt- as -correlated with the dream’s absurdity-. It iswell known that the discovery of a cracked sheep’sskull on the Lido in Venice gave Goethe the hint
  • 95. 93for the so-called vertebral theory of the skull.My friend plumes himself on having as a stu-dent raised a hubbub for the resignation of anaged professor who had done good work (in-cluding some in this very subject of compara-tive anatomy), but who, on account of -decrepitude-, had become quite incapable of teaching. Theagitation my friend inspired was so success-ful because in the German Universities an -agelimit- is not demanded for academic work. -Ageis no protection against folly.- In the hospitalhere I had for years the honor to serve under achief who, long fossilized, was for decades noto-riously -feebleminded-, and was yet permittedto continue in his responsible office. A trait, af-ter the manner of the find in the Lido, forces it-self upon me here. It was to this man that someyouthful colleagues in the hospital adapted thethen popular slang of that day: ”No Goethe has
  • 96. 94 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)written that,” ”No Schiller composed that,” etc.We have not exhausted our valuation of thedream work. In addition to condensation, dis-placement, and definite arrangement of the psy-chical matter, we must ascribe to it yet anotheractivity–one which is, indeed, not shared by ev-ery dream. I shall not treat this position of thedream work exhaustively; I will only point outthat the readiest way to arrive at a conceptionof it is to take for granted, probably unfairly,that it -only subsequently influences the dreamcontent which has already been built up-. Itsmode of action thus consists in so cooerdinat-ing the parts of the dream that these coalesceto a coherent whole, to a dream composition.The dream gets a kind of facade which, it istrue, does not conceal the whole of its content.There is a sort of preliminary explanation to bestrengthened by interpolations and slight alter-
  • 97. 95ations. Such elaboration of the dream contentmust not be too pronounced; the misconcep-tion of the dream thoughts to which it gives riseis merely superficial, and our first piece of workin analyzing a dream is to get rid of these earlyattempts at interpretation.The motives for this part of the dream workare easily gauged. This final elaboration of thedream is due to a -regard for intelligibility—afact at once betraying the origin of an actionwhich behaves towards the actual dream con-tent just as our normal psychical action be-haves towards some proffered perception thatis to our liking. The dream content is thussecured under the pretense of certain expec-tations, is perceptually classified by the sup-position of its intelligibility, thereby risking itsfalsification, whilst, in fact, the most extraor-dinary misconceptions arise if the dream can
  • 98. 96 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)be correlated with nothing familiar. Every oneis aware that we are unable to look at any se-ries of unfamiliar signs, or to listen to a discus-sion of unknown words, without at once mak-ing perpetual changes through -our regard forintelligibility-, through our falling back uponwhat is familiar.We can call those dreams -properly madeup- which are the result of an elaboration in ev-ery way analogous to the psychical action of ourwaking life. In other dreams there is no suchaction; not even an attempt is made to bringabout order and meaning. We regard the dreamas ”quite mad,” because on awaking it is withthis last-named part of the dream work, thedream elaboration, that we identify ourselves.So far, however, as our analysis is concerned,the dream, which resembles a medley of dis-connected fragments, is of as much value as
  • 99. 97the one with a smooth and beautifully polishedsurface. In the former case we are spared, tosome extent, the trouble of breaking down thesuper-elaboration of the dream content.All the same, it would be an error to seein the dream facade nothing but the misun-derstood and somewhat arbitrary elaborationof the dream carried out at the instance of ourpsychical life. Wishes and phantasies are notinfrequently employed in the erection of this fa-cade, which were already fashioned in the dreamthoughts; they are akin to those of our wak-ing life–”day-dreams,” as they are very properlycalled. These wishes and phantasies, whichanalysis discloses in our dreams at night, of-ten present themselves as repetitions and re-fashionings of the scenes of infancy. Thus thedream facade may show us directly the truecore of the dream, distorted through admixture
  • 100. 98 Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)with other matter.Beyond these four activities there is nothingelse to be discovered in the dream work. If wekeep closely to the definition that dream workdenotes the transference of dream thoughts todream content, we are compelled to say thatthe dream work is not creative; it develops nofancies of its own, it judges nothing, decidesnothing. It does nothing but prepare the mat-ter for condensation and displacement, and re-fashions it for dramatization, to which must beadded the inconstant last-named mechanism–that of explanatory elaboration. It is true that agood deal is found in the dream content whichmight be understood as the result of anotherand more intellectual performance; but anal-ysis shows conclusively every time that these-intellectual operations were already present inthe dream thoughts, and have only been taken
  • 101. 99over by the dream content-. A syllogism in thedream is nothing other than the repetition of asyllogism in the dream thoughts; it seems inof-fensive if it has been transferred to the dreamwithout alteration; it becomes absurd if in thedream work it has been transferred to othermatter. A calculation in the dream content sim-ply means that there was a calculation in thedream thoughts; whilst this is always correct,the calculation in the dream can furnish thesilliest results by the condensation of its fac-tors and the displacement of the same opera-tions to other things. Even speeches which arefound in the dream content are not new com-positions; they prove to be pieced together outof speeches which have been made or heard orread; the words are faithfully copied, but theoccasion of their utterance is quite overlooked,and their meaning is most violently changed.
  • 102. 100Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)It is, perhaps, not superfluous to supportthese assertions by examples:1. -A seemingly inoffensive, well-made dreamof a patient. She was going to market withher cook, who carried the basket. The butchersaid to her when she asked him for something:”That is all gone,” and wished to give her some-thing else, remarking; ”That’s very good.” Shedeclines, and goes to the greengrocer, who wantsto sell her a peculiar vegetable which is boundup in bundles and of a black color. She says: ”Idon’t know that; I won’t take it.”-The remark ”That is all gone” arose from thetreatment. A few days before I said myself to thepatient that the earliest reminiscences of child-hood -are all gone- as such, but are replacedby transferences and dreams. Thus I am thebutcher.The second remark, -”I don’t know that”- arose
  • 103. 101in a very different connection. The day beforeshe had herself called out in rebuke to the cook(who, moreover, also appears in the dream): ”-Behave yourself properly-; I don’t know -that-”–that is, ”I don’t know this kind of behavior;I won’t have it.” The more harmless portion ofthis speech was arrived at by a displacement ofthe dream content; in the dream thoughts onlythe other portion of the speech played a part,because the dream work changed an imaginarysituation into utter irrecognizability and com-plete inoffensiveness (while in a certain senseI behave in an unseemly way to the lady). Thesituation resulting in this phantasy is, however,nothing but a new edition of one that actuallytook place.2. A dream apparently meaningless relatesto figures. -”She wants to pay something; herdaughter takes three florins sixty-five kreuzers
  • 104. 102Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)out of her purse; but she says: ’What are youdoing? It only cost twenty-one kreuzers.’”-The dreamer was a stranger who had placedher child at school in Vienna, and who was ableto continue under my treatment so long as herdaughter remained at Vienna. The day beforethe dream the directress of the school had rec-ommended her to keep the child another year atschool. In this case she would have been able toprolong her treatment by one year. The figuresin the dream become important if it be remem-bered that time is money. One year equals 365days, or, expressed in kreuzers, 365 kreuzers,which is three florins sixty-five kreuzers. Thetwenty-one kreuzers correspond with the threeweeks which remained from the day of the dreamto the end of the school term, and thus to theend of the treatment. It was obviously finan-cial considerations which had moved the lady
  • 105. 103to refuse the proposal of the directress, andwhich were answerable for the triviality of theamount in the dream.3. A lady, young, but already ten years mar-ried, heard that a friend of hers, Miss Elise L—-, of about the same age, had become engaged.This gave rise to the following dream:-She was sitting with her husband in thetheater; the one side of the stalls was quiteempty. Her husband tells her, Elise L—- andher fiance had intended coming, but could onlyget some cheap seats, three for one florin fiftykreuzers, and these they would not take. Inher opinion, that would not have mattered verymuch.-The origin of the figures from the matter ofthe dream thoughts and the changes the fig-ures underwent are of interest. Whence camethe one florin fifty kreuzers? From a trifling oc-
  • 106. 104Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)currence of the previous day. Her sister-in-lawhad received 150 florins as a present from herhusband, and had quickly got rid of it by buy-ing some ornament. Note that 150 florins isone hundred times one florin fifty kreuzers. Forthe -three- concerned with the tickets, the onlylink is that Elise L—- is exactly three monthsyounger than the dreamer. The scene in thedream is the repetition of a little adventure forwhich she has often been teased by her hus-band. She was once in a great hurry to gettickets in time for a piece, and when she cameto the theater -one side of the stalls was almostempty-. It was therefore quite unnecessary forher to have been in -such a hurry-. Nor mustwe overlook the absurdity of the dream that twopersons should take three tickets for the the-ater.Now for the dream ideas. It was -stupid- to
  • 107. 105have married so early; I -need not- have been -in so great a hurry-. Elise L—-’s example showsme that I should have been able to get a hus-band later; indeed, one a -hundred times better-if I had but waited. I could have bought -three-such men with the money (dowry).[1] ”Ich moechte gerne etwas geniessen ohne’Kosten’ zu haben.” A a pun upon the word ”kosten,”which has two meanings–”taste” and ”cost.” In”Die Traumdeutung,” third edition, p. 71 foot-note, Professor Freud remarks that ”the finestexample of dream interpretation left us by theancients is based upon a pun” (from ”The In-terpretation of Dreams,” by Artemidorus Dal-dianus). ”Moreover, dreams are so intimatelybound up with language that Ferenczi truly pointsout that every tongue has its own language ofdreams. A dream is as a rule untranslatableinto other languages.”–TRANSLATOR.
  • 108. 106Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)[2] It is worthy of remark that eminent philol-ogists maintain that the oldest languages usedthe same word for expressing quite general an-titheses. In C. Abel’s essay, ”Ueber den Gegensinnder Urworter” (1884, the following examples ofsuch words in England are given: ”gleam–gloom”;”to lock–loch”; ”down–The Downs”; ”to step–tostop.” In his essay on ”The Origin of Language”(”Linguistic Essays,” p. 240), Abel says: ”Whenthe Englishman says ’without,’ is not his judg-ment based upon the comparative juxtaposi-tion of two opposites, ’with’ and ’out’; ’with’ it-self originally meant ’without,’ as may still beseen in ’withdraw.’ ’Bid’ includes the oppositesense of giving and of proffering.” Abel, ”TheEnglish Verbs of Command,” ”Linguistic Essays,”p. 104; see also Freud, ”Ueber den Gegensinnder Urworte”; -Jahrbuch fuer Psychoanalytis-che und Psychopathologische Forschungen-, Band
  • 109. 107II., part i., p. 179).–TRANSLATOR.
  • 110. 108Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)
  • 111. III WHY THE DREAMDISGUISES THEDESIRESIn the foregoing exposition we have now learntsomething of the dream work; we must regard itas a quite special psychical process, which, sofar as we are aware, resembles nothing else. Tothe dream work has been transferred that be-wilderment which its product, the dream, hasaroused in us. In truth, the dream work isonly the first recognition of a group of psychi-109
  • 112. 110Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)cal processes to which must be referred the ori-gin of hysterical symptoms, the ideas of morbiddread, obsession, and illusion. Condensation,and especially displacement, are never-failingfeatures in these other processes. The regardfor appearance remains, on the other hand, pe-culiar to the dream work. If this explanationbrings the dream into line with the formationof psychical disease, it becomes the more im-portant to fathom the essential conditions ofprocesses like dream building. It will be prob-ably a surprise to hear that neither the stateof sleep nor illness is among the indispensableconditions. A whole number of phenomena ofthe everyday life of healthy persons, forgetful-ness, slips in speaking and in holding things,together with a certain class of mistakes, aredue to a psychical mechanism analogous to thatof the dream and the other members of this
  • 113. 111group.Displacement is the core of the problem, andthe most striking of all the dream performances.A thorough investigation of the subject showsthat the essential condition of displacement ispurely psychological; it is in the nature of a mo-tive. We get on the track by thrashing out expe-riences which one cannot avoid in the analysisof dreams. I had to break off the relations of mydream thoughts in the analysis of my dream onp. 8 because I found some experiences whichI do not wish strangers to know, and which Icould not relate without serious damage to im-portant considerations. I added, it would be nouse were I to select another instead of that par-ticular dream; in every dream where the con-tent is obscure or intricate, I should hit upondream thoughts which call for secrecy. If, how-ever, I continue the analysis for myself, with-
  • 114. 112Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)out regard to those others, for whom, indeed,so personal an event as my dream cannot mat-ter, I arrive finally at ideas which surprise me,which I have not known to be mine, which notonly appear -foreign- to me, but which are -unpleasant-, and which I would like to opposevehemently, whilst the chain of ideas runningthrough the analysis intrudes upon me inex-orably. I can only take these circumstancesinto account by admitting that these thoughtsare actually part of my psychical life, possess-ing a certain psychical intensity or energy. How-ever, by virtue of a particular psychological con-dition, the -thoughts could not become con-scious to me-. I call this particular condition”-Repression-.” It is therefore impossible for menot to recognize some casual relationship be-tween the obscurity of the dream content andthis state of repression–this -incapacity of consciousness-
  • 115. 113. Whence I conclude that the cause of the ob-scurity is -the desire to conceal these thoughts-. Thus I arrive at the conception of the -dreamdistortion- as the deed of the dream work, andof -displacement- serving to disguise this ob-ject.I will test this in my own dream, and ask my-self, What is the thought which, quite innocu-ous in its distorted form, provokes my liveliestopposition in its real form? I remember thatthe free drive reminded me of the last expensivedrive with a member of my family, the inter-pretation of the dream being: I should for oncelike to experience affection for which I shouldnot have to pay, and that shortly before thedream I had to make a heavy disbursement forthis very person. In this connection, I cannotget away from the thought -that I regret thisdisbursement-. It is only when I acknowledge
  • 116. 114Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)this feeling that there is any sense in my wish-ing in the dream for an affection that should en-tail no outlay. And yet I can state on my honorthat I did not hesitate for a moment when itbecame necessary to expend that sum. The re-gret, the counter-current, was unconscious tome. Why it was unconscious is quite anotherquestion which would lead us far away from theanswer which, though within my knowledge,belongs elsewhere.If I subject the dream of another person in-stead of one of my own to analysis, the resultis the same; the motives for convincing othersis, however, changed. In the dream of a healthyperson the only way for me to enable him to ac-cept this repressed idea is the coherence of thedream thoughts. He is at liberty to reject thisexplanation. But if we are dealing with a personsuffering from any neurosis–say from hysteria–
  • 117. 115the recognition of these repressed ideas is com-pulsory by reason of their connection with thesymptoms of his illness and of the improve-ment resulting from exchanging the symptomsfor the repressed ideas. Take the patient fromwhom I got the last dream about the three tick-ets for one florin fifty kreuzers. Analysis showsthat she does not think highly of her husband,that she regrets having married him, that shewould be glad to change him for some one else.It is true that she maintains that she loves herhusband, that her emotional life knows noth-ing about this depreciation (a hundred timesbetter!), but all her symptoms lead to the sameconclusion as this dream. When her repressedmemories had rewakened a certain period whenshe was conscious that she did not love herhusband, her symptoms disappeared, and there-with disappeared her resistance to the interpre-
  • 118. 116Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)tation of the dream.This conception of repression once fixed, to-gether with the distortion of the dream in rela-tion to repressed psychical matter, we are in aposition to give a general exposition of the prin-cipal results which the analysis of dreams sup-plies. We learnt that the most intelligible andmeaningful dreams are unrealized desires; thedesires they pictured as realized are known toconsciousness, have been held over from thedaytime, and are of absorbing interest. Theanalysis of obscure and intricate dreams dis-closes something very similar; the dream sceneagain pictures as realized some desire whichregularly proceeds from the dream ideas, butthe picture is unrecognizable, and is only clearedup in the analysis. The desire itself is eitherone repressed, foreign to consciousness, or itis closely bound up with repressed ideas. The
  • 119. 117formula for these dreams may be thus stated:-They are concealed realizations of represseddesires-. It is interesting to note that they areright who regard the dream as foretelling thefuture. Although the future which the dreamshows us is not that which will occur, but thatwhich we would like to occur. Folk psychologyproceeds here according to its wont; it believeswhat it wishes to believe.Dreams can be divided into three classes ac-cording to their relation towards the realiza-tion of desire. Firstly come those which ex-hibit a -non-repressed, non-concealed desire-;these are dreams of the infantile type, becom-ing ever rarer among adults. Secondly, dreamswhich express in -veiled- form some -represseddesire-; these constitute by far the larger num-ber of our dreams, and they require analysisfor their understanding. Thirdly, these dreams
  • 120. 118Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)where repression exists, but -without- or withbut slight concealment. These dreams are in-variably accompanied by a feeling of dread whichbrings the dream to an end. This feeling ofdread here replaces dream displacement; I re-garded the dream work as having prevented thisin the dream of the second class. It is not verydifficult to prove that what is now present as in-tense dread in the dream was once desire, andis now secondary to the repression.There are also definite dreams with a painfulcontent, without the presence of any anxiety inthe dream. These cannot be reckoned amongdreams of dread; they have, however, alwaysbeen used to prove the unimportance and thepsychical futility of dreams. An analysis of suchan example will show that it belongs to our sec-ond class of dreams–a -perfectly concealed- re-alization of repressed desires. Analysis will demon-
  • 121. 119strate at the same time how excellently adaptedis the work of displacement to the concealmentof desires.A girl dreamt that she saw lying dead beforeher the only surviving child of her sister amidthe same surroundings as a few years beforeshe saw the first child lying dead. She wasnot sensible of any pain, but naturally com-batted the view that the scene represented adesire of hers. Nor was that view necessary.Years ago it was at the funeral of the child thatshe had last seen and spoken to the man sheloved. Were the second child to die, she wouldbe sure to meet this man again in her sister’shouse. She is longing to meet him, but strug-gles against this feeling. The day of the dreamshe had taken a ticket for a lecture, which an-nounced the presence of the man she alwaysloved. The dream is simply a dream of impa-
  • 122. 120Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)tience common to those which happen beforea journey, theater, or simply anticipated plea-sures. The longing is concealed by the shiftingof the scene to the occasion when any joyousfeeling were out of place, and yet where it didonce exist. Note, further, that the emotional be-havior in the dream is adapted, not to the dis-placed, but to the real but suppressed dreamideas. The scene anticipates the long-hoped-formeeting; there is here no call for painful emo-tions.There has hitherto been no occasion for philoso-phers to bestir themselves with a psychology ofrepression. We must be allowed to constructsome clear conception as to the origin of dreamsas the first steps in this unknown territory. Thescheme which we have formulated not only froma study of dreams is, it is true, already some-what complicated, but we cannot find any sim-
  • 123. 121pler one that will suffice. We hold that ourpsychical apparatus contains two proceduresfor the construction of thoughts. The secondone has the advantage that its products find anopen path to consciousness, whilst the activ-ity of the first procedure is unknown to itself,and can only arrive at consciousness throughthe second one. At the borderland of these twoprocedures, where the first passes over into thesecond, a censorship is established which onlypasses what pleases it, keeping back everythingelse. That which is rejected by the censorshipis, according to our definition, in a state of re-pression. Under certain conditions, one of whichis the sleeping state, the balance of power be-tween the two procedures is so changed thatwhat is repressed can no longer be kept back.In the sleeping state this may possibly occurthrough the negligence of the censor; what has
  • 124. 122Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)been hitherto repressed will now succeed in find-ing its way to consciousness. But as the cen-sorship is never absent, but merely off guard,certain alterations must be conceded so as toplacate it. It is a compromise which becomesconscious in this case–a compromise betweenwhat one procedure has in view and the de-mands of the other. -Repression, laxity of thecensor, compromise—this is the foundation forthe origin of many another psychological pro-cess, just as it is for the dream. In such com-promises we can observe the processes of con-densation, of displacement, the acceptance ofsuperficial associations, which we have foundin the dream work.It is not for us to deny the demonic elementwhich has played a part in constructing our ex-planation of dream work. The impression left isthat the formation of obscure dreams proceeds
  • 125. 123as if a person had something to say which mustbe agreeable for another person upon whom heis dependent to hear. It is by the use of this im-age that we figure to ourselves the conceptionof the -dream distortion- and of the censorship,and ventured to crystallize our impression in arather crude, but at least definite, psycholog-ical theory. Whatever explanation the futuremay offer of these first and second procedures,we shall expect a confirmation of our correlatethat the second procedure commands the en-trance to consciousness, and can exclude thefirst from consciousness.Once the sleeping state overcome, the cen-sorship resumes complete sway, and is now ableto revoke that which was granted in a momentof weakness. That the -forgetting- of dreamsexplains this in part, at least, we are convincedby our experience, confirmed again and again.
  • 126. 124Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)During the relation of a dream, or during anal-ysis of one, it not infrequently happens thatsome fragment of the dream is suddenly for-gotten. This fragment so forgotten invariablycontains the best and readiest approach to anunderstanding of the dream. Probably that iswhy it sinks into oblivion—i.e.-, into a renewedsuppression.Viewing the dream content as the represen-tation of a realized desire, and referring its vague-ness to the changes made by the censor in therepressed matter, it is no longer difficult to graspthe function of dreams. In fundamental con-trast with those saws which assume that sleepis disturbed by dreams, we hold the -dreamas the guardian of sleep-. So far as children’sdreams are concerned, our view should findready acceptance.The sleeping state or the psychical change to
  • 127. 125sleep, whatsoever it be, is brought about by thechild being sent to sleep or compelled theretoby fatigue, only assisted by the removal of allstimuli which might open other objects to thepsychical apparatus. The means which serveto keep external stimuli distant are known; butwhat are the means we can employ to depressthe internal psychical stimuli which frustratesleep? Look at a mother getting her child tosleep. The child is full of beseeching; he wantsanother kiss; he wants to play yet awhile. Hisrequirements are in part met, in part drasti-cally put off till the following day. Clearly thesedesires and needs, which agitate him, are hin-drances to sleep. Every one knows the charm-ing story of the bad boy (Baldwin Groller’s) whoawoke at night bellowing out, ”-I want the rhinoceros-.” A really good boy, instead of bellowing, wouldhave -dreamt- that he was playing with the rhinoceros.
  • 128. 126Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)Because the dream which realizes his desire isbelieved during sleep, it removes the desire andmakes sleep possible. It cannot be denied thatthis belief accords with the dream image, be-cause it is arrayed in the psychical appearanceof probability; the child is without the capacitywhich it will acquire later to distinguish hallu-cinations or phantasies from reality.The adult has learnt this differentiation; hehas also learnt the futility of desire, and bycontinuous practice manages to postpone hisaspirations, until they can be granted in someroundabout method by a change in the exter-nal world. For this reason it is rare for himto have his wishes realized during sleep in theshort psychical way. It is even possible thatthis never happens, and that everything whichappears to us like a child’s dream demands amuch more elaborate explanation. Thus it is
  • 129. 127that for adults–for every sane person withoutexception–a differentiation of the psychical mat-ter has been fashioned which the child knewnot. A psychical procedure has been reachedwhich, informed by the experience of life, ex-ercises with jealous power a dominating andrestraining influence upon psychical emotions;by its relation to consciousness, and by its spon-taneous mobility, it is endowed with the great-est means of psychical power. A portion of theinfantile emotions has been withheld from thisprocedure as useless to life, and all the thoughtswhich flow from these are found in the state ofrepression.Whilst the procedure in which we recognizeour normal ego reposes upon the desire for sleep,it appears compelled by the psycho-physiologicalconditions of sleep to abandon some of the en-ergy with which it was wont during the day to
  • 130. 128Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)keep down what was repressed. This neglect isreally harmless; however much the emotions ofthe child’s spirit may be stirred, they find theapproach to consciousness rendered difficult,and that to movement blocked in consequenceof the state of sleep. The danger of their dis-turbing sleep must, however, be avoided. More-over, we must admit that even in deep sleepsome amount of free attention is exerted as aprotection against sense-stimuli which might,perchance, make an awakening seem wiser thanthe continuance of sleep. Otherwise we couldnot explain the fact of our being always awak-ened by stimuli of certain quality. As the oldphysiologist Burdach pointed out, the motheris awakened by the whimpering of her child, themiller by the cessation of his mill, most peopleby gently calling out their names. This atten-tion, thus on the alert, makes use of the inter-
  • 131. 129nal stimuli arising from repressed desires, andfuses them into the dream, which as a com-promise satisfies both procedures at the sametime. The dream creates a form of psychical re-lease for the wish which is either suppressedor formed by the aid of repression, inasmuchas it presents it as realized. The other proce-dure is also satisfied, since the continuance ofthe sleep is assured. Our ego here gladly be-haves like a child; it makes the dream picturesbelievable, saying, as it were, ”Quite right, butlet me sleep.” The contempt which, once awak-ened, we bear the dream, and which rests uponthe absurdity and apparent illogicality of thedream, is probably nothing but the reasoningof our sleeping ego on the feelings about whatwas repressed; with greater right it should restupon the incompetency of this disturber of oursleep. In sleep we are now and then aware of
  • 132. 130Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)this contempt; the dream content transcendsthe censorship rather too much, we think, ”It’sonly a dream,” and sleep on.It is no objection to this view if there areborderlines for the dream where its function, topreserve sleep from interruption, can no longerbe maintained–as in the dreams of impendingdread. It is here changed for another function–to suspend the sleep at the proper time. It actslike a conscientious night-watchman, who firstdoes his duty by quelling disturbances so asnot to waken the citizen, but equally does hisduty quite properly when he awakens the streetshould the causes of the trouble seem to himserious and himself unable to cope with themalone.This function of dreams becomes especiallywell marked when there arises some incentivefor the sense perception. That the senses aroused
  • 133. 131during sleep influence the dream is well known,and can be experimentally verified; it is oneof the certain but much overestimated resultsof the medical investigation of dreams. Hith-erto there has been an insoluble riddle con-nected with this discovery. The stimulus tothe sense by which the investigator affects thesleeper is not properly recognized in the dream,but is intermingled with a number of indefiniteinterpretations, whose determination appearsleft to psychical free-will. There is, of course, nosuch psychical free-will. To an external sense-stimulus the sleeper can react in many ways.Either he awakens or he succeeds in sleepingon. In the latter case he can make use of thedream to dismiss the external stimulus, andthis, again, in more ways than one. For in-stance, he can stay the stimulus by dream-ing of a scene which is absolutely intolerable
  • 134. 132Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)to him. This was the means used by one whowas troubled by a painful perineal abscess. Hedreamt that he was on horseback, and madeuse of the poultice, which was intended to alle-viate his pain, as a saddle, and thus got awayfrom the cause of the trouble. Or, as is morefrequently the case, the external stimulus un-dergoes a new rendering, which leads him toconnect it with a repressed desire seeking itsrealization, and robs him of its reality, and istreated as if it were a part of the psychical mat-ter. Thus, some one dreamt that he had writ-ten a comedy which embodied a definite -motif-;it was being performed; the first act was overamid enthusiastic applause; there was greatclapping. At this moment the dreamer musthave succeeded in prolonging his sleep despitethe disturbance, for when he woke he no longerheard the noise; he concluded rightly that some
  • 135. 133one must have been beating a carpet or bed.The dreams which come with a loud noise justbefore waking have all attempted to cover thestimulus to waking by some other explanation,and thus to prolong the sleep for a little while.Whosoever has firmly accepted this -censorship-as the chief motive for the distortion of dreamswill not be surprised to learn as the result ofdream interpretation that most of the dreamsof adults are traced by analysis to erotic de-sires. This assertion is not drawn from dreamsobviously of a sexual nature, which are knownto all dreamers from their own experience, andare the only ones usually described as ”sex-ual dreams.” These dreams are ever sufficientlymysterious by reason of the choice of personswho are made the objects of sex, the removal ofall the barriers which cry halt to the dreamer’ssexual needs in his waking state, the many strange
  • 136. 134Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)reminders as to details of what are called per-versions. But analysis discovers that, in manyother dreams in whose manifest content noth-ing erotic can be found, the work of interpreta-tion shows them up as, in reality, realizationof sexual desires; whilst, on the other hand,that much of the thought-making when awake,the thoughts saved us as surplus from the dayonly, reaches presentation in dreams with thehelp of repressed erotic desires.Towards the explanation of this statement,which is no theoretical postulate, it must be re-membered that no other class of instincts hasrequired so vast a suppression at the behest ofcivilization as the sexual, whilst their masteryby the highest psychical processes are in mostpersons soonest of all relinquished. Since wehave learnt to understand -infantile sexuality-,often so vague in its expression, so invariably
  • 137. 135overlooked and misunderstood, we are justifiedin saying that nearly every civilized person hasretained at some point or other the infantiletype of sex life; thus we understand that re-pressed infantile sex desires furnish the mostfrequent and most powerful impulses for theformation of dreams.[1]If the dream, which is the expression of someerotic desire, succeeds in making its manifestcontent appear innocently asexual, it is onlypossible in one way. The matter of these sex-ual presentations cannot be exhibited as such,but must be replaced by allusions, suggestions,and similar indirect means; differing from othercases of indirect presentation, those used indreams must be deprived of direct understand-ing. The means of presentation which answerthese requirements are commonly termed ”sym-bols.” A special interest has been directed to-
  • 138. 136Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)wards these, since it has been observed thatthe dreamers of the same language use the likesymbols–indeed, that in certain cases commu-nity of symbol is greater than community ofspeech. Since the dreamers do not themselvesknow the meaning of the symbols they use, itremains a puzzle whence arises their relation-ship with what they replace and denote. Thefact itself is undoubted, and becomes of im-portance for the technique of the interpretationof dreams, since by the aid of a knowledge ofthis symbolism it is possible to understand themeaning of the elements of a dream, or parts ofa dream, occasionally even the whole dream it-self, without having to question the dreamer asto his own ideas. We thus come near to the pop-ular idea of an interpretation of dreams, and,on the other hand, possess again the techniqueof the ancients, among whom the interpretation
  • 139. 137of dreams was identical with their explanationthrough symbolism.Though the study of dream symbolism is farremoved from finality, we now possess a seriesof general statements and of particular obser-vations which are quite certain. There are sym-bols which practically always have the samemeaning: Emperor and Empress (King and Queen)always mean the parents; room, a woman[2],and so on. The sexes are represented by a greatvariety of symbols, many of which would be atfirst quite incomprehensible had not the clewsto the meaning been often obtained throughother channels.There are symbols of universal circulation,found in all dreamers, of one range of speechand culture; there are others of the narrowestindividual significance which an individual hasbuilt up out of his own material. In the first
  • 140. 138Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)class those can be differentiated whose claimcan be at once recognized by the replacementof sexual things in common speech (those, forinstance, arising from agriculture, as reproduc-tion, seed) from others whose sexual referencesappear to reach back to the earliest times andto the obscurest depths of our image-building.The power of building symbols in both thesespecial forms of symbols has not died out. Re-cently discovered things, like the airship, areat once brought into universal use as sex sym-bols.It would be quite an error to suppose that aprofounder knowledge of dream symbolism (the”Language of Dreams”) would make us inde-pendent of questioning the dreamer regardinghis impressions about the dream, and wouldgive us back the whole technique of ancientdream interpreters. Apart from individual sym-
  • 141. 139bols and the variations in the use of what isgeneral, one never knows whether an elementin the dream is to be understood symbolicallyor in its proper meaning; the whole contentof the dream is certainly not to be interpretedsymbolically. The knowledge of dream symbolswill only help us in understanding portions ofthe dream content, and does not render the useof the technical rules previously given at all su-perfluous. But it must be of the greatest servicein interpreting a dream just when the impres-sions of the dreamer are withheld or are insuf-ficient.Dream symbolism proves also indispensablefor understanding the so-called ”typical” dreamsand the dreams that ”repeat themselves.” Dreamsymbolism leads us far beyond the dream; itdoes not belong only to dreams, but is like-wise dominant in legend, myth, and saga, in wit
  • 142. 140Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)and in folklore. It compels us to pursue the in-ner meaning of the dream in these productions.But we must acknowledge that symbolism isnot a result of the dream work, but is a pe-culiarity probably of our unconscious thinking,which furnishes to the dream work the matterfor condensation, displacement, and dramati-zation.[1] Freud, ”Three Contributions to Sexual The-ory,” translated by A.A. Brill (-Journal of Ner-vous and Mental Disease- Publishing Company,New York).[2] The words from ”and” to ”channels” inthe next sentence is a short summary of thepassage in the original. As this book will beread by other than professional people the pas-sage has not been translated, in deference toEnglish opinion.–TRANSLATOR.
  • 143. IV DREAM ANALYSISPerhaps we shall now begin to suspect that dreaminterpretation is capable of giving us hints aboutthe structure of our psychic apparatus whichwe have thus far expected in vain from philos-ophy. We shall not, however, follow this track,but return to our original problem as soon aswe have cleared up the subject of dream-disfigurement.The question has arisen how dreams with dis-agreeable content can be analyzed as the fulfill-ment of wishes. We see now that this is possiblein case dream-disfigurement has taken place,in case the disagreeable content serves only as141
  • 144. 142Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)a disguise for what is wished. Keeping in mindour assumptions in regard to the two psychicinstances, we may now proceed to say: dis-agreeable dreams, as a matter of fact, containsomething which is disagreeable to the secondinstance, but which at the same time fulfills awish of the first instance. They are wish dreamsin the sense that every dream originates in thefirst instance, while the second instance actstowards the dream only in repelling, not in acreative manner. If we limit ourselves to a con-sideration of what the second instance contributesto the dream, we can never understand the dream.If we do so, all the riddles which the authorshave found in the dream remain unsolved.That the dream actually has a secret mean-ing, which turns out to be the fulfillment of awish, must be proved afresh for every case bymeans of an analysis. I therefore select sev-
  • 145. 143eral dreams which have painful contents andattempt an analysis of them. They are partlydreams of hysterical subjects, which require longpreliminary statements, and now and then alsoan examination of the psychic processes whichoccur in hysteria. I cannot, however, avoid thisadded difficulty in the exposition.When I give a psychoneurotic patient ana-lytical treatment, dreams are always, as I havesaid, the subject of our discussion. It must,therefore, give him all the psychological expla-nations through whose aid I myself have cometo an understanding of his symptoms, and hereI undergo an unsparing criticism, which is per-haps not less keen than that I must expect frommy colleagues. Contradiction of the thesis thatall dreams are the fulfillments of wishes is raisedby my patients with perfect regularity. Here areseveral examples of the dream material which
  • 146. 144Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)is offered me to refute this position.”You always tell me that the dream is a wishfulfilled,” begins a clever lady patient. ”Now Ishall tell you a dream in which the content isquite the opposite, in which a wish of mine is-not- fulfilled. How do you reconcile that withyour theory? The dream is as follows:–-”I want to give a supper, but having nothingat hand except some smoked salmon, I think ofgoing marketing, but I remember that it is Sun-day afternoon, when all the shops are closed. Inext try to telephone to some caterers, but thetelephone is out of order.... Thus I must resignmy wish to give a supper.”-I answer, of course, that only the analysiscan decide the meaning of this dream, althoughI admit that at first sight it seems sensible andcoherent, and looks like the opposite of a wish-fulfillment. ”But what occurrence has given rise
  • 147. 145to this dream?” I ask. ”You know that the stim-ulus for a dream always lies among the experi-ences of the preceding day.”-Analysis.—The husband of the patient, anupright and conscientious wholesale butcher,had told her the day before that he is grow-ing too fat, and that he must, therefore, begintreatment for obesity. He was going to get upearly, take exercise, keep to a strict diet, andabove all accept no more invitations to suppers.She proceeds laughingly to relate how her hus-band at an inn table had made the acquain-tance of an artist, who insisted upon paintinghis portrait because he, the painter, had neverfound such an expressive head. But her hus-band had answered in his rough way, that hewas very thankful for the honor, but that hewas quite convinced that a portion of the back-side of a pretty young girl would please the artist
  • 148. 146Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)better than his whole face[1]. She said that shewas at the time very much in love with her hus-band, and teased him a good deal. She had alsoasked him not to send her any caviare. Whatdoes that mean?As a matter of fact, she had wanted for along time to eat a caviare sandwich every forenoon,but had grudged herself the expense. Of course,she would at once get the caviare from her hus-band, as soon as she asked him for it. But shehad begged him, on the contrary, not to sendher the caviare, in order that she might teasehim about it longer.This explanation seems far-fetched to me.Unadmitted motives are in the habit of hidingbehind such unsatisfactory explanations. Weare reminded of subjects hypnotized by Bern-heim, who carried out a posthypnotic order, andwho, upon being asked for their motives, in-
  • 149. 147stead of answering: ”I do not know why I didthat,” had to invent a reason that was obviouslyinadequate. Something similar is probably thecase with the caviare of my patient. I see thatshe is compelled to create an unfulfilled wishin life. Her dream also shows the reproductionof the wish as accomplished. But why does sheneed an unfulfilled wish?The ideas so far produced are insufficientfor the interpretation of the dream. I beg formore. After a short pause, which correspondsto the overcoming of a resistance, she reportsfurther that the day before she had made avisit to a friend, of whom she is really jealous,because her husband is always praising thiswoman so much. Fortunately, this friend isvery lean and thin, and her husband likes well-rounded figures. Now of what did this leanfriend speak? Naturally of her wish to become
  • 150. 148Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)somewhat stouter. She also asked my patient:”When are you going to invite us again? Youalways have such a good table.”Now the meaning of the dream is clear. Imay say to the patient: ”It is just as thoughyou had thought at the time of the request: ’Ofcourse, I’ll invite you, so you can eat yourself fatat my house and become still more pleasing tomy husband. I would rather give no more sup-pers.’ The dream then tells you that you can-not give a supper, thereby fulfilling your wishnot to contribute anything to the rounding outof your friend’s figure. The resolution of yourhusband to refuse invitations to supper for thesake of getting thin teaches you that one growsfat on the things served in company.” Now onlysome conversation is necessary to confirm thesolution. The smoked salmon in the dream hasnot yet been traced. ”How did the salmon men-
  • 151. 149tioned in the dream occur to you?” ”Smokedsalmon is the favorite dish of this friend,” sheanswered. I happen to know the lady, and maycorroborate this by saying that she grudges her-self the salmon just as much as my patientgrudges herself the caviare.The dream admits of still another and moreexact interpretation, which is necessitated onlyby a subordinate circumstance. The two inter-pretations do not contradict one another, butrather cover each other and furnish a neat ex-ample of the usual ambiguity of dreams as wellas of all other psychopathological formations.We have seen that at the same time that shedreams of the denial of the wish, the patientis in reality occupied in securing an unfulfilledwish (the caviare sandwiches). Her friend, too,had expressed a wish, namely, to get fatter, andit would not surprise us if our lady had dreamt
  • 152. 150Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)that the wish of the friend was not being ful-filled. For it is her own wish that a wish of herfriend’s–for increase in weight–should not befulfilled. Instead of this, however, she dreamsthat one of her own wishes is not fulfilled. Thedream becomes capable of a new interpretation,if in the dream she does not intend herself, buther friend, if she has put herself in the placeof her friend, or, as we may say, has identifiedherself with her friend.I think she has actually done this, and asa sign of this identification she has created anunfulfilled wish in reality. But what is the mean-ing of this hysterical identification? To clearthis up a thorough exposition is necessary. Iden-tification is a highly important factor in the mech-anism of hysterical symptoms; by this meanspatients are enabled in their symptoms to rep-resent not merely their own experiences, but
  • 153. 151the experiences of a great number of other per-sons, and can suffer, as it were, for a wholemass of people, and fill all the parts of a dramaby means of their own personalities alone. Itwill here be objected that this is well-knownhysterical imitation, the ability of hysteric sub-jects to copy all the symptoms which impressthem when they occur in others, as though theirpity were stimulated to the point of reproduc-tion. But this only indicates the way in whichthe psychic process is discharged in hystericalimitation; the way in which a psychic act pro-ceeds and the act itself are two different things.The latter is slightly more complicated than oneis apt to imagine the imitation of hysterical sub-jects to be: it corresponds to an unconsciousconcluded process, as an example will show.The physician who has a female patient with aparticular kind of twitching, lodged in the com-
  • 154. 152Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)pany of other patients in the same room of thehospital, is not surprised when some morninghe learns that this peculiar hysterical attackhas found imitations. He simply says to him-self: The others have seen her and have donelikewise: that is psychic infection. Yes, butpsychic infection proceeds in somewhat the fol-lowing manner: As a rule, patients know moreabout one another than the physician knowsabout each of them, and they are concernedabout each other when the visit of the doctor isover. Some of them have an attack to-day: soonit is known among the rest that a letter fromhome, a return of lovesickness or the like, isthe cause of it. Their sympathy is aroused, andthe following syllogism, which does not reachconsciousness, is completed in them: ”If it ispossible to have this kind of an attack fromsuch causes, I too may have this kind of an at-
  • 155. 153tack, for I have the same reasons.” If this werea cycle capable of becoming conscious, it wouldperhaps express itself in -fear- of getting thesame attack; but it takes place in another psy-chic sphere, and, therefore, ends in the real-ization of the dreaded symptom. Identificationis therefore not a simple imitation, but a sym-pathy based upon the same etiological claim;it expresses an ”as though,” and refers to somecommon quality which has remained in the un-conscious.Identification is most often used in hyste-ria to express sexual community. An hystericalwoman identifies herself most readily–althoughnot exclusively–with persons with whom she hashad sexual relations, or who have sexual inter-course with the same persons as herself. Lan-guage takes such a conception into consider-ation: two lovers are ”one.” In the hysterical
  • 156. 154Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)phantasy, as well as in the dream, it is suffi-cient for the identification if one thinks of sex-ual relations, whether or not they become real.The patient, then, only follows the rules of thehysterical thought processes when she gives ex-pression to her jealousy of her friend (which,moreover, she herself admits to be unjustified,in that she puts herself in her place and identi-fies herself with her by creating a symptom–thedenied wish). I might further clarify the pro-cess specifically as follows: She puts herself inthe place of her friend in the dream, becauseher friend has taken her own place relation toher husband, and because she would like totake her friend’s place in the esteem of her hus-band[2].The contradiction to my theory of dreams inthe case of another female patient, the mostwitty among all my dreamers, was solved in
  • 157. 155a simpler manner, although according to thescheme that the non-fulfillment of one wish sig-nifies the fulfillment of another. I had one dayexplained to her that the dream is a wish of ful-fillment. The next day she brought me a dreamto the effect that she was traveling with hermother-in-law to their common summer resort.Now I knew that she had struggled violentlyagainst spending the summer in the neighbor-hood of her mother-in-law. I also knew that shehad luckily avoided her mother-in-law by rent-ing an estate in a far-distant country resort.Now the dream reversed this wished-for solu-tion; was not this in the flattest contradictionto my theory of wish-fulfillment in the dream?Certainly, it was only necessary to draw theinferences from this dream in order to get atits interpretation. According to this dream, Iwas in the wrong. -It was thus her wish that
  • 158. 156Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)I should be in the wrong, and this wish thedream showed her as fulfilled.- But the wishthat I should be in the wrong, which was ful-filled in the theme of the country home, referredto a more serious matter. At that time I hadmade up my mind, from the material furnishedby her analysis, that something of significancefor her illness must have occurred at a certaintime in her life. She had denied it because itwas not present in her memory. We soon cameto see that I was in the right. Her wish that Ishould be in the wrong, which is transformedinto the dream, thus corresponded to the justi-fiable wish that those things, which at the timehad only been suspected, had never occurredat all.Without an analysis, and merely by meansof an assumption, I took the liberty of interpret-ing a little occurrence in the case of a friend,
  • 159. 157who had been my colleague through the eightclasses of the Gymnasium. He once heard alecture of mine delivered to a small assemblage,on the novel subject of the dream as the fulfill-ment of a wish. He went home, dreamt -thathe had lost all his suits—he was a lawyer–andthen complained to me about it. I took refugein the evasion: ”One can’t win all one’s suits,”but I thought to myself: ”If for eight years I satas Primus on the first bench, while he movedaround somewhere in the middle of the class,may he not naturally have had a wish from hisboyhood days that I, too, might for once com-pletely disgrace myself?”In the same way another dream of a moregloomy character was offered me by a femalepatient as a contradiction to my theory of thewish-dream. The patient, a young girl, began asfollows: ”You remember that my sister has now
  • 160. 158Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)only one boy, Charles: she lost the elder one,Otto, while I was still at her house. Otto was myfavorite; it was I who really brought him up. Ilike the other little fellow, too, but of course notnearly as much as the dead one. Now I dreamtlast night that -I saw Charles lying dead beforeme. He was lying in his little coffin, his handsfolded: there were candles all about, and, inshort, it was just like the time of little Otto’sdeath, which shocked me so profoundly-. Nowtell me, what does this mean? You know me:am I really bad enough to wish my sister to losethe only child she has left? Or does the dreammean that I wish Charles to be dead rather thanOtto, whom I like so much better?”I assured her that this interpretation wasimpossible. After some reflection I was able togive her the interpretation of the dream, whichI subsequently made her confirm.
  • 161. 159Having become an orphan at an early age,the girl had been brought up in the house ofa much older sister, and had met among thefriends and visitors who came to the house, aman who made a lasting impression upon herheart. It looked for a time as though thesebarely expressed relations were to end in mar-riage, but this happy culmination was frustratedby the sister, whose motives have never founda complete explanation. After the break, theman who was loved by our patient avoided thehouse: she herself became independent sometime after little Otto’s death, to whom her af-fection had now turned. But she did not suc-ceed in freeing herself from the inclination forher sister’s friend in which she had become in-volved. Her pride commanded her to avoid him;but it was impossible for her to transfer her loveto the other suitors who presented themselves
  • 162. 160Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)in order. Whenever the man whom she loved,who was a member of the literary profession,announced a lecture anywhere, she was sureto be found in the audience; she also seizedevery other opportunity to see him from a dis-tance unobserved by him. I remembered thaton the day before she had told me that theProfessor was going to a certain concert, andthat she was also going there, in order to en-joy the sight of him. This was on the day ofthe dream; and the concert was to take placeon the day on which she told me the dream. Icould now easily see the correct interpretation,and I asked her whether she could think of anyevent which had happened after the death oflittle Otto. She answered immediately: ”Cer-tainly; at that time the Professor returned aftera long absence, and I saw him once more be-side the coffin of little Otto.” It was exactly as
  • 163. 161I had expected. I interpreted the dream in thefollowing manner: ”If now the other boy wereto die, the same thing would be repeated. Youwould spend the day with your sister, the Pro-fessor would surely come in order to offer con-dolence, and you would see him again underthe same circumstances as at that time. Thedream signifies nothing but this wish of yoursto see him again, against which you are fight-ing inwardly. I know that you are carrying theticket for to-day’s concert in your bag. Yourdream is a dream of impatience; it has antici-pated the meeting which is to take place to-dayby several hours.”In order to disguise her wish she had ob-viously selected a situation in which wishes ofthat sort are commonly suppressed–a situationwhich is so filled with sorrow that love is notthought of. And yet, it is very easily probable
  • 164. 162Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)that even in the actual situation at the bier ofthe second, more dearly loved boy, which thedream copied faithfully, she had not been ableto suppress her feelings of affection for the vis-itor whom she had missed for so long a time.A different explanation was found in the caseof a similar dream of another female patient,who was distinguished in her earlier years byher quick wit and her cheerful demeanors andwho still showed these qualities at least in thenotion, which occurred to her in the course oftreatment. In connection with a longer dream,it seemed to this lady that she saw her fifteen-year-old daughter lying dead before her in abox. She was strongly inclined to convert thisdream-image into an objection to the theory ofwish-fulfillment, but herself suspected that thedetail of the box must lead to a different con-ception of the dream.[3] In the course of the
  • 165. 163analysis it occurred to her that on the eveningbefore, the conversation of the company hadturned upon the English word ”box,” and uponthe numerous translations of it into German,such as box, theater box, chest, box on theear, &c. From other components of the samedream it is now possible to add that the ladyhad guessed the relationship between the En-glish word ”box” and the German -Buechse-,and had then been haunted by the memory that-Buechse- (as well as ”box”) is used in vulgarspeech to designate the female genital organ.It was therefore possible, making a certain al-lowance for her notions on the subject of to-pographical anatomy, to assume that the childin the box signified a child in the womb of themother. At this stage of the explanation sheno longer denied that the picture of the dreamreally corresponded to one of her wishes. Like
  • 166. 164Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)so many other young women, she was by nomeans happy when she became pregnant, andadmitted to me more than once the wish thather child might die before its birth; in a fit ofanger following a violent scene with her hus-band she had even struck her abdomen withher fists in order to hit the child within. Thedead child was, therefore, really the fulfillmentof a wish, but a wish which had been put asidefor fifteen years, and it is not surprising thatthe fulfillment of the wish was no longer recog-nized after so long an interval. For there hadbeen many changes meanwhile.The group of dreams to which the two lastmentioned belong, having as content the deathof beloved relatives, will be considered againunder the head of ”Typical Dreams.” I shall therebe able to show by new examples that in spiteof their undesirable content, all these dreams
  • 167. 165must be interpreted as wish-fulfillments. Forthe following dream, which again was told mein order to deter me from a hasty generaliza-tion of the theory of wishing in dreams, I amindebted, not to a patient, but to an intelligentjurist of my acquaintance. ”-I dream-,” my in-formant tells me, ”-that I am walking in front ofmy house with a lady on my arm. Here a closedwagon is waiting, a gentleman steps up to me,gives his authority as an agent of the police,and demands that I should follow him. I onlyask for time in which to arrange my affairs.-Can you possibly suppose this is a wish of mineto be arrested?” ”Of course not,” I must admit.”Do you happen to know upon what charge youwere arrested?” ”Yes; I believe for infanticide.””Infanticide? But you know that only a mothercan commit this crime upon her newly bornchild?” ”That is true.”[4] ”And under what cir-
  • 168. 166Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)cumstances did you dream; what happened onthe evening before?” ”I would rather not tell youthat; it is a delicate matter.” ”But I must haveit, otherwise we must forgo the interpretation ofthe dream.” ”Well, then, I will tell you. I spentthe night, not at home, but at the house of alady who means very much to me. When weawoke in the morning, something again passedbetween us. Then I went to sleep again, anddreamt what I have told you.” ”The woman ismarried?” ”Yes.” ”And you do not wish her toconceive a child?” ”No; that might betray us.””Then you do not practice normal coitus?” ”Itake the precaution to withdraw before ejacula-tion.” ”Am I permitted to assume that you didthis trick several times during the night, andthat in the morning you were not quite surewhether you had succeeded?” ”That might bethe case.” ”Then your dream is the fulfillment
  • 169. 167of a wish. By means of it you secure the as-surance that you have not begotten a child, or,what amounts to the same thing, that you havekilled a child. I can easily demonstrate the con-necting links. Do you remember, a few daysago we were talking about the distress of mat-rimony (Ehenot), and about the inconsistencyof permitting the practice of coitus as long asno impregnation takes place, while every delin-quency after the ovum and the semen meet anda foetus is formed is punished as a crime? Inconnection with this, we also recalled the me-diaeval controversy about the moment of timeat which the soul is really lodged in the foetus,since the concept of murder becomes admissi-ble only from that point on. Doubtless you alsoknow the gruesome poem by Lenau, which putsinfanticide and the prevention of children onthe same plane.” ”Strangely enough, I had hap-
  • 170. 168Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)pened to think of Lenau during the afternoon.””Another echo of your dream. And now I shalldemonstrate to you another subordinate wish-fulfillment in your dream. You walk in front ofyour house with the lady on your arm. So youtake her home, instead of spending the night ather house, as you do in actuality. The fact thatthe wish-fulfillment, which is the essence of thedream, disguises itself in such an unpleasantform, has perhaps more than one reason. Frommy essay on the etiology of anxiety neuroses,you will see that I note interrupted coitus asone of the factors which cause the developmentof neurotic fear. It would be consistent with thisthat if after repeated cohabitation of the kindmentioned you should be left in an uncomfort-able mood, which now becomes an element inthe composition of your dream. You also makeuse of this unpleasant state of mind to conceal
  • 171. 169the wish-fulfillment. Furthermore, the mentionof infanticide has not yet been explained. Whydoes this crime, which is peculiar to females,occur to you?” ”I shall confess to you that I wasinvolved in such an affair years ago. Throughmy fault a girl tried to protect herself from theconsequences of a -liaison- with me by securingan abortion. I had nothing to do with carryingout the plan, but I was naturally for a long timeworried lest the affair might be discovered.” ”Iunderstand; this recollection furnished a sec-ond reason why the supposition that you haddone your trick badly must have been painfulto you.”A young physician, who had heard this dreamof my colleague when it was told, must have feltimplicated by it, for he hastened to imitate it ina dream of his own, applying its mode of think-ing to another subject. The day before he had
  • 172. 170Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)handed in a declaration of his income, whichwas perfectly honest, because he had little todeclare. He dreamt that an acquaintance ofhis came from a meeting of the tax commis-sion and informed him that all the other dec-larations of income had passed uncontested,but that his own had awakened general sus-picion, and that he would be punished with aheavy fine. The dream is a poorly-concealedfulfillment of the wish to be known as a physi-cian with a large income. It likewise recallsthe story of the young girl who was advisedagainst accepting her suitor because he was aman of quick temper who would surely treather to blows after they were married.The answer of the girl was: ”I wish he -would-strike me!” Her wish to be married is so strongthat she takes into the bargain the discomfortwhich is said to be connected with matrimony,
  • 173. 171and which is predicted for her, and even raisesit to a wish.If I group the very frequently occurring dreamsof this sort, which seem flatly to contradict mytheory, in that they contain the denial of a wishor some occurrence decidedly unwished for, un-der the head of ”counter wish-dreams,” I ob-serve that they may all be referred to two princi-ples, of which one has not yet been mentioned,although it plays a large part in the dreamsof human beings. One of the motives inspir-ing these dreams is the wish that I should ap-pear in the wrong. These dreams regularly oc-cur in the course of my treatment if the patientshows a resistance against me, and I can countwith a large degree of certainty upon causingsuch a dream after I have once explained tothe patient my theory that the dream is a wish-fulfillment.[5] I may even expect this to be the
  • 174. 172Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)case in a dream merely in order to fulfill thewish that I may appear in the wrong. The lastdream which I shall tell from those occurring inthe course of treatment again shows this verything. A young girl who has struggled hardto continue my treatment, against the will ofher relatives and the authorities whom she hadconsulted, dreams as follows: -She is forbiddenat home to come to me any more. She then re-minds me of the promise I made her to treat herfor nothing if necessary, and I say to her: ”I canshow no consideration in money matters.”-It is not at all easy in this case to demon-strate the fulfillment of a wish, but in all casesof this kind there is a second problem, the solu-tion of which helps also to solve the first. Wheredoes she get the words which she puts into mymouth? Of course I have never told her any-thing like that, but one of her brothers, the
  • 175. 173very one who has the greatest influence overher, has been kind enough to make this remarkabout me. It is then the purpose of the dreamthat this brother should remain in the right;and she does not try to justify this brother merelyin the dream; it is her purpose in life and themotive for her being ill.The other motive for counter wish-dreams isso clear that there is danger of overlooking it,as for some time happened in my own case.In the sexual make-up of many people thereis a masochistic component, which has arisenthrough the conversion of the aggressive, sadis-tic component into its opposite. Such peopleare called ”ideal” masochists, if they seek plea-sure not in the bodily pain which may be in-flicted upon them, but in humiliation and inchastisement of the soul. It is obvious thatsuch persons can have counter wish-dreams
  • 176. 174Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)and disagreeable dreams, which, however, forthem are nothing but wish-fulfillment, afford-ing satisfaction for their masochistic inclina-tions. Here is such a dream. A young man, whohas in earlier years tormented his elder brother,towards whom he was homosexually inclined,but who had undergone a complete change ofcharacter, has the following dream, which con-sists of three parts: (1) -He is ”insulted” byhis brother.- (2) -Two adults are caressing eachother with homosexual intentions.- (3) -His brotherhas sold the enterprise whose management theyoung man reserved for his own future.- Heawakens from the last-mentioned dream withthe most unpleasant feelings, and yet it is amasochistic wish-dream, which might be trans-lated: It would serve me quite right if my brotherwere to make that sale against my interest, as apunishment for all the torments which he has
  • 177. 175suffered at my hands.I hope that the above discussion and ex-amples will suffice–until further objection canbe raised–to make it seem credible that evendreams with a painful content are to be ana-lyzed as the fulfillments of wishes. Nor will itseem a matter of chance that in the course ofinterpretation one always happens upon sub-jects of which one does not like to speak orthink. The disagreeable sensation which suchdreams arouse is simply identical with the an-tipathy which endeavors–usually with success–to restrain us from the treatment or discussionof such subjects, and which must be overcomeby all of us, if, in spite of its unpleasantness,we find it necessary to take the matter in hand.But this disagreeable sensation, which occursalso in dreams, does not preclude the existenceof a wish; every one has wishes which he would
  • 178. 176Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)not like to tell to others, which he does notwant to admit even to himself. We are, on othergrounds, justified in connecting the disagree-able character of all these dreams with the factof dream disfigurement, and in concluding thatthese dreams are distorted, and that the wish-fulfillment in them is disguised until recogni-tion is impossible for no other reason than thata repugnance, a will to suppress, exists in re-lation to the subject-matter of the dream or inrelation to the wish which the dream creates.Dream disfigurement, then, turns out in realityto be an act of the censor. We shall take intoconsideration everything which the analysis ofdisagreeable dreams has brought to light if wereword our formula as follows: -The dream isthe (disguised) fulfillment of a (suppressed, re-pressed) wish-.Now there still remain as a particular species
  • 179. 177of dreams with painful content, dreams of anx-iety, the inclusion of which under dreams ofwishing will find least acceptance with the unini-tiated. But I can settle the problem of anxi-ety dreams in very short order; for what theymay reveal is not a new aspect of the dreamproblem; it is a question in their case of un-derstanding neurotic anxiety in general. Thefear which we experience in the dream is onlyseemingly explained by the dream content. Ifwe subject the content of the dream to analy-sis, we become aware that the dream fear is nomore justified by the dream content than thefear in a phobia is justified by the idea uponwhich the phobia depends. For example, it istrue that it is possible to fall out of a window,and that some care must be exercised when oneis near a window, but it is inexplicable why theanxiety in the corresponding phobia is so great,
  • 180. 178Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)and why it follows its victims to an extent somuch greater than is warranted by its origin.The same explanation, then, which applies tothe phobia applies also to the dream of anxiety.In both cases the anxiety is only superficiallyattached to the idea which accompanies it andcomes from another source.On account of the intimate relation of dreamfear to neurotic fear, discussion of the formerobliges me to refer to the latter. In a little es-say on ”The Anxiety Neurosis,”[6] I maintainedthat neurotic fear has its origin in the sexuallife, and corresponds to a libido which has beenturned away from its object and has not suc-ceeded in being applied. From this formula,which has since proved its validity more andmore clearly, we may deduce the conclusionthat the content of anxiety dreams is of a sex-ual nature, the libido belonging to which con-
  • 181. 179tent has been transformed into fear.[1] To sit for the painter. Goethe: ”And if hehas no backside, how can the nobleman sit?”[2] I myself regret the introduction of suchpassages from the psychopathology of hyste-ria, which, because of their fragmentary repre-sentation and of being torn from all connectionwith the subject, cannot have a very enlighten-ing influence. If these passages are capable ofthrowing light upon the intimate relations be-tween the dream and the psychoneuroses, theyhave served the purpose for which I have takenthem up.[3] Something like the smoked salmon in thedream of the deferred supper.[4] It often happens that a dream is told in-completely, and that a recollection of the omit-ted portions appear only in the course of theanalysis. These portions subsequently fitted in,
  • 182. 180Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)regularly furnish the key to the interpretation.-Cf.- below, about forgetting in dreams.[5] Similar ”counter wish-dreams” have beenrepeatedly reported to me within the last fewyears by my pupils who thus reacted to theirfirst encounter with the ”wish theory of the dream.”[6] See -Selected Papers on Hysteria and otherPsychoneuroses-, p. 133, translated by A.A.Brill, -Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases-, Monograph Series.
  • 183. V SEX IN DREAMSThe more one is occupied with the solution ofdreams, the more willing one must become toacknowledge that the majority of the dreamsof adults treat of sexual material and give ex-pression to erotic wishes. Only one who reallyanalyzes dreams, that is to say, who pushesforward from their manifest content to the la-tent dream thoughts, can form an opinion onthis subject–never the person who is satisfiedwith registering the manifest content (as, for ex-ample, Naecke in his works on sexual dreams).Let us recognize at once that this fact is not181
  • 184. 182Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)to be wondered at, but that it is in completeharmony with the fundamental assumptions ofdream explanation. No other impulse has hadto undergo so much suppression from the timeof childhood as the sex impulse in its numerouscomponents, from no other impulse have sur-vived so many and such intense unconsciouswishes, which now act in the sleeping state insuch a manner as to produce dreams. In dreaminterpretation, this significance of sexual com-plexes must never be forgotten, nor must they,of course, be exaggerated to the point of beingconsidered exclusive.Of many dreams it can be ascertained by acareful interpretation that they are even to betaken bisexually, inasmuch as they result in anirrefutable secondary interpretation in which theyrealize homosexual feelings–that is, feelings thatare common to the normal sexual activity of
  • 185. 183the dreaming person. But that all dreams areto be interpreted bisexually, seems to me to bea generalization as indemonstrable as it is im-probable, which I should not like to support.Above all I should not know how to dispose ofthe apparent fact that there are many dreamssatisfying other than–in the widest sense–eroticneeds, as dreams of hunger, thirst, convenience,&c. Likewise the similar assertions ”that be-hind every dream one finds the death sentence”(Stekel), and that every dream shows ”a contin-uation from the feminine to the masculine line”(Adler), seem to me to proceed far beyond whatis admissible in the interpretation of dreams.We have already asserted elsewhere that dreamswhich are conspicuously innocent invariably em-body coarse erotic wishes, and we might con-firm this by means of numerous fresh exam-ples. But many dreams which appear indiffer-
  • 186. 184Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ent, and which would never be suspected of anyparticular significance, can be traced back, af-ter analysis, to unmistakably sexual wish-feelings,which are often of an unexpected nature. Forexample, who would suspect a sexual wish inthe following dream until the interpretation hadbeen worked out? The dreamer relates: -Betweentwo stately palaces stands a little house, reced-ing somewhat, whose doors are closed. My wifeleads me a little way along the street up to thelittle house, and pushes in the door, and thenI slip quickly and easily into the interior of acourtyard that slants obliquely upwards.-Any one who has had experience in the trans-lating of dreams will, of course, immediatelyperceive that penetrating into narrow spaces,and opening locked doors, belong to the com-monest sexual symbolism, and will easily findin this dream a representation of attempted coition
  • 187. 185from behind (between the two stately buttocksof the female body). The narrow slanting pas-sage is of course the vagina; the assistance at-tributed to the wife of the dreamer requires theinterpretation that in reality it is only consid-eration for the wife which is responsible for thedetention from such an attempt. Moreover, in-quiry shows that on the previous day a younggirl had entered the household of the dreamerwho had pleased him, and who had given himthe impression that she would not be altogetheropposed to an approach of this sort. The littlehouse between the two palaces is taken from areminiscence of the Hradschin in Prague, andthus points again to the girl who is a native ofthat city.If with my patients I emphasize the frequencyof the Oedipus dream–of having sexual inter-course with one’s mother–I get the answer: ”I
  • 188. 186Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)cannot remember such a dream.” Immediatelyafterwards, however, there arises the recollec-tion of another disguised and indifferent dream,which has been dreamed repeatedly by the pa-tient, and the analysis shows it to be a dreamof this same content–that is, another Oedipusdream. I can assure the reader that veiled dreamsof sexual intercourse with the mother are a greatdeal more frequent than open ones to the sameeffect.There are dreams about landscapes and lo-calities in which emphasis is always laid uponthe assurance: ”I have been there before.” Inthis case the locality is always the genital or-gan of the mother; it can indeed be assertedwith such certainty of no other locality that one”has been there before.”A large number of dreams, often full of fear,which are concerned with passing through nar-
  • 189. 187row spaces or with staying, in the water, arebased upon fancies about the embryonic life,about the sojourn in the mother’s womb, andabout the act of birth. The following is thedream of a young man who in his fancy hasalready while in embryo taken advantage of hisopportunity to spy upon an act of coition be-tween his parents.-”He is in a deep shaft, in which there is awindow, as in the Semmering Tunnel. At firsthe sees an empty landscape through this win-dow, and then he composes a picture into it,which is immediately at hand and which fillsout the empty space. The picture represents afield which is being thoroughly harrowed by animplement, and the delightful air, the accompa-nying idea of hard work, and the bluish-blackclods of earth make a pleasant impression. Hethen goes on and sees a primary school opened
  • 190. 188Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)... and he is surprised that so much attention isdevoted in it to the sexual feelings of the child,which makes him think of me.”-Here is a pretty water-dream of a female pa-tient, which was turned to extraordinary ac-count in the course of treatment.-At her summer resort at the ... Lake, shehurls herself into the dark water at a place wherethe pale moon is reflected in the water.-Dreams of this sort are parturition dreams;their interpretation is accomplished by revers-ing the fact reported in the manifest dream con-tent; thus, instead of ”throwing one’s self intothe water,” read ”coming out of the water,” thatis, ”being born.” The place from which one isborn is recognized if one thinks of the bad senseof the French ”la lune.” The pale moon thusbecomes the white ”bottom” (Popo), which thechild soon recognizes as the place from which
  • 191. 189it came. Now what can be the meaning of thepatient’s wishing to be born at her summer re-sort? I asked the dreamer this, and she an-swered without hesitation: ”Hasn’t the treat-ment made me as though I were born again?”Thus the dream becomes an invitation to con-tinue the cure at this summer resort, that is, tovisit her there; perhaps it also contains a verybashful allusion to the wish to become a motherherself.[1]Another dream of parturition, with its inter-pretation, I take from the work of E. Jones. -”She stood at the seashore watching a smallboy, who seemed to be hers, wading into thewater. This he did till the water covered him,and she could only see his head bobbing upand down near the surface. The scene thenchanged to the crowded hall of a hotel. Herhusband left her, and she ’entered into conver-
  • 192. 190Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)sation with’ a stranger.”- The second half of thedream was discovered in the analysis to rep-resent a flight from her husband, and the en-tering into intimate relations with a third per-son, behind whom was plainly indicated Mr.X.’s brother mentioned in a former dream. Thefirst part of the dream was a fairly evident birthphantasy. In dreams as in mythology, the de-livery of a child -from- the uterine waters iscommonly presented by distortion as the entryof the child -into- water; among many others,the births of Adonis, Osiris, Moses, and Bac-chus are well-known illustrations of this. Thebobbing up and down of the head in the wa-ter at once recalled to the patient the sensa-tion of quickening she had experienced in heronly pregnancy. Thinking of the boy going intothe water induced a reverie in which she sawherself taking him out of the water, carrying
  • 193. 191him into the nursery, washing him and dress-ing him, and installing him in her household.The second half of the dream, therefore, rep-resents thoughts concerning the elopement, whichbelonged to the first half of the underlying la-tent content; the first half of the dream corre-sponded with the second half of the latent con-tent, the birth phantasy. Besides this inver-sion in order, further inversions took place ineach half of the dream. In the first half thechild -entered- the water, and then his headbobbed; in the underlying dream thoughts firstthe quickening occurred, and then the childleft the water (a double inversion). In the sec-ond half her husband left her; in the dreamthoughts she left her husband.Another parturition dream is related by Abra-ham of a young woman looking forward to herfirst confinement. From a place in the floor of
  • 194. 192Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the house a subterranean canal leads directlyinto the water (parturition path, amniotic liquor).She lifts up a trap in the floor, and there imme-diately appears a creature dressed in a brown-ish fur, which almost resembles a seal. Thiscreature changes into the younger brother ofthe dreamer, to whom she has always stood inmaternal relationship.Dreams of ”saving” are connected with par-turition dreams. To save, especially to savefrom the water, is equivalent to giving birth whendreamed by a woman; this sense is, however,modified when the dreamer is a man.Robbers, burglars at night, and ghosts, ofwhich we are afraid before going to bed, andwhich occasionally even disturb our sleep, orig-inate in one and the same childish reminis-cence. They are the nightly visitors who haveawakened the child to set it on the chamber so
  • 195. 193that it may not wet the bed, or have lifted thecover in order to see clearly how the child isholding its hands while sleeping. I have beenable to induce an exact recollection of the noc-turnal visitor in the analysis of some of theseanxiety dreams. The robbers were always thefather, the ghosts more probably correspondedto feminine persons with white night-gowns.When one has become familiar with the abun-dant use of symbolism for the representation ofsexual material in dreams, one naturally raisesthe question whether there are not many of thesesymbols which appear once and for all with afirmly established significance like the signs instenography; and one is tempted to compile anew dream-book according to the cipher method.In this connection it may be remarked that thissymbolism does not belong peculiarly to the dream,but rather to unconscious thinking, particu-
  • 196. 194Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)larly that of the masses, and it is to be found ingreater perfection in the folklore, in the myths,legends, and manners of speech, in the prover-bial sayings, and in the current witticisms of anation than in its dreams.The dream takes advantage of this symbol-ism in order to give a disguised representationto its latent thoughts. Among the symbols whichare used in this manner there are of coursemany which regularly, or almost regularly, meanthe same thing. Only it is necessary to keepin mind the curious plasticity of psychic ma-terial. Now and then a symbol in the dreamcontent may have to be interpreted not sym-bolically, but according to its real meaning; atanother time the dreamer, owing to a peculiarset of recollections, may create for himself theright to use anything whatever as a sexual sym-bol, though it is not ordinarily used in that way.
  • 197. 195Nor are the most frequently used sexual sym-bols unambiguous every time.After these limitations and reservations I maycall attention to the following: Emperor andEmpress (King and Queen) in most cases re-ally represent the parents of the dreamer; thedreamer himself or herself is the prince or princess.All elongated objects, sticks, tree-trunks, andumbrellas (on account of the stretching-up whichmight be compared to an erection! all elon-gated and sharp weapons, knives, daggers, andpikes, are intended to represent the male mem-ber. A frequent, not very intelligible, symbolfor the same is a nail-file (on account of therubbing and scraping?). Little cases, boxes,caskets, closets, and stoves correspond to thefemale part. The symbolism of lock and keyhas been very gracefully employed by Uhlandin his song about the ”Grafen Eberstein,” to
  • 198. 196Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)make a common smutty joke. The dream ofwalking through a row of rooms is a brothel orharem dream. Staircases, ladders, and flightsof stairs, or climbing on these, either upwardsor downwards, are symbolic representations ofthe sexual act. Smooth walls over which oneis climbing, facades of houses upon which oneis letting oneself down, frequently under greatanxiety, correspond to the erect human body,and probably repeat in the dream reminiscencesof the upward climbing of little children on theirparents or foster parents. ”Smooth” walls aremen. Often in a dream of anxiety one is hold-ing on firmly to some projection from a house.Tables, set tables, and boards are women, per-haps on account of the opposition which doesaway with the bodily contours. Since ”bed andboard” (-mensa et thorus-) constitute marriage,the former are often put for the latter in the
  • 199. 197dream, and as far as practicable the sexual pre-sentation complex is transposed to the eatingcomplex. Of articles of dress the woman’s hatmay frequently be definitely interpreted as themale genital. In dreams of men one often findsthe cravat as a symbol for the penis; this in-deed is not only because cravats hang downlong, and are characteristic of the man, butalso because one can select them at pleasure,a freedom which is prohibited by nature in theoriginal of the symbol. Persons who make useof this symbol in the dream are very extrava-gant with cravats, and possess regular collec-tions of them. All complicated machines andapparatus in dream are very probably genitals,in the description of which dream symbolismshows itself to be as tireless as the activity ofwit. Likewise many landscapes in dreams, es-pecially with bridges or with wooded mountains,
  • 200. 198Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)can be readily recognized as descriptions of thegenitals. Finally where one finds incomprehen-sible neologisms one may think of combinationsmade up of components having a sexual signif-icance. Children also in the dream often sig-nify the genitals, as men and women are inthe habit of fondly referring to their genital or-gan as their ”little one.” As a very recent sym-bol of the male genital may be mentioned theflying machine, utilization of which is justifiedby its relation to flying as well as occasionallyby its form. To play with a little child or tobeat a little one is often the dream’s represen-tation of onanism. A number of other sym-bols, in part not sufficiently verified are givenby Stekel, who illustrates them with examples.Right and left, according to him, are to be con-ceived in the dream in an ethical sense. ”Theright way always signifies the road to righteous-
  • 201. 199ness, the left the one to crime. Thus the leftmay signify homosexuality, incest, and perver-sion, while the right signifies marriage, rela-tions with a prostitute, &c. The meaning is al-ways determined by the individual moral view-point of the dreamer.” Relatives in the dreamgenerally play the role of genitals. Not to beable to catch up with a wagon is interpreted byStekel as regret not to be able to come up toa difference in age. Baggage with which onetravels is the burden of sin by which one is op-pressed. Also numbers, which frequently oc-cur in the dream, are assigned by Stekel a fixedsymbolical meaning, but these interpretationsseem neither sufficiently verified nor of generalvalidity, although the interpretation in individ-ual cases can generally be recognized as proba-ble. In a recently published book by W. Stekel,-Die Sprache des Traumes-, which I was un-
  • 202. 200Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)able to utilize, there is a list of the most com-mon sexual symbols, the object of which is toprove that all sexual symbols can be bisexu-ally used. He states: ”Is there a symbol which(if in any way permitted by the phantasy) maynot be used simultaneously in the masculineand the feminine sense!” To be sure the clausein parentheses takes away much of the abso-luteness of this assertion, for this is not at allpermitted by the phantasy. I do not, however,think it superfluous to state that in my expe-rience Stekel’s general statement has to giveway to the recognition of a greater manifold-ness. Besides those symbols, which are justas frequent for the male as for the female geni-tals, there are others which preponderately, oralmost exclusively, designate one of the sexes,and there are still others of which only the maleor only the female signification is known. To
  • 203. 201use long, firm objects and weapons as symbolsof the female genitals, or hollow objects (chests,pouches, &c.), as symbols of the male genitals,is indeed not allowed by the fancy.It is true that the tendency of the dreamand the unconscious fancy to utilize the sexualsymbol bisexually betrays an archaic trend, forin childhood a difference in the genitals is un-known, and the same genitals are attributed toboth sexes.These very incomplete suggestions may suf-fice to stimulate others to make a more carefulcollection.I shall now add a few examples of the ap-plication of such symbolisms in dreams, whichwill serve to show how impossible it becomes tointerpret a dream without taking into accountthe symbolism of dreams, and how imperativelyit obtrudes itself in many cases.
  • 204. 202Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)1. The hat as a symbol of the man (of themale genital): (a fragment from the dream of ayoung woman who suffered from agoraphobiaon account of a fear of temptation).”I am walking in the street in summer, I weara straw hat of peculiar shape, the middle pieceof which is bent upwards and the side piecesof which hang downwards (the description be-came here obstructed), and in such a fashionthat one is lower than the other. I am cheer-ful and in a confidential mood, and as I pass atroop of young officers I think to myself: Noneof you can have any designs upon me.”As she could produce no associations to thehat, I said to her: ”The hat is really a male gen-ital, with its raised middle piece and the twodownward hanging side pieces.” I intentionallyrefrained from interpreting those details con-cerning the unequal downward hanging of the
  • 205. 203two side pieces, although just such individuali-ties in the determinations lead the way to theinterpretation. I continued by saying that ifshe only had a man with such a virile genitalshe would not have to fear the officers–that is,she would have nothing to wish from them, forshe is mainly kept from going without protec-tion and company by her fancies of temptation.This last explanation of her fear I had alreadybeen able to give her repeatedly on the basis ofother material.It is quite remarkable how the dreamer be-haved after this interpretation. She withdrewher description of the hat, and claimed not tohave said that the two side pieces were hang-ing downwards. I was, however, too sure ofwhat I had heard to allow myself to be misled,and I persisted in it. She was quiet for a while,and then found the courage to ask why it was
  • 206. 204Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)that one of her husband’s testicles was lowerthan the other, and whether it was the samein all men. With this the peculiar detail of thehat was explained, and the whole interpreta-tion was accepted by her. The hat symbol wasfamiliar to me long before the patient relatedthis dream. From other but less transparentcases I believe that the hat may also be takenas a female genital.2. The little one as the genital–to be runover as a symbol of sexual intercourse (anotherdream of the same agoraphobic patient).”Her mother sends away her little daughterso that she must go alone. She rides with hermother to the railroad and sees her little onewalking directly upon the tracks, so that shecannot avoid being run over. She hears thebones crackle. (From this she experiences afeeling of discomfort but no real horror.) She
  • 207. 205then looks out through the car window to seewhether the parts cannot be seen behind. Shethen reproaches her mother for allowing the lit-tle one to go out alone.” Analysis. It is not aneasy matter to give here a complete interpreta-tion of the dream. It forms part of a cycle ofdreams, and can be fully understood only inconnection with the others. For it is not easyto get the necessary material sufficiently iso-lated to prove the symbolism. The patient atfirst finds that the railroad journey is to be in-terpreted historically as an allusion to a depar-ture from a sanatorium for nervous diseases,with the superintendent of which she naturallywas in love. Her mother took her away fromthis place, and the physician came to the rail-road station and handed her a bouquet of flow-ers on leaving; she felt uncomfortable becauseher mother witnessed this homage. Here the
  • 208. 206Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)mother, therefore, appears as a disturber of herlove affairs, which is the role actually played bythis strict woman during her daughter’s girl-hood. The next thought referred to the sen-tence: ”She then looks to see whether the partscan be seen behind.” In the dream facade onewould naturally be compelled to think of theparts of the little daughter run over and groundup. The thought, however, turns in quite a dif-ferent direction. She recalls that she once sawher father in the bath-room naked from behind;she then begins to talk about the sex differen-tiation, and asserts that in the man the geni-tals can be seen from behind, but in the womanthey cannot. In this connection she now herselfoffers the interpretation that the little one is thegenital, her little one (she has a four-year-olddaughter) her own genital. She reproaches hermother for wanting her to live as though she
  • 209. 207had no genital, and recognizes this reproachin the introductory sentence of the dream; themother sends away her little one so that shemust go alone. In her phantasy going alone onthe street signifies to have no man and no sex-ual relations (coire = to go together), and thisshe does not like. According to all her state-ments she really suffered as a girl on account ofthe jealousy of her mother, because she showeda preference for her father.The ”little one” has been noted as a symbolfor the male or the female genitals by Stekel,who can refer in this connection to a very widespreadusage of language.The deeper interpretation of this dream de-pends upon another dream of the same nightin which the dreamer identifies herself with herbrother. She was a ”tomboy,” and was alwaysbeing told that she should have been born a
  • 210. 208Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)boy. This identification with the brother showswith special clearness that ”the little one” sig-nifies the genital. The mother threatened him(her) with castration, which could only be un-derstood as a punishment for playing with theparts, and the identification, therefore, showsthat she herself had masturbated as a child,though this fact she now retained only in mem-ory concerning her brother. An early knowl-edge of the male genital which she later lost shemust have acquired at that time according tothe assertions of this second dream. Moreoverthe second dream points to the infantile sexualtheory that girls originate from boys throughcastration. After I had told her of this childishbelief, she at once confirmed it with an anec-dote in which the boy asks the girl: ”Was it cutoff?” to which the girl replied, ”No, it’s alwaysbeen so.”
  • 211. 209The sending away of the little one, of thegenital, in the first dream therefore also refersto the threatened castration. Finally she blamesher mother for not having been born a boy.That ”being run over” symbolizes sexual in-tercourse would not be evident from this dreamif we were not sure of it from many other sources.3. Representation of the genital by struc-tures, stairways, and shafts. (Dream of a youngman inhibited by a father complex.)”He is taking a walk with his father in a placewhich is surely the Prater, for the -Rotunda-may be seen in front of which there is a smallfront structure to which is attached a captiveballoon; the balloon, however, seems quite col-lapsed. His father asks him what this is all for;he is surprised at it, but he explains it to hisfather. They come into a court in which lies alarge sheet of tin. His father wants to pull off
  • 212. 210Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)a big piece of this, but first looks around to seeif any one is watching. He tells his father thatall he needs to do is to speak to the watchman,and then he can take without any further diffi-culty as much as he wants to. From this courta stairway leads down into a shaft, the wallsof which are softly upholstered something likea leather pocketbook. At the end of this shaftthere is a longer platform, and then a new shaftbegins....”Analysis. This dream belongs to a type of pa-tient which is not favorable from a therapeuticpoint of view. They follow in the analysis with-out offering any resistances whatever up to acertain point, but from that point on they re-main almost inaccessible. This dream he al-most analyzed himself. ”The Rotunda,” he said,”is my genital, the captive balloon in front is mypenis, about the weakness of which I have wor-
  • 213. 211ried.” We must, however, interpret in greaterdetail; the Rotunda is the buttock which is reg-ularly associated by the child with the genital,the smaller front structure is the scrotum. Inthe dream his father asks him what this is allfor–that is, he asks him about the purpose andarrangement of the genitals. It is quite evi-dent that this state of affairs should be turnedaround, and that he should be the questioner.As such a questioning on the side of the fatherhas never taken place in reality, we must con-ceive the dream thought as a wish, or take itconditionally, as follows: ”If I had only askedmy father for sexual enlightenment.” The con-tinuation of this thought we shall soon find inanother place.The court in which the tin sheet is spreadout is not to be conceived symbolically in thefirst instance, but originates from his father’s
  • 214. 212Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)place of business. For discretionary reasonsI have inserted the tin for another material inwhich the father deals, without, however, chang-ing anything in the verbal expression of the dream.The dreamer had entered his father’s business,and had taken a terrible dislike to the ques-tionable practices upon which profit mainly de-pends. Hence the continuation of the abovedream thought (”if I had only asked him”) wouldbe: ”He would have deceived me just as he doeshis customers.” For the pulling off, which servesto represent commercial dishonesty, the dreamerhimself gives a second explanation–namely, onanism.This is not only entirely familiar to us, but agreesvery well with the fact that the secrecy of onanismis expressed by its opposite (”Why one can doit quite openly”). It, moreover, agrees entirelywith our expectations that the onanistic activ-ity is again put off on the father, just as was
  • 215. 213the questioning in the first scene of the dream.The shaft he at once interprets as the vagina byreferring to the soft upholstering of the walls.That the act of coition in the vagina is describedas a going down instead of in the usual way asa going up, I have also found true in other in-stances[2].The details that at the end of the first shaftthere is a longer platform and then a new shaft,he himself explains biographically. He had forsome time consorted with women sexually, buthad then given it up because of inhibitions andnow hopes to be able to take it up again withthe aid of the treatment. The dream, however,becomes indistinct toward the end, and to theexperienced interpreter it becomes evident thatin the second scene of the dream the influenceof another subject has begun to assert itself;in this his father’s business and his dishonest
  • 216. 214Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)practices signify the first vagina represented asa shaft so that one might think of a reference tothe mother.4. The male genital symbolized by personsand the female by a landscape.(Dream of a woman of the lower class, whosehusband is a policeman, reported by B. Dat-tner.)... Then some one broke into the house andanxiously called for a policeman. But he wentwith two tramps by mutual consent into a church,[3]to which led a great many stairs;[4] behind thechurch there was a mountain,[5] on top of whicha dense forest.[6] The policeman was furnishedwith a helmet, a gorget, and a cloak.[7] The twovagrants, who went along with the policemanquite peaceably, had tied to their loins sack-likeaprons.[8] A road led from the church to themountain. This road was overgrown on each
  • 217. 215side with grass and brushwood, which becamethicker and thicker as it reached the height ofthe mountain, where it spread out into quite aforest.5. A stairway dream.(Reported and interpreted by Otto Rank.)For the following transparent pollution dream,I am indebted to the same colleague who fur-nished us with the dental-irritation dream.”I am running down the stairway in the stair-house after a little girl, whom I wish to punishbecause she has done something to me. At thebottom of the stairs some one held the childfor me. (A grown-up woman?) I grasp it, butdo not know whether I have hit it, for I sud-denly find myself in the middle of the stairwaywhere I practice coitus with the child (in the airas it were). It is really no coitus, I only rubmy genital on her external genital, and in do-
  • 218. 216Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ing this I see it very distinctly, as distinctly asI see her head which is lying sideways. Dur-ing the sexual act I see hanging to the left andabove me (also as if in the air) two small pic-tures, landscapes, representing a house on agreen. On the smaller one my surname stood inthe place where the painter’s signature shouldbe; it seemed to be intended for my birthdaypresent. A small sign hung in front of the pic-tures to the effect that cheaper pictures couldalso be obtained. I then see myself very indis-tinctly lying in bed, just as I had seen myself atthe foot of the stairs, and I am awakened by afeeling of dampness which came from the pol-lution.”Interpretation. The dreamer had been in abook-store on the evening of the day of the dream,where, while he was waiting, he examined somepictures which were exhibited, which represented
  • 219. 217motives similar to the dream pictures. He steppednearer to a small picture which particularly tookhis fancy in order to see the name of the artist,which, however, was quite unknown to him.Later in the same evening, in company, heheard about a Bohemian servant-girl who boastedthat her illegitimate child ”was made on thestairs.” The dreamer inquired about the detailsof this unusual occurrence, and learned thatthe servant-girl went with her lover to the homeof her parents, where there was no opportunityfor sexual relations, and that the excited manperformed the act on the stairs. In witty allu-sion to the mischievous expression used aboutwine-adulterers, the dreamer remarked, ”Thechild really grew on the cellar steps.”These experiences of the day, which are quiteprominent in the dream content, were readilyreproduced by the dreamer. But he just as
  • 220. 218Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)readily reproduced an old fragment of infan-tile recollection which was also utilized by thedream. The stair-house was the house in whichhe had spent the greatest part of his childhood,and in which he had first become acquaintedwith sexual problems. In this house he used,among other things, to slide down the banisterastride which caused him to become sexuallyexcited. In the dream he also comes down thestairs very rapidly–so rapidly that, according tohis own distinct assertions, he hardly touchedthe individual stairs, but rather ”flew” or ”sliddown,” as we used to say. Upon reference tothis infantile experience, the beginning of thedream seems to represent the factor of sexualexcitement. In the same house and in the ad-jacent residence the dreamer used to play pug-nacious games with the neighboring children,in which he satisfied himself just as he did in
  • 221. 219the dream.If one recalls from Freud’s investigation ofsexual symbolism[9] that in the dream stairsor climbing stairs almost regularly symbolizescoitus, the dream becomes clear. Its motivepower as well as its effect, as is shown by thepollution, is of a purely libidinous nature. Sex-ual excitement became aroused during the sleep-ing state (in the dream this is represented bythe rapid running or sliding down the stairs)and the sadistic thread in this is, on the basisof the pugnacious playing, indicated in the pur-suing and overcoming of the child. The libidi-nous excitement becomes enhanced and urgesto sexual action (represented in the dream bythe grasping of the child and the conveyance ofit to the middle of the stairway). Up to this pointthe dream would be one of pure, sexual symbol-ism, and obscure for the unpracticed dream in-
  • 222. 220Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)terpreter. But this symbolic gratification, whichwould have insured undisturbed sleep, was notsufficient for the powerful libidinous excitement.The excitement leads to an orgasm, and thusthe whole stairway symbolism is unmasked asa substitute for coitus. Freud lays stress onthe rhythmical character of both actions as oneof the reasons for the sexual utilization of thestairway symbolism, and this dream especiallyseems to corroborate this, for, according to theexpress assertion of the dreamer, the rhythm ofa sexual act was the most pronounced featurein the whole dream.Still another remark concerning the two pic-tures, which, aside from their real significance,also have the value of ”Weibsbilder” (literally -woman-pictures-, but idiomatically -women-).This is at once shown by the fact that the dreamdeals with a big and a little picture, just as
  • 223. 221the dream content presents a big (grown up)and a little girl. That cheap pictures could alsobe obtained points to the prostitution complex,just as the dreamer’s surname on the little pic-ture and the thought that it was intended forhis birthday, point to the parent complex (to beborn on the stairway–to be conceived in coitus).The indistinct final scene, in which the dreamersees himself on the staircase landing lying inbed and feeling wet, seems to go back into child-hood even beyond the infantile onanism, andmanifestly has its prototype in similarly plea-surable scenes of bed-wetting.6. A modified stair-dream.To one of my very nervous patients, who wasan abstainer, whose fancy was fixed on his mother,and who repeatedly dreamed of climbing stairsaccompanied by his mother, I once remarkedthat moderate masturbation would be less harm-
  • 224. 222Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ful to him than enforced abstinence. This influ-ence provoked the following dream:”His piano teacher reproaches him for ne-glecting his piano-playing, and for not practic-ing the -Etudes- of Moscheles and Clementi’s-Gradus ad Parnassum-.” In relation to this heremarked that the -Gradus- is only a stairway,and that the piano itself is only a stairway as ithas a scale.It is correct to say that there is no seriesof associations which cannot be adapted to therepresentation of sexual facts. I conclude withthe dream of a chemist, a young man, who hasbeen trying to give up his habit of masturbationby replacing it with intercourse with women.-Preliminary statement.—On the day beforethe dream he had given a student instructionconcerning Grignard’s reaction, in which mag-nesium is to be dissolved in absolutely pure
  • 225. 223ether under the catalytic influence of iodine.Two days before, there had been an explosionin the course of the same reaction, in which theinvestigator had burned his hand.Dream I. -He is to make phenylmagnesium-bromid; he sees the apparatus with particularclearness, but he has substituted himself forthe magnesium. He is now in a curious swayingattitude. He keeps repeating to himself, ”This isthe right thing, it is working, my feet are begin-ning to dissolve and my knees are getting soft.”Then he reaches down and feels for his feet, andmeanwhile (he does not know how) he takes hislegs out of the crucible, and then again he saysto himself, ”That cannot be.... Yes, it must beso, it has been done correctly.” Then he par-tially awakens, and repeats the dream to him-self, because he wants to tell it to me. He is dis-tinctly afraid of the analysis of the dream. He
  • 226. 224Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)is much excited during this semi-sleeping state,and repeats continually, ”Phenyl, phenyl.”-II. -He is in ... ing with his whole family;at half-past eleven. He is to be at the Schot-tenthor for a rendezvous with a certain lady,but he does not wake up until half-past eleven.He says to himself, ”It is too late now; whenyou get there it will be half-past twelve.” Thenext instant he sees the whole family gatheredabout the table–his mother and the servant girlwith the soup-tureen with particular clearness.Then he says to himself, ”Well, if we are eatingalready, I certainly can’t get away.”-Analysis: He feels sure that even the firstdream contains a reference to the lady whomhe is to meet at the rendezvous (the dream wasdreamed during the night before the expectedmeeting). The student to whom he gave the in-struction is a particularly unpleasant fellow; he
  • 227. 225had said to the chemist: ”That isn’t right,” be-cause the magnesium was still unaffected, andthe latter answered as though he did not careanything about it: ”It certainly isn’t right.” Hehimself must be this student; he is as indif-ferent towards his analysis as the student istowards his synthesis; the -He- in the dream,however, who accomplishes the operation, ismyself. How unpleasant he must seem to mewith his indifference towards the success achieved!Moreover, he is the material with which theanalysis (synthesis) is made. For it is a ques-tion of the success of the treatment. The legsin the dream recall an impression of the previ-ous evening. He met a lady at a dancing lessonwhom he wished to conquer; he pressed her tohim so closely that she once cried out. Afterhe had stopped pressing against her legs, hefelt her firm responding pressure against his
  • 228. 226Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)lower thighs as far as just above his knees, atthe place mentioned in the dream. In this sit-uation, then, the woman is the magnesium inthe retort, which is at last working. He is fem-inine towards me, as he is masculine towardsthe woman. If it will work with the woman, thetreatment will also work. Feeling and becom-ing aware of himself in the region of his kneesrefers to masturbation, and corresponds to hisfatigue of the previous day.... The rendezvoushad actually been set for half-past eleven. Hiswish to oversleep and to remain with his usualsexual objects (that is, with masturbation) cor-responds with his resistance.[1] It is only of late that I have learned tovalue the significance of fancies and unconsciousthoughts about life in the womb. They containthe explanation of the curious fear felt by somany people of being buried alive, as well as the
  • 229. 227profoundest unconscious reason for the beliefin a life after death which represents nothingbut a projection into the future of this mysteri-ous life before birth. -The act of birth, more-over, is the first experience with fear, and isthus the source and model of the emotion offear.-[2] Cf. -Zentralblatt fuer psychoanalyse-, I.[3] Or chapel–vagina.[4] Symbol of coitus.[5] Mons veneris.[6] Crines pubis.[7] Demons in cloaks and capucines are, ac-cording to the explanation of a man versed inthe subject, of a phallic nature.[8] The two halves of the scrotum.[9] See -Zentralblatt fuer Psychoanalyse-, vol.i., p. 2.
  • 230. 228Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)
  • 231. VI THE WISH INDREAMSThat the dream should be nothing but a wish-fulfillment surely seemed strange to us all–andthat not alone because of the contradictions of-fered by the anxiety dream.After learning from the first analytical expla-nations that the dream conceals sense and psy-chic validity, we could hardly expect so simplea determination of this sense. According to thecorrect but concise definition of Aristotle, thedream is a continuation of thinking in sleep (in229
  • 232. 230Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)so far as one sleeps). Considering that duringthe day our thoughts produce such a diversityof psychic acts–judgments, conclusions, con-tradictions, expectations, intentions, &c.–whyshould our sleeping thoughts be forced to con-fine themselves to the production of wishes?Are there not, on the contrary, many dreamsthat present a different psychic act in dreamform, -e.g.-, a solicitude, and is not the verytransparent father’s dream mentioned above ofjust such a nature? From the gleam of lightfalling into his eyes while asleep the father drawsthe solicitous conclusion that a candle has beenupset and may have set fire to the corpse; hetransforms this conclusion into a dream by in-vesting it with a senseful situation enacted inthe present tense. What part is played in thisdream by the wish-fulfillment, and which arewe to suspect–the predominance of the thought
  • 233. 231continued from, the waking state or of the thoughtincited by the new sensory impression?All these considerations are just, and forceus to enter more deeply into the part played bythe wish-fulfillment in the dream, and into thesignificance of the waking thoughts continuedin sleep.It is in fact the wish-fulfillment that has al-ready induced us to separate dreams into twogroups. We have found some dreams that wereplainly wish-fulfillments; and others in whichwish-fulfillment could not be recognized, andwas frequently concealed by every available means.In this latter class of dreams we recognized theinfluence of the dream censor. The undisguisedwish dreams were chiefly found in children, yetfleeting open-hearted wish dreams -seemed- (Ipurposely emphasize this word) to occur also inadults.
  • 234. 232Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)We may now ask whence the wish fulfilled inthe dream originates. But to what opposition orto what diversity do we refer this ”whence”? Ithink it is to the opposition between consciousdaily life and a psychic activity remaining un-conscious which can only make itself notice-able during the night. I thus find a threefoldpossibility for the origin of a wish. Firstly, itmay have been incited during the day, and ow-ing to external circumstances failed to find grat-ification, there is thus left for the night an ac-knowledged but unfulfilled wish. Secondly, itmay come to the surface during the day but berejected, leaving an unfulfilled but suppressedwish. Or, thirdly, it may have no relation todaily life, and belong to those wishes that orig-inate during the night from the suppression. Ifwe now follow our scheme of the psychic appa-ratus, we can localize a wish of the first order
  • 235. 233in the system Forec. We may assume that awish of the second order has been forced backfrom the Forec. system into the Unc. system,where alone, if anywhere, it can maintain itself;while a wish-feeling of the third order we con-sider altogether incapable of leaving the Unc.system. This brings up the question whetherwishes arising from these different sources pos-sess the same value for the dream, and whetherthey have the same power to incite a dream.On reviewing the dreams which we have atour disposal for answering this question, weare at once moved to add as a fourth sourceof the dream-wish the actual wish incitementsarising during the night, such as thirst andsexual desire. It then becomes evident thatthe source of the dream-wish does not affectits capacity to incite a dream. That a wishsuppressed during the day asserts itself in the
  • 236. 234Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)dream can be shown by a great many examples.I shall mention a very simple example of thisclass. A somewhat sarcastic young lady, whoseyounger friend has become engaged to be mar-ried, is asked throughout the day by her ac-quaintances whether she knows and what shethinks of the fiance. She answers with unquali-fied praise, thereby silencing her own judgment,as she would prefer to tell the truth, namely,that he is an ordinary person. The followingnight she dreams that the same question is putto her, and that she replies with the formula:”In case of subsequent orders it will suffice tomention the number.” Finally, we have learnedfrom numerous analyses that the wish in alldreams that have been subject to distortion hasbeen derived from the unconscious, and hasbeen unable to come to perception in the wak-ing state. Thus it would appear that all wishes
  • 237. 235are of the same value and force for the dreamformation.I am at present unable to prove that the stateof affairs is really different, but I am stronglyinclined to assume a more stringent determi-nation of the dream-wish. Children’s dreamsleave no doubt that an unfulfilled wish of theday may be the instigator of the dream. Butwe must not forget that it is, after all, the wishof a child, that it is a wish-feeling of infantilestrength only. I have a strong doubt whetheran unfulfilled wish from the day would sufficeto create a dream in an adult. It would ratherseem that as we learn to control our impulsesby intellectual activity, we more and more re-ject as vain the formation or retention of suchintense wishes as are natural to childhood. Inthis, indeed, there may be individual variations;some retain the infantile type of psychic pro-
  • 238. 236Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)cesses longer than others. The differences arehere the same as those found in the gradualdecline of the originally distinct visual imagina-tion.In general, however, I am of the opinion thatunfulfilled wishes of the day are insufficient toproduce a dream in adults. I readily admit thatthe wish instigators originating in conscious likecontribute towards the incitement of dreams,but that is probably all. The dream would notoriginate if the foreconscious wish were not re-inforced from another source.That source is the unconscious. I believethat -the conscious wish is a dream inciter onlyif it succeeds in arousing a similar unconsciouswish which reinforces it-. Following the sugges-tions obtained through the psychoanalysis ofthe neuroses, I believe that these unconsciouswishes are always active and ready for expres-
  • 239. 237sion whenever they find an opportunity to unitethemselves with an emotion from conscious life,and that they transfer their greater intensity tothe lesser intensity of the latter.[1] It may there-fore seem that the conscious wish alone hasbeen realized in a dream; but a slight pecu-liarity in the formation of this dream will putus on the track of the powerful helper fromthe unconscious. These ever active and, as itwere, immortal wishes from the unconsciousrecall the legendary Titans who from time im-memorial have borne the ponderous mountainswhich were once rolled upon them by the vic-torious gods, and which even now quiver fromtime to time from the convulsions of their mightylimbs; I say that these wishes found in the re-pression are of themselves of an infantile ori-gin, as we have learned from the psychologi-cal investigation of the neuroses. I should like,
  • 240. 238Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)therefore, to withdraw the opinion previouslyexpressed that it is unimportant whence thedream-wish originates, and replace it by an-other, as follows: -The wish manifested in thedream must be an infantile one-. In the adult itoriginates in the Unc., while in the child, whereno separation and censor as yet exist betweenForec. and Unc., or where these are only inthe process of formation, it is an unfulfilled andunrepressed wish from the waking state. I amaware that this conception cannot be generallydemonstrated, but I maintain nevertheless thatit can be frequently demonstrated, even when itwas not suspected, and that it cannot be gen-erally refuted.The wish-feelings which remain from the con-scious waking state are, therefore, relegated tothe background in the dream formation. In thedream content I shall attribute to them only the
  • 241. 239part attributed to the material of actual sen-sations during sleep. If I now take into ac-count those other psychic instigations remain-ing from the waking state which are not wishes,I shall only adhere to the line mapped out forme by this train of thought. We may succeed inprovisionally terminating the sum of energy ofour waking thoughts by deciding to go to sleep.He is a good sleeper who can do this; NapoleonI. is reputed to have been a model of this sort.But we do not always succeed in accomplishingit, or in accomplishing it perfectly. Unsolvedproblems, harassing cares, overwhelming im-pressions continue the thinking activity evenduring sleep, maintaining psychic processes inthe system which we have termed the forecon-scious. These mental processes continuing intosleep may be divided into the following groups:1, That which has not been terminated dur-
  • 242. 240Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ing the day owing to casual prevention; 2, thatwhich has been left unfinished by temporaryparalysis of our mental power, -i.e.- the un-solved; 3, that which has been rejected andsuppressed during the day. This unites witha powerful group (4) formed by that which hasbeen excited in our Unc. during the day by thework of the foreconscious. Finally, we may addgroup (5) consisting of the indifferent and henceunsettled impressions of the day.We should not underrate the psychic inten-sities introduced into sleep by these remnantsof waking life, especially those emanating fromthe group of the unsolved. These excitationssurely continue to strive for expression duringthe night, and we may assume with equal cer-tainty that the sleeping state renders impossi-ble the usual continuation of the excitement inthe foreconscious and the termination of the
  • 243. 241excitement by its becoming conscious. As faras we can normally become conscious of ourmental processes, even during the night, in sofar we are not asleep. I shall not venture tostate what change is produced in the Forec.system by the sleeping state, but there is nodoubt that the psychological character of sleepis essentially due to the change of energy inthis very system, which also dominates the ap-proach to motility, which is paralyzed duringsleep. In contradistinction to this, there seemsto be nothing in the psychology of the dreamto warrant the assumption that sleep producesany but secondary changes in the conditionsof the Unc. system. Hence, for the nocturnalexcitation in the Force, there remains no otherpath than that followed by the wish excitementsfrom the Unc. This excitation must seek rein-forcement from the Unc., and follow the detours
  • 244. 242Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)of the unconscious excitations. But what is therelation of the foreconscious day remnants tothe dream? There is no doubt that they pene-trate abundantly into the dream, that they uti-lize the dream content to obtrude themselvesupon consciousness even during the night; in-deed, they occasionally even dominate the dreamcontent, and impel it to continue the work ofthe day; it is also certain that the day remnantsmay just as well have any other character asthat of wishes; but it is highly instructive andeven decisive for the theory of wish-fulfillmentto see what conditions they must comply within order to be received into the dream.Let us pick out one of the dreams cited aboveas examples, -e.g.-, the dream in which my friendOtto seems to show the symptoms of Basedow’sdisease. My friend Otto’s appearance occasionedme some concern during the day, and this worry,
  • 245. 243like everything else referring to this person, af-fected me. I may also assume that these feel-ings followed me into sleep. I was probablybent on finding out what was the matter withhim. In the night my worry found expressionin the dream which I have reported, the con-tent of which was not only senseless, but failedto show any wish-fulfillment. But I began toinvestigate for the source of this incongruousexpression of the solicitude felt during the day,and analysis revealed the connection. I iden-tified my friend Otto with a certain Baron L.and myself with a Professor R. There was onlyone explanation for my being impelled to selectjust this substitution for the day thought. Imust have always been prepared in the identify myself with Professor R., as it meantthe realization of one of the immortal infantilewishes, viz. that of becoming great. Repulsive
  • 246. 244Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ideas respecting my friend, that would certainlyhave been repudiated in a waking state, tookadvantage of the opportunity to creep into thedream, but the worry of the day likewise foundsome form of expression through a substitutionin the dream content. The day thought, whichwas no wish in itself but rather a worry, hadin some way to find a connection with the in-fantile now unconscious and suppressed wish,which then allowed it, though already properlyprepared, to ”originate” for consciousness. Themore dominating this worry, the stronger mustbe the connection to be established; betweenthe contents of the wish and that of the worrythere need be no connection, nor was there onein any of our examples.We can now sharply define the significanceof the unconscious wish for the dream. It maybe admitted that there is a whole class of dreams
  • 247. 245in which the incitement originates preponder-atingly or even exclusively from the remnantsof daily life; and I believe that even my cher-ished desire to become at some future time a”professor extraordinarius” would have allowedme to slumber undisturbed that night had notmy worry about my friend’s health been still ac-tive. But this worry alone would not have pro-duced a dream; the motive power needed by thedream had to be contributed by a wish, andit was the affair of the worriment to procurefor itself such wish as a motive power of thedream. To speak figuratively, it is quite pos-sible that a day thought plays the part of thecontractor (-entrepreneur-) in the dream. Butit is known that no matter what idea the con-tractor may have in mind, and how desirous hemay be of putting it into operation, he can donothing without capital; he must depend upon
  • 248. 246Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)a capitalist to defray the necessary expenses,and this capitalist, who supplies the psychicexpenditure for the dream is invariably and in-disputably -a wish from the unconscious-, nomatter what the nature of the waking thoughtmay be.In other cases the capitalist himself is thecontractor for the dream; this, indeed, seemsto be the more usual case. An unconsciouswish is produced by the day’s work, which inturn creates the dream. The dream processes,moreover, run parallel with all the other possi-bilities of the economic relationship used hereas an illustration. Thus, the entrepreneur maycontribute some capital himself, or several en-trepreneurs may seek the aid of the same cap-italist, or several capitalists may jointly sup-ply the capital required by the entrepreneur.Thus there are dreams produced by more than
  • 249. 247one dream-wish, and many similar variationswhich may readily be passed over and are of nofurther interest to us. What we have left unfin-ished in this discussion of the dream-wish weshall be able to develop later.The ”tertium comparationis” in the compar-isons just employed—i.e.- the sum placed atour free disposal in proper allotment–admits ofstill finer application for the illustration of thedream structure. We can recognize in mostdreams a center especially supplied with per-ceptible intensity. This is regularly the directrepresentation of the wish-fulfillment; for, if weundo the displacements of the dream-work bya process of retrogression, we find that the psy-chic intensity of the elements in the dream thoughtsis replaced by the perceptible intensity of theelements in the dream content. The elementsadjoining the wish-fulfillment have frequently
  • 250. 248Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)nothing to do with its sense, but prove to bedescendants of painful thoughts which opposethe wish. But, owing to their frequently arti-ficial connection with the central element, theyhave acquired sufficient intensity to enable themto come to expression. Thus, the force of ex-pression of the wish-fulfillment is diffused overa certain sphere of association, within whichit raises to expression all elements, includingthose that are in themselves impotent. In dreamshaving several strong wishes we can readily sep-arate from one another the spheres of the indi-vidual wish-fulfillments; the gaps in the dreamlikewise can often be explained as boundaryzones.Although the foregoing remarks have con-siderably limited the significance of the day rem-nants for the dream, it will nevertheless be worthour while to give them some attention. For they
  • 251. 249must be a necessary ingredient in the forma-tion of the dream, inasmuch as experience re-veals the surprising fact that every dream showsin its content a connection with some impres-sion of a recent day, often of the most indiffer-ent kind. So far we have failed to see any neces-sity for this addition to the dream mixture. Thisnecessity appears only when we follow closelythe part played by the unconscious wish, andthen seek information in the psychology of theneuroses. We thus learn that the unconsciousidea, as such, is altogether incapable of enter-ing into the foreconscious, and that it can ex-ert an influence there only by uniting with aharmless idea already belonging to the forecon-scious, to which it transfers its intensity andunder which it allows itself to be concealed.This is the fact of transference which furnishesan explanation for so many surprising occur-
  • 252. 250Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)rences in the psychic life of neurotics.The idea from the foreconscious which thusobtains an unmerited abundance of intensitymay be left unchanged by the transference, orit may have forced upon it a modification fromthe content of the transferring idea. I trustthe reader will pardon my fondness for com-parisons from daily life, but I feel tempted tosay that the relations existing for the repressedidea are similar to the situations existing inAustria for the American dentist, who is for-bidden to practise unless he gets permissionfrom a regular physician to use his name onthe public signboard and thus cover the legalrequirements. Moreover, just as it is naturallynot the busiest physicians who form such al-liances with dental practitioners, so in the psy-chic life only such foreconscious or consciousideas are chosen to cover a repressed idea as
  • 253. 251have not themselves attracted much of the at-tention which is operative in the foreconscious.The unconscious entangles with its connectionspreferentially either those impressions and ideasof the foreconscious which have been left un-noticed as indifferent, or those that have soonbeen deprived of this attention through rejec-tion. It is a familiar fact from the associationstudies confirmed by every experience, that ideaswhich have formed intimate connections in onedirection assume an almost negative attitude towhole groups of new connections. I once triedfrom this principle to develop a theory for hys-terical paralysis.If we assume that the same need for thetransference of the repressed ideas which wehave learned to know from the analysis of theneuroses makes its influence felt in the dreamas well, we can at once explain two riddles of
  • 254. 252Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the dream, viz. that every dream analysis showsan interweaving of a recent impression, and thatthis recent element is frequently of the most in-different character. We may add what we havealready learned elsewhere, that these recent andindifferent elements come so frequently into thedream content as a substitute for the most deep-lying of the dream thoughts, for the further rea-son that they have least to fear from the resist-ing censor. But while this freedom from cen-sorship explains only the preference for trivialelements, the constant presence of recent ele-ments points to the fact that there is a needfor transference. Both groups of impressionssatisfy the demand of the repression for mate-rial still free from associations, the indifferentones because they have offered no inducementfor extensive associations, and the recent onesbecause they have had insufficient time to form
  • 255. 253such associations.We thus see that the day remnants, amongwhich we may now include the indifferent im-pressions when they participate in the dreamformation, not only borrow from the Unc. themotive power at the disposal of the repressedwish, but also offer to the unconscious some-thing indispensable, namely, the attachment nec-essary to the transference. If we here attemptedto penetrate more deeply into the psychic pro-cesses, we should first have to throw more lighton the play of emotions between the forecon-scious and the unconscious, to which, indeed,we are urged by the study of the psychoneu-roses, whereas the dream itself offers no assis-tance in this respect.Just one further remark about the day rem-nants. There is no doubt that they are theactual disturbers of sleep, and not the dream,
  • 256. 254Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)which, on the contrary, strives to guard sleep.But we shall return to this point later.We have so far discussed the dream-wish,we have traced it to the sphere of the Unc.,and analyzed its relations to the day remnants,which in turn may be either wishes, psychicemotions of any other kind, or simply recentimpressions. We have thus made room for anyclaims that may be made for the importance ofconscious thought activity in dream formationsin all its variations. Relying upon our thoughtseries, it would not be at all impossible for us toexplain even those extreme cases in which thedream as a continuer of the day work brings toa happy conclusion and unsolved problem pos-sess an example, the analysis of which mightreveal the infantile or repressed wish sourcefurnishing such alliance and successful strength-ening of the efforts of the foreconscious activ-
  • 257. 255ity. But we have not come one step nearera solution of the riddle: Why can the uncon-scious furnish the motive power for the wish-fulfillment only during sleep? The answer tothis question must throw light on the psychicnature of wishes; and it will be given with theaid of the diagram of the psychic apparatus.We do not doubt that even this apparatusattained its present perfection through a longcourse of development. Let us attempt to re-store it as it existed in an early phase of itsactivity. From assumptions, to be confirmedelsewhere, we know that at first the appara-tus strove to keep as free from excitement aspossible, and in its first formation, therefore,the scheme took the form of a reflex apparatus,which enabled it promptly to discharge throughthe motor tracts any sensible stimulus reach-ing it from without. But this simple function
  • 258. 256Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)was disturbed by the wants of life, which like-wise furnish the impulse for the further devel-opment of the apparatus. The wants of life firstmanifested themselves to it in the form of thegreat physical needs. The excitement arousedby the inner want seeks an outlet in motility,which may be designated as ”inner changes” oras an ”expression of the emotions.” The hungrychild cries or fidgets helplessly, but its situa-tion remains unchanged; for the excitation pro-ceeding from an inner want requires, not a mo-mentary outbreak, but a force working contin-uously. A change can occur only if in some waya feeling of gratification is experienced–which inthe case of the child must be through outsidehelp–in order to remove the inner excitement.An essential constituent of this experience isthe appearance of a certain perception (of foodin our example), the memory picture of which
  • 259. 257thereafter remains associated with the memorytrace of the excitation of want.Thanks to the established connection, thereresults at the next appearance of this want apsychic feeling which revives the memory pic-ture of the former perception, and thus recallsthe former perception itself, -i.e.- it actually re-establishes the situation of the first gratifica-tion. We call such a feeling a wish; the reap-pearance of the perception constitutes the wish-fulfillment, and the full revival of the perceptionby the want excitement constitutes the shortestroad to the wish-fulfillment. We may assume aprimitive condition of the psychic apparatus inwhich this road is really followed, -i.e.- wherethe wishing merges into an hallucination, Thisfirst psychic activity therefore aims at an iden-tity of perception, -i.e.- it aims at a repetitionof that perception which is connected with the
  • 260. 258Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)fulfillment of the want.This primitive mental activity must have beenmodified by bitter practical experience into amore expedient secondary activity. The estab-lishment of the identity perception on the shortregressive road within the apparatus does notin another respect carry with it the result whichinevitably follows the revival of the same per-ception from without. The gratification doesnot take place, and the want continues. In or-der to equalize the internal with the externalsum of energy, the former must be continu-ally maintained, just as actually happens in thehallucinatory psychoses and in the deliriums ofhunger which exhaust their psychic capacity inclinging to the object desired. In order to makemore appropriate use of the psychic force, it be-comes necessary to inhibit the full regressionso as to prevent it from extending beyond the
  • 261. 259image of memory, whence it can select otherpaths leading ultimately to the establishment ofthe desired identity from the outer world. Thisinhibition and consequent deviation from theexcitation becomes the task of a second sys-tem which dominates the voluntary motility, -i.e.- through whose activity the expenditure ofmotility is now devoted to previously recalledpurposes. But this entire complicated mentalactivity which works its way from the mem-ory picture to the establishment of the percep-tion identity from the outer world merely rep-resents a detour which has been forced uponthe wish-fulfillment by experience.[2] Thinkingis indeed nothing but the equivalent of the hal-lucinatory wish; and if the dream be called awish-fulfillment this becomes self-evident, asnothing but a wish can impel our psychic ap-paratus to activity. The dream, which in fulfill-
  • 262. 260Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ing its wishes follows the short regressive path,thereby preserves for us only an example of theprimary form of the psychic apparatus whichhas been abandoned as inexpedient. What onceruled in the waking state when the psychic lifewas still young and unfit seems to have beenbanished into the sleeping state, just as we seeagain in the nursery the bow and arrow, thediscarded primitive weapons of grown-up hu-manity. -The dream is a fragment of the aban-doned psychic life of the child.- In the psychosesthese modes of operation of the psychic appara-tus, which are normally suppressed in the wak-ing state, reassert themselves, and then betraytheir inability to satisfy our wants in the outerworld.The unconscious wish-feelings evidently striveto assert themselves during the day also, andthe fact of transference and the psychoses teach
  • 263. 261us that they endeavor to penetrate to conscious-ness and dominate motility by the road lead-ing through the system of the foreconscious.It is, therefore, the censor lying between theUnc. and the Forec., the assumption of whichis forced upon us by the dream, that we haveto recognize and honor as the guardian of ourpsychic health. But is it not carelessness onthe part of this guardian to diminish its vigi-lance during the night and to allow the sup-pressed emotions of the Unc. to come to ex-pression, thus again making possible the hal-lucinatory regression? I think not, for when thecritical guardian goes to rest–and we have proofthat his slumber is not profound–he takes careto close the gate to motility. No matter whatfeelings from the otherwise inhibited Unc. mayroam about on the scene, they need not be in-terfered with; they remain harmless because
  • 264. 262Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)they are unable to put in motion the motor ap-paratus which alone can exert a modifying in-fluence upon the outer world. Sleep guaran-tees the security of the fortress which is underguard. Conditions are less harmless when adisplacement of forces is produced, not througha nocturnal diminution in the operation of thecritical censor, but through pathological enfee-blement of the latter or through pathologicalreinforcement of the unconscious excitations,and this while the foreconscious is charged withenergy and the avenues to motility are open.The guardian is then overpowered, the uncon-scious excitations subdue the Forec.; throughit they dominate our speech and actions, orthey enforce the hallucinatory regression, thusgoverning an apparatus not designed for themby virtue of the attraction exerted by the per-ceptions on the distribution of our psychic en-
  • 265. 263ergy. We call this condition a psychosis.We are now in the best position to completeour psychological construction, which has beeninterrupted by the introduction of the two sys-tems, Unc. and Forec. We have still, how-ever, ample reason for giving further consid-eration to the wish as the sole psychic motivepower in the dream. We have explained thatthe reason why the dream is in every case awish realization is because it is a product of theUnc., which knows no other aim in its activitybut the fulfillment of wishes, and which has noother forces at its disposal but wish-feelings. Ifwe avail ourselves for a moment longer of theright to elaborate from the dream interpreta-tion such far-reaching psychological specula-tions, we are in duty bound to demonstrate thatwe are thereby bringing the dream into a rela-tionship which may also comprise other psy-
  • 266. 264Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)chic structures. If there exists a system of theUnc.–or something sufficiently analogous to itfor the purpose of our discussion–the dreamcannot be its sole manifestation; every dreammay be a wish-fulfillment, but there must beother forms of abnormal wish-fulfillment besidethis of dreams. Indeed, the theory of all psy-choneurotic symptoms culminates in the propo-sition -that they too must be taken as wish-fulfillments of the unconscious-. Our expla-nation makes the dream only the first mem-ber of a group most important for the psychi-atrist, an understanding of which means thesolution of the purely psychological part of thepsychiatric problem. But other members of thisgroup of wish-fulfillments, -e.g.-, the hystericalsymptoms, evince one essential quality which Ihave so far failed to find in the dream. Thus,from the investigations frequently referred to in
  • 267. 265this treatise, I know that the formation of anhysterical symptom necessitates the combina-tion of both streams of our psychic life. Thesymptom is not merely the expression of a re-alized unconscious wish, but it must be joinedby another wish from the foreconscious whichis fulfilled by the same symptom; so that thesymptom is at least doubly determined, onceby each one of the conflicting systems. Just asin the dream, there is no limit to further over-determination. The determination not derivedfrom the Unc. is, as far as I can see, invariablya stream of thought in reaction against the un-conscious wish, -e.g.-, a self-punishment. HenceI may say, in general, that -an hysterical symp-tom originates only where two contrasting wish-fulfillments, having their source in different psy-chic systems, are able to combine in one expression-. (Compare my latest formulation of the origin
  • 268. 266Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)of the hysterical symptoms in a treatise pub-lished by the -Zeitschrift fuer Sexualwissenschaft-, by Hirschfeld and others, 1908). Examples onthis point would prove of little value, as noth-ing but a complete unveiling of the complicationin question would carry conviction. I thereforecontent myself with the mere assertion, and willcite an example, not for conviction but for ex-plication. The hysterical vomiting of a femalepatient proved, on the one hand, to be the real-ization of an unconscious fancy from the time ofpuberty, that she might be continuously preg-nant and have a multitude of children, and thiswas subsequently united with the wish that shemight have them from as many men as possi-ble. Against this immoderate wish there arose apowerful defensive impulse. But as the vomit-ing might spoil the patient’s figure and beauty,so that she would not find favor in the eyes of
  • 269. 267mankind, the symptom was therefore in keep-ing with her punitive trend of thought, and,being thus admissible from both sides, it wasallowed to become a reality. This is the samemanner of consenting to a wish-fulfillment whichthe queen of the Parthians chose for the tri-umvir Crassus. Believing that he had under-taken the campaign out of greed for gold, shecaused molten gold to be poured into the throatof the corpse. ”Now hast thou what thou hastlonged for.” As yet we know of the dream onlythat it expresses a wish-fulfillment of the un-conscious; and apparently the dominating fore-conscious permits this only after it has sub-jected the wish to some distortions. We are re-ally in no position to demonstrate regularly astream of thought antagonistic to the dream-wish which is realized in the dream as in itscounterpart. Only now and then have we found
  • 270. 268Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)in the dream traces of reaction formations, as,for instance, the tenderness toward friend R. inthe ”uncle dream.” But the contribution fromthe foreconscious, which is missing here, maybe found in another place. While the domi-nating system has withdrawn on the wish tosleep, the dream may bring to expression withmanifold distortions a wish from the Unc., andrealize this wish by producing the necessarychanges of energy in the psychic apparatus, andmay finally retain it through the entire durationof sleep.[3]This persistent wish to sleep on the part ofthe foreconscious in general facilitates the for-mation of the dream. Let us refer to the dreamof the father who, by the gleam of light fromthe death chamber, was brought to the conclu-sion that the body has been set on fire. Wehave shown that one of the psychic forces deci-
  • 271. 269sive in causing the father to form this conclu-sion, instead of being awakened by the gleamof light, was the wish to prolong the life of thechild seen in the dream by one moment. Otherwishes proceeding from the repression proba-bly escape us, because we are unable to ana-lyze this dream. But as a second motive powerof the dream we may mention the father’s de-sire to sleep, for, like the life of the child, thesleep of the father is prolonged for a moment bythe dream. The underlying motive is: ”Let thedream go on, otherwise I must wake up.” Asin this dream so also in all other dreams, thewish to sleep lends its support to the uncon-scious wish. We reported dreams which wereapparently dreams of convenience. But, prop-erly speaking, all dreams may claim this des-ignation. The efficacy of the wish to continueto sleep is the most easily recognized in the
  • 272. 270Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)waking dreams, which so transform the objec-tive sensory stimulus as to render it compatiblewith the continuance of sleep; they interweavethis stimulus with the dream in order to rob itof any claims it might make as a warning to theouter world. But this wish to continue to sleepmust also participate in the formation of allother dreams which may disturb the sleepingstate from within only. ”Now, then, sleep on;why, it’s but a dream”; this is in many cases thesuggestion of the Forec. to consciousness whenthe dream goes too far; and this also describesin a general way the attitude of our dominat-ing psychic activity toward dreaming, thoughthe thought remains tacit. I must draw theconclusion that -throughout our entire sleepingstate we are just as certain that we are dream-ing as we are certain that we are sleeping-. Weare compelled to disregard the objection urged
  • 273. 271against this conclusion that our consciousnessis never directed to a knowledge of the former,and that it is directed to a knowledge of the lat-ter only on special occasions when the censor isunexpectedly surprised. Against this objectionwe may say that there are persons who are en-tirely conscious of their sleeping and dreaming,and who are apparently endowed with the con-scious faculty of guiding their dream life. Sucha dreamer, when dissatisfied with the coursetaken by the dream, breaks it off without awak-ening, and begins it anew in order to continueit with a different turn, like the popular au-thor who, on request, gives a happier endingto his play. Or, at another time, if placed bythe dream in a sexually exciting situation, hethinks in his sleep: ”I do not care to continuethis dream and exhaust myself by a pollution; Iprefer to defer it in favor of a real situation.”
  • 274. 272Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)[1] They share this character of indestruc-tibility with all psychic acts that are really unconscious–that is, with psychic acts belonging to the sys-tem of the unconscious only. These paths areconstantly open and never fall into disuse; theyconduct the discharge of the exciting process asoften as it becomes endowed with unconsciousexcitement To speak metaphorically they sufferthe same form of annihilation as the shades ofthe lower region in the -Odyssey-, who awoketo new life the moment they drank blood. Theprocesses depending on the foreconscious sys-tem are destructible in a different way. Thepsychotherapy of the neuroses is based on thisdifference.[2] Le Lorrain justly extols the wish-fulfilmentof the dream: ”Sans fatigue serieuse, sans etreoblige de recourir a cette lutte opinatre et longuequi use et corrode les jouissances poursuivies.”
  • 275. 273[3] This idea has been borrowed from -TheTheory of Sleep- by Liebault, who revived hyp-notic investigation in our days. (-Du Sommeilprovoque-, etc.; Paris, 1889.)
  • 276. 274Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)
  • 277. VII THE FUNCTIONOF THE DREAMSince we know that the foreconscious is sus-pended during the night by the wish to sleep,we can proceed to an intelligent investigationof the dream process. But let us first sum upthe knowledge of this process already gained.We have shown that the waking activity leavesday remnants from which the sum of energycannot be entirely removed; or the waking ac-tivity revives during the day one of the uncon-scious wishes; or both conditions occur simul-275
  • 278. 276Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)taneously; we have already discovered the manyvariations that may take place. The uncon-scious wish has already made its way to theday remnants, either during the day or at anyrate with the beginning of sleep, and has ef-fected a transference to it. This produces a wishtransferred to the recent material, or the sup-pressed recent wish comes to life again througha reinforcement from the unconscious. Thiswish now endeavors to make its way to con-sciousness on the normal path of the mentalprocesses through the foreconscious, to whichindeed it belongs through one of its constituentelements. It is confronted, however, by the cen-sor, which is still active, and to the influence ofwhich it now succumbs. It now takes on thedistortion for which the way has already beenpaved by its transference to the recent material.Thus far it is in the way of becoming something
  • 279. 277resembling an obsession, delusion, or the like, -i.e.- a thought reinforced by a transference anddistorted in expression by the censor. But itsfurther progress is now checked through thedormant state of the foreconscious; this systemhas apparently protected itself against invasionby diminishing its excitements. The dream pro-cess, therefore, takes the regressive course, whichhas just been opened by the peculiarity of thesleeping state, and thereby follows the attrac-tion exerted on it by the memory groups, whichthemselves exist in part only as visual energynot yet translated into terms of the later sys-tems. On its way to regression the dream takeson the form of dramatization. The subject ofcompression will be discussed later. The dreamprocess has now terminated the second part ofits repeatedly impeded course. The first partexpended itself progressively from the uncon-
  • 280. 278Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)scious scenes or phantasies to the foreconscious,while the second part gravitates from the ad-vent of the censor back to the perceptions. Butwhen the dream process becomes a content ofperception it has, so to speak, eluded the obsta-cle set up in the Forec. by the censor and by thesleeping state. It succeeds in drawing attentionto itself and in being noticed by consciousness.For consciousness, which means to us a sen-sory organ for the reception of psychic quali-ties, may receive stimuli from two sources–first,from the periphery of the entire apparatus, viz.from the perception system, and, secondly, fromthe pleasure and pain stimuli, which constitutethe sole psychic quality produced in the trans-formation of energy within the apparatus. Allother processes in the system, even those in theforeconscious, are devoid of any psychic qual-ity, and are therefore not objects of conscious-
  • 281. 279ness inasmuch as they do not furnish pleasureor pain for perception. We shall have to assumethat those liberations of pleasure and pain au-tomatically regulate the outlet of the occupa-tion processes. But in order to make possi-ble more delicate functions, it was later foundnecessary to render the course of the presen-tations more independent of the manifestationsof pain. To accomplish this the Forec. systemneeded some qualities of its own which couldattract consciousness, and most probably re-ceived them through the connection of the fore-conscious processes with the memory system ofthe signs of speech, which is not devoid of qual-ities. Through the qualities of this system, con-sciousness, which had hitherto been a sensoryorgan only for the perceptions, now becomesalso a sensory organ for a part of our mentalprocesses. Thus we have now, as it were, two
  • 282. 280Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)sensory surfaces, one directed to perceptionsand the other to the foreconscious mental pro-cesses.I must assume that the sensory surface ofconsciousness devoted to the Forec. is ren-dered less excitable by sleep than that directedto the P-systems. The giving up of interest forthe nocturnal mental processes is indeed pur-poseful. Nothing is to disturb the mind; theForec. wants to sleep. But once the dreambecomes a perception, it is then capable of ex-citing consciousness through the qualities thusgained. The sensory stimulus accomplishes whatit was really destined for, namely, it directs apart of the energy at the disposal of the the form of attention upon the stimulant. Wemust, therefore, admit that the dream invari-ably awakens us, that is, it puts into activitya part of the dormant force of the Forec. This
  • 283. 281force imparts to the dream that influence whichwe have designated as secondary elaborationfor the sake of connection and comprehensibil-ity. This means that the dream is treated by itlike any other content of perception; it is sub-jected to the same ideas of expectation, as farat least as the material admits. As far as thedirection is concerned in this third part of thedream, it may be said that here again the move-ment is progressive.To avoid misunderstanding, it will not beamiss to say a few words about the temporalpeculiarities of these dream processes. In avery interesting discussion, apparently suggestedby Maury’s puzzling guillotine dream, Goblettries to demonstrate that the dream requires noother time than the transition period betweensleeping and awakening. The awakening re-quires time, as the dream takes place during
  • 284. 282Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)that period. One is inclined to believe that thefinal picture of the dream is so strong that itforces the dreamer to awaken; but, as a matterof fact, this picture is strong only because thedreamer is already very near awakening whenit appears. ”Un reve c’est un reveil qui com-mence.”It has already been emphasized by Dugasthat Goblet was forced to repudiate many factsin order to generalize his theory. There are,moreover, dreams from which we do not awaken,-e.g.-, some dreams in which we dream thatwe dream. From our knowledge of the dream-work, we can by no means admit that it ex-tends only over the period of awakening. Onthe contrary, we must consider it probable thatthe first part of the dream-work begins duringthe day when we are still under the domina-tion of the foreconscious. The second phase of
  • 285. 283the dream-work, viz. the modification throughthe censor, the attraction by the unconsciousscenes, and the penetration to perception mustcontinue throughout the night. And we are prob-ably always right when we assert that we feel asthough we had been dreaming the whole night,although we cannot say what. I do not, how-ever, think it necessary to assume that, up tothe time of becoming conscious, the dream pro-cesses really follow the temporal sequence whichwe have described, viz. that there is first thetransferred dream-wish, then the distortion ofthe censor, and consequently the change of di-rection to regression, and so on. We were forcedto form such a succession for the sake of -description-; in reality, however, it is much rather a mat-ter of simultaneously trying this path and that,and of emotions fluctuating to and fro, until fi-nally, owing to the most expedient distribution,
  • 286. 284Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)one particular grouping is secured which re-mains. From certain personal experiences, I ammyself inclined to believe that the dream-workoften requires more than one day and one nightto produce its result; if this be true, the ex-traordinary art manifested in the constructionof the dream loses all its marvels. In my opin-ion, even the regard for comprehensibility as anoccurrence of perception may take effect beforethe dream attracts consciousness to itself. Tobe sure, from now on the process is acceler-ated, as the dream is henceforth subjected tothe same treatment as any other perception. Itis like fireworks, which require hours of prepa-ration and only a moment for ignition.Through the dream-work the dream processnow gains either sufficient intensity to attractconsciousness to itself and arouse the forecon-scious, which is quite independent of the time
  • 287. 285or profundity of sleep, or, its intensity beinginsufficient it must wait until it meets the at-tention which is set in motion immediately be-fore awakening. Most dreams seem to oper-ate with relatively slight psychic intensities, forthey wait for the awakening. This, however, ex-plains the fact that we regularly perceive some-thing dreamt on being suddenly aroused froma sound sleep. Here, as well as in spontaneousawakening, the first glance strikes the percep-tion content created by the dream-work, whilethe next strikes the one produced from without.But of greater theoretical interest are thosedreams which are capable of waking us in themidst of sleep. We must bear in mind the ex-pediency elsewhere universally demonstrated,and ask ourselves why the dream or the un-conscious wish has the power to disturb sleep,-i.e.- the fulfillment of the foreconscious wish.
  • 288. 286Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)This is probably due to certain relations of en-ergy into which we have no insight. If we pos-sessed such insight we should probably findthat the freedom given to the dream and theexpenditure of a certain amount of detached at-tention represent for the dream an economy inenergy, keeping in view the fact that the un-conscious must be held in check at night justas during the day. We know from experiencethat the dream, even if it interrupts sleep, re-peatedly during the same night, still remainscompatible with sleep. We wake up for an in-stant, and immediately resume our sleep. It islike driving off a fly during sleep, we awake -adhoc-, and when we resume our sleep we haveremoved the disturbance. As demonstrated byfamiliar examples from the sleep of wet nurses,&c., the fulfillment of the wish to sleep is quitecompatible with the retention of a certain amount
  • 289. 287of attention in a given direction.But we must here take cognizance of an ob-jection that is based on a better knowledge ofthe unconscious processes. Although we haveourselves described the unconscious wishes asalways active, we have, nevertheless, assertedthat they are not sufficiently strong during theday to make themselves perceptible. But whenwe sleep, and the unconscious wish has shownits power to form a dream, and with it to awakenthe foreconscious, why, then, does this powerbecome exhausted after the dream has beentaken cognizance of? Would it not seem moreprobable that the dream should continually re-new itself, like the troublesome fly which, whendriven away, takes pleasure in returning againand again? What justifies our assertion thatthe dream removes the disturbance of sleep?That the unconscious wishes always remain
  • 290. 288Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)active is quite true. They represent paths whichare passable whenever a sum of excitement makesuse of them. Moreover, a remarkable pecu-liarity of the unconscious processes is the factthat they remain indestructible. Nothing canbe brought to an end in the unconscious; noth-ing can cease or be forgotten. This impressionis most strongly gained in the study of the neu-roses, especially of hysteria. The unconsciousstream of thought which leads to the dischargethrough an attack becomes passable again assoon as there is an accumulation of a suffi-cient amount of excitement. The mortificationbrought on thirty years ago, after having gainedaccess to the unconscious affective source, op-erates during all these thirty years like a re-cent one. Whenever its memory is touched, itis revived and shows itself to be supplied withthe excitement which is discharged in a motor
  • 291. 289attack. It is just here that the office of psy-chotherapy begins, its task being to bring aboutadjustment and forgetfulness for the unconsciousprocesses. Indeed, the fading of memories andthe flagging of affects, which we are apt to takeas self-evident and to explain as a primary in-fluence of time on the psychic memories, arein reality secondary changes brought about bypainstaking work. It is the foreconscious thataccomplishes this work; and the only course tobe pursued by psychotherapy is the subjugatethe Unc, to the domination of the Forec.There are, therefore, two exits for the in-dividual unconscious emotional process. It iseither left to itself, in which case it ultimatelybreaks through somewhere and secures for oncea discharge for its excitation into motility; or itsuccumbs to the influence of the foreconscious,and its excitation becomes confined through this
  • 292. 290Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)influence instead of being discharged. It is thelatter process that occurs in the dream. Ow-ing to the fact that it is directed by the con-scious excitement, the energy from the Forec.,which confronts the dream when grown to per-ception, restricts the unconscious excitementof the dream and renders it harmless as a dis-turbing factor. When the dreamer wakes up fora moment, he has actually chased away the flythat has threatened to disturb his sleep. Wecan now understand that it is really more ex-pedient and economical to give full sway to theunconscious wish, and clear its way to regres-sion so that it may form a dream, and thenrestrict and adjust this dream by means of asmall expenditure of foreconscious labor, thanto curb the unconscious throughout the entireperiod of sleep. We should, indeed, expect thatthe dream, even if it was not originally an expe-
  • 293. 291dient process, would have acquired some func-tion in the play of forces of the psychic life. Wenow see what this function is. The dream hastaken it upon itself to bring the liberated excite-ment of the Unc. back under the domination ofthe foreconscious; it thus affords relief for theexcitement of the Unc. and acts as a safety-valve for the latter, and at the same time it in-sures the sleep of the foreconscious at a slightexpenditure of the waking state. Like the otherpsychic formations of its group, the dream of-fers itself as a compromise serving simultane-ously both systems by fulfilling both wishes inso far as they are compatible with each other.A glance at Robert’s ”elimination theory,” willshow that we must agree with this author inhis main point, viz. in the determination of thefunction of the dream, though we differ fromhim in our hypotheses and in our treatment of
  • 294. 292Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the dream process.The above qualification–in so far as the twowishes are compatible with each other–containsa suggestion that there may be cases in whichthe function of the dream suffers shipwreck.The dream process is in the first instance ad-mitted as a wish-fulfillment of the unconscious,but if this tentative wish-fulfillment disturbs theforeconscious to such an extent that the lat-ter can no longer maintain its rest, the dreamthen breaks the compromise and fails to per-form the second part of its task. It is thenat once broken off, and replaced by completewakefulness. Here, too, it is not really the faultof the dream, if, while ordinarily the guardianof sleep, it is here compelled to appear as thedisturber of sleep, nor should this cause us toentertain any doubts as to its efficacy. This isnot the only case in the organism in which an
  • 295. 293otherwise efficacious arrangement became in-efficacious and disturbing as soon as some ele-ment is changed in the conditions of its origin;the disturbance then serves at least the newpurpose of announcing the change, and callinginto play against it the means of adjustmentof the organism. In this connection, I naturallybear in mind the case of the anxiety dream, andin order not to have the appearance of tryingto exclude this testimony against the theory ofwish-fulfillment wherever I encounter it, I willattempt an explanation of the anxiety dream,at least offering some suggestions.That a psychic process developing anxietymay still be a wish-fulfillment has long ceasedto impress us as a contradiction. We may ex-plain this occurrence by the fact that the wishbelongs to one system (the Unc.), while by theother system (the Forec.), this wish has been
  • 296. 294Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)rejected and suppressed. The subjection of theUnc. by the Forec. is not complete even inperfect psychic health; the amount of this sup-pression shows the degree of our psychic nor-mality. Neurotic symptoms show that there isa conflict between the two systems; the symp-toms are the results of a compromise of thisconflict, and they temporarily put an end to it.On the one hand, they afford the Unc. an outletfor the discharge of its excitement, and serve itas a sally port, while, on the other hand, theygive the Forec. the capability of dominating theUnc. to some extent. It is highly instructive toconsider, -e.g.-, the significance of any hyster-ical phobia or of an agoraphobia. Suppose aneurotic incapable of crossing the street alone,which we would justly call a ”symptom.” We at-tempt to remove this symptom by urging himto the action which he deems himself incapable
  • 297. 295of. The result will be an attack of anxiety, justas an attack of anxiety in the street has oftenbeen the cause of establishing an agoraphobia.We thus learn that the symptom has been con-stituted in order to guard against the outbreakof the anxiety. The phobia is thrown before theanxiety like a fortress on the frontier.Unless we enter into the part played by theaffects in these processes, which can be donehere only imperfectly, we cannot continue ourdiscussion. Let us therefore advance the propo-sition that the reason why the suppression ofthe unconscious becomes absolutely necessaryis because, if the discharge of presentation shouldbe left to itself, it would develop an affect inthe Unc. which originally bore the characterof pleasure, but which, since the appearanceof the repression, bears the character of pain.The aim, as well as the result, of the suppres-
  • 298. 296Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)sion is to stop the development of this pain.The suppression extends over the unconsciousideation, because the liberation of pain mightemanate from the ideation. The foundation ishere laid for a very definite assumption con-cerning the nature of the affective development.It is regarded as a motor or secondary activ-ity, the key to the innervation of which is lo-cated in the presentations of the Unc. Throughthe domination of the Forec. these presenta-tions become, as it were, throttled and inhib-ited at the exit of the emotion-developing im-pulses. The danger, which is due to the factthat the Forec. ceases to occupy the energy,therefore consists in the fact that the uncon-scious excitations liberate such an affect as–inconsequence of the repression that has previ-ously taken place–can only be perceived as painor anxiety.
  • 299. 297This danger is released through the full swayof the dream process. The determinations forits realization consist in the fact that repres-sions have taken place, and that the suppressedemotional wishes shall become sufficiently strong.They thus stand entirely without the psycho-logical realm of the dream structure. Were itnot for the fact that our subject is connectedthrough just one factor, namely, the freeing ofthe Unc. during sleep, with the subject of thedevelopment of anxiety, I could dispense withdiscussion of the anxiety dream, and thus avoidall obscurities connected with it.As I have often repeated, the theory of theanxiety belongs to the psychology of the neu-roses. I would say that the anxiety in the dreamis an anxiety problem and not a dream prob-lem. We have nothing further to do with it afterhaving once demonstrated its point of contact
  • 300. 298Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)with the subject of the dream process. There isonly one thing left for me to do. As I have as-serted that the neurotic anxiety originates fromsexual sources, I can subject anxiety dreamsto analysis in order to demonstrate the sexualmaterial in their dream thoughts.For good reasons I refrain from citing hereany of the numerous examples placed at mydisposal by neurotic patients, but prefer to giveanxiety dreams from young persons.Personally, I have had no real anxiety dreamfor decades, but I recall one from my seventh oreighth year which I subjected to interpretationabout thirty years later. The dream was veryvivid, and showed me -my beloved mother, withpeculiarly calm sleeping countenance, carriedinto the room and laid on the bed by two (orthree) persons with birds’ beaks-. I awoke cry-ing and screaming, and disturbed my parents.
  • 301. 299The very tall figures–draped in a peculiar manner–with beaks, I had taken from the illustrationsof Philippson’s bible; I believe they representeddeities with heads of sparrowhawks from anEgyptian tomb relief. The analysis also intro-duced the reminiscence of a naughty janitor’sboy, who used to play with us children on themeadow in front of the house; I would add thathis name was Philip. I feel that I first heardfrom this boy the vulgar word signifying sexualintercourse, which is replaced among the ed-ucated by the Latin ”coitus,” but to which thedream distinctly alludes by the selection of thebirds’ heads. I must have suspected the sexualsignificance of the word from the facial expres-sion of my worldly-wise teacher. My mother’sfeatures in the dream were copied from the coun-tenance of my grandfather, whom I had seen afew days before his death snoring in the state of
  • 302. 300Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)coma. The interpretation of the secondary elab-oration in the dream must therefore have beenthat my mother was dying; the tomb relief, too,agrees with this. In this anxiety I awoke, andcould not calm myself until I had awakened myparents. I remember that I suddenly becamecalm on coming face to face with my mother,as if I needed the assurance that my motherwas not dead. But this secondary interpreta-tion of the dream had been effected only un-der the influence of the developed anxiety. Iwas not frightened because I dreamed that mymother was dying, but I interpreted the dreamin this manner in the foreconscious elabora-tion because I was already under the domina-tion of the anxiety. The latter, however, couldbe traced by means of the repression to an ob-scure obviously sexual desire, which had foundits satisfying expression in the visual content of
  • 303. 301the dream.A man twenty-seven years old who had beenseverely ill for a year had had many terrifyingdreams between the ages of eleven and thir-teen. He thought that a man with an ax wasrunning after him; he wished to run, but feltparalyzed and could not move from the spot.This may be taken as a good example of a verycommon, and apparently sexually indifferent,anxiety dream. In the analysis the dreamer firstthought of a story told him by his uncle, whichchronologically was later than the dream, viz.that he was attacked at night by a suspicious-looking individual. This occurrence led him tobelieve that he himself might have already heardof a similar episode at the time of the dream. Inconnection with the ax he recalled that duringthat period of his life he once hurt his handwith an ax while chopping wood. This immedi-
  • 304. 302Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ately led to his relations with his younger brother,whom he used to maltreat and knock down.In particular, he recalled an occasion when hestruck his brother on the head with his bootuntil he bled, whereupon his mother remarked:”I fear he will kill him some day.” While he wasseemingly thinking of the subject of violence, areminiscence from his ninth year suddenly oc-curred to him. His parents came home late andwent to bed while he was feigning sleep. Hesoon heard panting and other noises that ap-peared strange to him, and he could also makeout the position of his parents in bed. His fur-ther associations showed that he had estab-lished an analogy between this relation betweenhis parents and his own relation toward hisyounger brother. He subsumed what occurredbetween his parents under the conception ”vio-lence and wrestling,” and thus reached a sadis-
  • 305. 303tic conception of the coitus act, as often hap-pens among children. The fact that he oftennoticed blood on his mother’s bed corroboratedhis conception.That the sexual intercourse of adults appearsstrange to children who observe it, and arousesfear in them, I dare say is a fact of daily experi-ence. I have explained this fear by the fact thatsexual excitement is not mastered by their un-derstanding, and is probably also inacceptableto them because their parents are involved in it.For the same son this excitement is convertedinto fear. At a still earlier period of life sexualemotion directed toward the parent of oppositesex does not meet with repression but finds freeexpression, as we have seen before.For the night terrors with hallucinations (-pavor nocturnus-) frequently found in children,I would unhesitatingly give the same explana-
  • 306. 304Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)tion. Here, too, we are certainly dealing withthe incomprehensible and rejected sexual feel-ings, which, if noted, would probably show atemporal periodicity, for an enhancement of thesexual -libido- may just as well be producedaccidentally through emotional impressions asthrough the spontaneous and gradual processesof development.I lack the necessary material to sustain theseexplanations from observation. On the otherhand, the pediatrists seem to lack the pointof view which alone makes comprehensible thewhole series of phenomena, on the somatic aswell as on the psychic side. To illustrate bya comical example how one wearing the blin-ders of medical mythology may miss the un-derstanding of such cases I will relate a casewhich I found in a thesis on -pavor nocturnus-by -Debacker-, 1881. A thirteen-year-old boy
  • 307. 305of delicate health began to become anxious anddreamy; his sleep became restless, and aboutonce a week it was interrupted by an acute at-tack of anxiety with hallucinations. The mem-ory of these dreams was invariably very dis-tinct. Thus, he related that the -devil- shoutedat him: ”Now we have you, now we have you,”and this was followed by an odor of sulphur;the fire burned his skin. This dream arousedhim, terror-stricken. He was unable to screamat first; then his voice returned, and he washeard to say distinctly: ”No, no, not me; why,I have done nothing,” or, ”Please don’t, I shallnever do it again.” Occasionally, also, he said:”Albert has not done that.” Later he avoided un-dressing, because, as he said, the fire attackedhim only when he was undressed. From amidthese evil dreams, which menaced his health,he was sent into the country, where he recov-
  • 308. 306Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ered within a year and a half, but at the ageof fifteen he once confessed: ”Je n’osais pasl’avouer, mais j’eprouvais continuellement despicotements et des surexcitations aux -parties-;a la fin, cela m’enervait tant que plusieurs fois,j’ai pense me jeter par la fenetre au dortoir.”It is certainly not difficult to suspect: 1, thatthe boy had practiced masturbation in formeryears, that he probably denied it, and was threat-ened with severe punishment for his wrongdo-ing (his confession: Je ne le ferai plus; his de-nial: Albert n’a jamais fait ca). 2, That underthe pressure of puberty the temptation to self-abuse through the tickling of the genitals wasreawakened. 3, That now, however, a strug-gle of repression arose in him, suppressing the-libido- and changing it into fear, which subse-quently took the form of the punishments withwhich he was then threatened.
  • 309. 307Let us, however, quote the conclusions drawnby our author. This observation shows: 1, Thatthe influence of puberty may produce in a boyof delicate health a condition of extreme weak-ness, and that it may lead to a -very markedcerebral anaemia-.2. This cerebral anaemia produces a trans-formation of character, demonomaniacal hallu-cinations, and very violent nocturnal, perhapsalso diurnal, states of anxiety.3. Demonomania and the self-reproaches ofthe day can be traced to the influences of re-ligious education which the subject underwentas a child.4. All manifestations disappeared as a resultof a lengthy sojourn in the country, bodily ex-ercise, and the return of physical strength afterthe termination of the period of puberty.5. A predisposing influence for the origin
  • 310. 308Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)of the cerebral condition of the boy may be at-tributed to heredity and to the father’s chronicsyphilitic state.The concluding remarks of the author read:”Nous avons fait entrer cette observation dansle cadre des delires apyretiques d’inanition, carc’est a l’ischemie cerebrale que nous rattachonscet etat particulier.”
  • 311. VIII THE PRIMARYAND SECONDARYPROCESS–REGRESSIONIn venturing to attempt to penetrate more deeplyinto the psychology of the dream processes, Ihave undertaken a difficult task, to which, in-deed, my power of description is hardly equal.To reproduce in description by a succession ofwords the simultaneousness of so complex a309
  • 312. 310Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)chain of events, and in doing so to appear un-biassed throughout the exposition, goes fairlybeyond my powers. I have now to atone forthe fact that I have been unable in my descrip-tion of the dream psychology to follow the his-toric development of my views. The view-pointsfor my conception of the dream were reachedthrough earlier investigations in the psychologyof the neuroses, to which I am not supposed torefer here, but to which I am repeatedly forcedto refer, whereas I should prefer to proceed inthe opposite direction, and, starting from thedream, to establish a connection with the psy-chology of the neuroses. I am well aware of allthe inconveniences arising for the reader fromthis difficulty, but I know of no way to avoidthem.As I am dissatisfied with this state of af-fairs, I am glad to dwell upon another view-
  • 313. 311point which seems to raise the value of my ef-forts. As has been shown in the introductionto the first chapter, I found myself confrontedwith a theme which had been marked by thesharpest contradictions on the part of the au-thorities. After our elaboration of the dreamproblems we found room for most of these con-tradictions. We have been forced, however, totake decided exception to two of the views pro-nounced, viz. that the dream is a senselessand that it is a somatic process; apart fromthese cases we have had to accept all the con-tradictory views in one place or another of thecomplicated argument, and we have been ableto demonstrate that they had discovered some-thing that was correct. That the dream con-tinues the impulses and interests of the wak-ing state has been quite generally confirmedthrough the discovery of the latent thoughts of
  • 314. 312Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the dream. These thoughts concern themselvesonly with things that seem important and ofmomentous interest to us. The dream neveroccupies itself with trifles. But we have alsoconcurred with the contrary view, viz., that thedream gathers up the indifferent remnants fromthe day, and that not until it has in some mea-sure withdrawn itself from the waking activitycan an important event of the day be takenup by the dream. We found this holding truefor the dream content, which gives the dreamthought its changed expression by means ofdisfigurement. We have said that from the na-ture of the association mechanism the dreamprocess more easily takes possession of recentor indifferent material which has not yet beenseized by the waking mental activity; and byreason of the censor it transfers the psychic in-tensity from the important but also disagree-
  • 315. 313able to the indifferent material. The hypermne-sia of the dream and the resort to infantile ma-terial have become main supports in our the-ory. In our theory of the dream we have at-tributed to the wish originating from the infan-tile the part of an indispensable motor for theformation of the dream. We naturally could notthink of doubting the experimentally demon-strated significance of the objective sensory stim-uli during sleep; but we have brought this ma-terial into the same relation to the dream-wishas the thought remnants from the waking ac-tivity. There was no need of disputing the factthat the dream interprets the objective sensorystimuli after the manner of an illusion; but wehave supplied the motive for this interpretationwhich has been left undecided by the authori-ties. The interpretation follows in such a man-ner that the perceived object is rendered harm-
  • 316. 314Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)less as a sleep disturber and becomes availablefor the wish-fulfillment. Though we do not ad-mit as special sources of the dream the subjec-tive state of excitement of the sensory organsduring sleep, which seems to have been demon-strated by Trumbull Ladd, we are neverthelessable to explain this excitement through the re-gressive revival of active memories behind thedream. A modest part in our conception hasalso been assigned to the inner organic sensa-tions which are wont to be taken as the cardinalpoint in the explanation of the dream. These–the sensation of falling, flying, or inhibition–stand as an ever ready material to be used bythe dream-work to express the dream thoughtas often as need arises.That the dream process is a rapid and mo-mentary one seems to be true for the percep-tion through consciousness of the already pre-
  • 317. 315pared dream content; the preceding parts ofthe dream process probably take a slow, fluc-tuating course. We have solved the riddle ofthe superabundant dream content compressedwithin the briefest moment by explaining thatthis is due to the appropriation of almost fullyformed structures from the psychic life. Thatthe dream is disfigured and distorted by mem-ory we found to be correct, but not trouble-some, as this is only the last manifest operationin the work of disfigurement which has been ac-tive from the beginning of the dream-work. Inthe bitter and seemingly irreconcilable contro-versy as to whether the psychic life sleeps atnight or can make the same use of all its ca-pabilities as during the day, we have been ableto agree with both sides, though not fully witheither. We have found proof that the dreamthoughts represent a most complicated intel-
  • 318. 316Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)lectual activity, employing almost every meansfurnished by the psychic apparatus; still it can-not be denied that these dream thoughts haveoriginated during the day, and it is indispens-able to assume that there is a sleeping state ofthe psychic life. Thus, even the theory of par-tial sleep has come into play; but the charac-teristics of the sleeping state have been foundnot in the dilapidation of the psychic connec-tions but in the cessation of the psychic sys-tem dominating the day, arising from its de-sire to sleep. The withdrawal from the outerworld retains its significance also for our con-ception; though not the only factor, it neverthe-less helps the regression to make possible therepresentation of the dream. That we shouldreject the voluntary guidance of the presenta-tion course is uncontestable; but the psychiclife does not thereby become aimless, for we
  • 319. 317have seen that after the abandonment of thedesired end-presentation undesired ones gainthe mastery. The loose associative connectionin the dream we have not only recognized, butwe have placed under its control a far greaterterritory than could have been supposed; wehave, however, found it merely the feigned sub-stitute for another correct and senseful one. Tobe sure we, too, have called the dream absurd;but we have been able to learn from exampleshow wise the dream really is when it simulatesabsurdity. We do not deny any of the func-tions that have been attributed to the dream.That the dream relieves the mind like a valve,and that, according to Robert’s assertion, allkinds of harmful material are rendered harm-less through representation in the dream, notonly exactly coincides with our theory of thetwofold wish-fulfillment in the dream, but, in
  • 320. 318Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)his own wording, becomes even more compre-hensible for us than for Robert himself. Thefree indulgence of the psychic in the play of itsfaculties finds expression with us in the non-interference with the dream on the part of theforeconscious activity. The ”return to the em-bryonal state of psychic life in the dream” andthe observation of Havelock Ellis, ”an archaicworld of vast emotions and imperfect thoughts,”appear to us as happy anticipations of our de-ductions to the effect that -primitive- modesof work suppressed during the day participatein the formation of the dream; and with us,as with Delage, the -suppressed- material be-comes the mainspring of the dreaming.We have fully recognized the role which Sch-erner ascribes to the dream phantasy, and evenhis interpretation; but we have been obliged, soto speak, to conduct them to another depart-
  • 321. 319ment in the problem. It is not the dream thatproduces the phantasy but the unconscious phan-tasy that takes the greatest part in the forma-tion of the dream thoughts. We are indebtedto Scherner for his clew to the source of thedream thoughts, but almost everything that heascribes to the dream-work is attributable tothe activity of the unconscious, which is at workduring the day, and which supplies incitementsnot only for dreams but for neurotic symptomsas well. We have had to separate the dream-work from this activity as being something en-tirely different and far more restricted. Finally,we have by no means abandoned the relation ofthe dream to mental disturbances, but, on thecontrary, we have given it a more solid founda-tion on new ground.Thus held together by the new material ofour theory as by a superior unity, we find the
  • 322. 320Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)most varied and most contradictory conclusionsof the authorities fitting into our structure; someof them are differently disposed, only a few ofthem are entirely rejected. But our own struc-ture is still unfinished. For, disregarding themany obscurities which we have necessarily en-countered in our advance into the darkness ofpsychology, we are now apparently embarrassedby a new contradiction. On the one hand, wehave allowed the dream thoughts to proceedfrom perfectly normal mental operations, while,on the other hand, we have found among thedream thoughts a number of entirely abnormalmental processes which extend likewise to thedream contents. These, consequently, we haverepeated in the interpretation of the dream. Allthat we have termed the ”dream-work” seemsso remote from the psychic processes recog-nized by us as correct, that the severest judg-
  • 323. 321ments of the authors as to the low psychic ac-tivity of dreaming seem to us well founded.Perhaps only through still further advancecan enlightenment and improvement be broughtabout. I shall pick out one of the constellationsleading to the formation of dreams.We have learned that the dream replaces anumber of thoughts derived from daily life whichare perfectly formed logically. We cannot there-fore doubt that these thoughts originate fromour normal mental life. All the qualities whichwe esteem in our mental operations, and whichdistinguish these as complicated activities ofa high order, we find repeated in the dreamthoughts. There is, however, no need of assum-ing that this mental work is performed duringsleep, as this would materially impair the con-ception of the psychic state of sleep we havehitherto adhered to. These thoughts may just
  • 324. 322Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)as well have originated from the day, and, un-noticed by our consciousness from their incep-tion, they may have continued to develop un-til they stood complete at the onset of sleep.If we are to conclude anything from this stateof affairs, it will at most prove -that the mostcomplex mental operations are possible with-out the cooeperation of consciousness-, whichwe have already learned independently from ev-ery psychoanalysis of persons suffering fromhysteria or obsessions. These dream thoughtsare in themselves surely not incapable of con-sciousness; if they have not become consciousto us during the day, this may have variousreasons. The state of becoming conscious de-pends on the exercise of a certain psychic func-tion, viz. attention, which seems to be extendedonly in a definite quantity, and which may havebeen withdrawn from the stream of thought in
  • 325. 323Question by other aims. Another way in whichsuch mental streams are kept from conscious-ness is the following:–Our conscious reflectionteaches us that when exercising attention wepursue a definite course. But if that courseleads us to an idea which does not hold itsown with the critic, we discontinue and ceaseto apply our attention. Now, apparently, thestream of thought thus started and abandonedmay spin on without regaining attention unlessit reaches a spot of especially marked intensitywhich forces the return of attention. An initialrejection, perhaps consciously brought aboutby the judgment on the ground of incorrectnessor unfitness for the actual purpose of the men-tal act, may therefore account for the fact thata mental process continues until the onset ofsleep unnoticed by consciousness.Let us recapitulate by saying that we call
  • 326. 324Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)such a stream of thought a foreconscious one,that we believe it to be perfectly correct, andthat it may just as well be a more neglected oneor an interrupted and suppressed one. Let usalso state frankly in what manner we conceivethis presentation course. We believe that a cer-tain sum of excitement, which we call occupa-tion energy, is displaced from an end-presentationalong the association paths selected by that end-presentation. A ”neglected” stream of thoughthas received no such occupation, and from a”suppressed” or ”rejected” one this occupationhas been withdrawn; both have thus been leftto their own emotions. The end-stream of thoughtstocked with energy is under certain conditionsable to draw to itself the attention of conscious-ness, through which means it then receives a”surplus of energy.” We shall be obliged some-what later to elucidate our assumption concern-
  • 327. 325ing the nature and activity of consciousness.A train of thought thus incited in the Forec.may either disappear spontaneously or continue.The former issue we conceive as follows: It dif-fuses its energy through all the association pathsemanating from it, and throws the entire chainof ideas into a state of excitement which, afterlasting for a while, subsides through the trans-formation of the excitement requiring an out-let into dormant energy.[1] If this first issue isbrought about the process has no further sig-nificance for the dream formation. But otherend-presentations are lurking in our forecon-scious that originate from the sources of ourunconscious and from the ever active wishes.These may take possession of the excitationsin the circle of thought thus left to itself, es-tablish a connection between it and the uncon-scious wish, and transfer to it the energy inher-
  • 328. 326Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ent in the unconscious wish. Henceforth theneglected or suppressed train of thought is ina position to maintain itself, although this re-inforcement does not help it to gain access toconsciousness. We may say that the hithertoforeconscious train of thought has been drawninto the unconscious.Other constellations for the dream forma-tion would result if the foreconscious train ofthought had from the beginning been connectedwith the unconscious wish, and for that rea-son met with rejection by the dominating end-occupation; or if an unconscious wish were madeactive for other–possibly somatic–reasons andof its own accord sought a transference to thepsychic remnants not occupied by the Forec.All three cases finally combine in one issue, sothat there is established in the foreconsciousa stream of thought which, having been aban-
  • 329. 327doned by the foreconscious occupation, receivesoccupation from the unconscious wish.The stream of thought is henceforth sub-jected to a series of transformations which weno longer recognize as normal psychic processesand which give us a surprising result, viz. apsychopathological formation. Let us empha-size and group the same.1. The intensities of the individual ideasbecome capable of discharge in their entirety,and, proceeding from one conception to the other,they thus form single presentations endowedwith marked intensity. Through the repeatedrecurrence of this process the intensity of anentire train of ideas may ultimately be gath-ered in a single presentation element. This isthe principle of -compression or condensation-. It is condensation that is mainly responsiblefor the strange impression of the dream, for we
  • 330. 328Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)know of nothing analogous to it in the normalpsychic life accessible to consciousness. Wefind here, also, presentations which possess greatpsychic significance as junctions or as end-resultsof whole chains of thought; but this validitydoes not manifest itself in any character con-spicuous enough for internal perception; hence,what has been presented in it does not becomein any way more intensive. In the process ofcondensation the entire psychic connection be-comes transformed into the intensity of the pre-sentation content. It is the same as in a bookwhere we space or print in heavy type any wordupon which particular stress is laid for the un-derstanding of the text. In speech the sameword would be pronounced loudly and deliber-ately and with emphasis. The first comparisonleads us at once to an example taken from thechapter on ”The Dream-Work” (trimethylamine
  • 331. 329in the dream of Irma’s injection). Historiansof art call our attention to the fact that themost ancient historical sculptures follow a sim-ilar principle in expressing the rank of the per-sons represented by the size of the statue. Theking is made two or three times as large as hisretinue or the vanquished enemy. A piece ofart, however, from the Roman period makes useof more subtle means to accomplish the samepurpose. The figure of the emperor is placed inthe center in a firmly erect posture; special careis bestowed on the proper modelling of his fig-ure; his enemies are seen cowering at his feet;but he is no longer represented a giant amongdwarfs. However, the bowing of the subordinateto his superior in our own days is only an echoof that ancient principle of representation.The direction taken by the condensations ofthe dream is prescribed on the one hand by
  • 332. 330Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the true foreconscious relations of the dreamthoughts, an the other hand by the attractionof the visual reminiscences in the unconscious.The success of the condensation work producesthose intensities which are required for pene-tration into the perception systems.2. Through this free transferability of theintensities, moreover, and in the service of con-densation, -intermediary presentations—compromises,as it were–are formed (-cf.- the numerous ex-amples). This, likewise, is something unheardof in the normal presentation course, where itis above all a question of selection and retentionof the ”proper” presentation element. On theother hand, composite and compromise forma-tions occur with extraordinary frequency whenwe are trying to find the linguistic expressionfor foreconscious thoughts; these are consid-ered ”slips of the tongue.”
  • 333. 3313. The presentations which transfer their in-tensities to one another are -very loosely connected-, and are joined together by such forms of as-sociation as are spurned in our serious thoughtand are utilized in the production of the effect ofwit only. Among these we particularly find as-sociations of the sound and consonance types.4. Contradictory thoughts do not strive toeliminate one another, but remain side by side.They often unite to produce condensation -asif no contradiction- existed, or they form com-promises for which we should never forgive ourthoughts, but which we frequently approve ofin our actions.These are some of the most conspicuous ab-normal processes to which the thoughts whichhave previously been rationally formed are sub-jected in the course of the dream-work. As themain feature of these processes we recognize
  • 334. 332Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the high importance attached to the fact of ren-dering the occupation energy mobile and ca-pable of discharge; the content and the actualsignificance of the psychic elements, to whichthese energies adhere, become a matter of sec-ondary importance. One might possibly thinkthat the condensation and compromise forma-tion is effected only in the service of regression,when occasion arises for changing thoughts intopictures. But the analysis and–still more distinctly–the synthesis of dreams which lack regressiontoward pictures, -e.g.- the dream ”Autodidasker–Conversation with Court-Councilor N.,” presentthe same processes of displacement and con-densation as the others.Hence we cannot refuse to acknowledge thatthe two kinds of essentially different psychicprocesses participate in the formation of thedream; one forms perfectly correct dream thoughts
  • 335. 333which are equivalent to normal thoughts, whilethe other treats these ideas in a highly surpris-ing and incorrect manner. The latter processwe have already set apart as the dream-workproper. What have we now to advance concern-ing this latter psychic process?We should be unable to answer this questionhere if we had not penetrated considerably intothe psychology of the neuroses and especiallyof hysteria. From this we learn that the sameincorrect psychic processes–as well as othersthat have not been enumerated–control the for-mation of hysterical symptoms. In hysteria,too, we at once find a series of perfectly correctthoughts equivalent to our conscious thoughts,of whose existence, however, in this form wecan learn nothing and which we can only sub-sequently reconstruct. If they have forced theirway anywhere to our perception, we discover
  • 336. 334Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)from the analysis of the symptom formed thatthese normal thoughts have been subjected toabnormal treatment and -have been transformedinto the symptom by means of condensationand compromise formation, through superficialassociations, under cover of contradictions, andeventually over the road of regression-. In viewof the complete identity found between the pe-culiarities of the dream-work and of the psy-chic activity forming the psychoneurotic symp-toms, we shall feel justified in transferring tothe dream the conclusions urged upon us byhysteria.From the theory of hysteria we borrow theproposition that -such an abnormal psychic elab-oration of a normal train of thought takes placeonly when the latter has been used for the trans-ference of an unconscious wish which dates fromthe infantile life and is in a state of repression-
  • 337. 335. In accordance with this proposition we haveconstrued the theory of the dream on the as-sumption that the actuating dream-wish invari-ably originates in the unconscious, which, aswe ourselves have admitted, cannot be univer-sally demonstrated though it cannot be refuted.But in order to explain the real meaning of theterm -repression-, which we have employed sofreely, we shall be obliged to make some furtheraddition to our psychological construction.We have above elaborated the fiction of aprimitive psychic apparatus, whose work is reg-ulated by the efforts to avoid accumulation ofexcitement and as far as possible to maintainitself free from excitement. For this reason itwas constructed after the plan of a reflex ap-paratus; the motility, originally the path for theinner bodily change, formed a discharging pathstanding at its disposal. We subsequently dis-
  • 338. 336Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)cussed the psychic results of a feeling of gratifi-cation, and we might at the same time have in-troduced the second assumption, viz. that ac-cumulation of excitement–following certain modal-ities that do not concern us–is perceived as painand sets the apparatus in motion in order to re-produce a feeling of gratification in which thediminution of the excitement is perceived aspleasure. Such a current in the apparatus whichemanates from pain and strives for pleasure wecall a wish. We have said that nothing buta wish is capable of setting the apparatus inmotion, and that the discharge of excitementin the apparatus is regulated automatically bythe perception of pleasure and pain. The firstwish must have been an hallucinatory occupa-tion of the memory for gratification. But thishallucination, unless it were maintained to thepoint of exhaustion, proved incapable of bring-
  • 339. 337ing about a cessation of the desire and con-sequently of securing the pleasure connectedwith gratification.Thus there was required a second activity–inour terminology the activity of a second system–which should not permit the memory occupa-tion to advance to perception and therefrom torestrict the psychic forces, but should lead theexcitement emanating from the craving stim-ulus by a devious path over the spontaneousmotility which ultimately should so change theouter world as to allow the real perception ofthe object of gratification to take place. Thusfar we have elaborated the plan of the psychicapparatus; these two systems are the germ ofthe Unc. and Forec, which we include in thefully developed apparatus.In order to be in a position successfully tochange the outer world through the motility,
  • 340. 338Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)there is required the accumulation of a largesum of experiences in the memory systems aswell as a manifold fixation of the relations whichare evoked in this memory material by differ-ent end-presentations. We now proceed fur-ther with our assumption. The manifold ac-tivity of the second system, tentatively sendingforth and retracting energy, must on the onehand have full command over all memory ma-terial, but on the other hand it would be a su-perfluous expenditure for it to send to the indi-vidual mental paths large quantities of energywhich would thus flow off to no purpose, di-minishing the quantity available for the trans-formation of the outer world. In the interestsof expediency I therefore postulate that the sec-ond system succeeds in maintaining the greaterpart of the occupation energy in a dormant stateand in using but a small portion for the pur-
  • 341. 339poses of displacement. The mechanism of theseprocesses is entirely unknown to me; any onewho wishes to follow up these ideas must tryto find the physical analogies and prepare theway for a demonstration of the process of mo-tion in the stimulation of the neuron. I merelyhold to the idea that the activity of the first[Greek: Psi]-system is directed -to the free out-flow of the quantities of excitement-, and thatthe second system brings about an inhibitionof this outflow through the energies emanatingfrom it, -i.e.- it produces a -transformation intodormant energy, probably by raising the level-. I therefore assume that under the control ofthe second system as compared with the first,the course of the excitement is bound to en-tirely different mechanical conditions. After thesecond system has finished its tentative men-tal work, it removes the inhibition and conges-
  • 342. 340Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)tion of the excitements and allows these excite-ments to flow off to the motility.An interesting train of thought now presentsitself if we consider the relations of this inhibi-tion of discharge by the second system to theregulation through the principle of pain. Let usnow seek the counterpart of the primary feel-ing of gratification, namely, the objective feel-ing of fear. A perceptive stimulus acts on theprimitive apparatus, becoming the source of apainful emotion. This will then be followed byirregular motor manifestations until one of thesewithdraws the apparatus from perception andat the same time from pain, but on the reap-pearance of the perception this manifestationwill immediately repeat itself (perhaps as a move-ment of flight) until the perception has againdisappeared. But there will here remain notendency again to occupy the perception of the
  • 343. 341source of pain in the form of an hallucinationor in any other form. On the contrary, therewill be a tendency in the primary apparatus toabandon the painful memory picture as soonas it is in any way awakened, as the overflowof its excitement would surely produce (moreprecisely, begin to produce) pain. The devia-tion from memory, which is but a repetition ofthe former flight from perception, is facilitatedalso by the fact that, unlike perception, mem-ory does not possess sufficient quality to exciteconsciousness and thereby to attract to itselfnew energy. This easy and regularly occurringdeviation of the psychic process from the for-mer painful memory presents to us the modeland the first example of -psychic repression-.As is generally known, much of this deviationfrom the painful, much of the behavior of theostrich, can be readily demonstrated even in
  • 344. 342Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the normal psychic life of adults.By virtue of the principle of pain the firstsystem is therefore altogether incapable of in-troducing anything unpleasant into the mentalassociations. The system cannot do anythingbut wish. If this remained so the mental ac-tivity of the second system, which should haveat its disposal all the memories stored up byexperiences, would be hindered. But two waysare now opened: the work of the second sys-tem either frees itself completely from the prin-ciple of pain and continues its course, payingno heed to the painful reminiscence, or it con-trives to occupy the painful memory in such amanner as to preclude the liberation of pain.We may reject the first possibility, as the prin-ciple of pain also manifests itself as a regulatorfor the emotional discharge of the second sys-tem; we are, therefore, directed to the second
  • 345. 343possibility, namely, that this system occupies areminiscence in such a manner as to inhibit itsdischarge and hence, also, to inhibit the dis-charge comparable to a motor innervation forthe development of pain. Thus from two start-ing points we are led to the hypothesis that oc-cupation through the second system is at thesame time an inhibition for the emotional dis-charge, viz. from a consideration of the princi-ple of pain and from the principle of the small-est expenditure of innervation. Let us, however,keep to the fact–this is the key to the theory ofrepression–that the second system is capable ofoccupying an idea only when it is in position tocheck the development of pain emanating fromit. Whatever withdraws itself from this inhibi-tion also remains inaccessible for the secondsystem and would soon be abandoned by virtueof the principle of pain. The inhibition of pain,
  • 346. 344Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)however, need not be complete; it must be per-mitted to begin, as it indicates to the secondsystem the nature of the memory and possiblyits defective adaptation for the purpose soughtby the mind.The psychic process which is admitted bythe first system only I shall now call the -primary-process; and the one resulting from the inhi-bition of the second system I shall call the -secondary- process. I show by another point forwhat purpose the second system is obliged tocorrect the primary process. The primary pro-cess strives for a discharge of the excitement inorder to establish a -perception- identity withthe sum of excitement thus gathered; the sec-ondary process has abandoned this intentionand undertaken instead the task of bringingabout a -thought identity-. All thinking is onlya circuitous path from the memory of gratifica-
  • 347. 345tion taken as an end-presentation to the iden-tical occupation of the same memory, which isagain to be attained on the track of the mo-tor experiences. The state of thinking musttake an interest in the connecting paths be-tween the presentations without allowing itselfto be misled by their intensities. But it is ob-vious that condensations and intermediate orcompromise formations occurring in the pre-sentations impede the attainment of this end-identity; by substituting one idea for the otherthey deviate from the path which otherwise wouldhave been continued from the original idea. Suchprocesses are therefore carefully avoided in thesecondary thinking. Nor is it difficult to under-stand that the principle of pain also impedesthe progress of the mental stream in its pur-suit of the thought identity, though, indeed, itoffers to the mental stream the most important
  • 348. 346Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)points of departure. Hence the tendency of thethinking process must be to free itself more andmore from exclusive adjustment by the prin-ciple of pain, and through the working of themind to restrict the affective development tothat minimum which is necessary as a signal.This refinement of the activity must have beenattained through a recent over-occupation ofenergy brought about by consciousness. Butwe are aware that this refinement is seldomcompletely successful even in the most normalpsychic life and that our thoughts ever remainaccessible to falsification through the interfer-ence of the principle of pain.This, however, is not the breach in the func-tional efficiency of our psychic apparatus throughwhich the thoughts forming the material of thesecondary mental work are enabled to maketheir way into the primary psychic process–with
  • 349. 347which formula we may now describe the workleading to the dream and to the hysterical symp-toms. This case of insufficiency results fromthe union of the two factors from the historyof our evolution; one of which belongs solely tothe psychic apparatus and has exerted a de-termining influence on the relation of the twosystems, while the other operates fluctuatinglyand introduces motive forces of organic origininto the psychic life. Both originate in the in-fantile life and result from the transformationwhich our psychic and somatic organism hasundergone since the infantile period.When I termed one of the psychic processesin the psychic apparatus the primary process,I did so not only in consideration of the orderof precedence and capability, but also as ad-mitting the temporal relations to a share in thenomenclature. As far as our knowledge goes
  • 350. 348Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)there is no psychic apparatus possessing onlythe primary process, and in so far it is a theo-retic fiction; but so much is based on fact thatthe primary processes are present in the appa-ratus from the beginning, while the secondaryprocesses develop gradually in the course oflife, inhibiting and covering the primary ones,and gaining complete mastery over them per-haps only at the height of life. Owing to this re-tarded appearance of the secondary processes,the essence of our being, consisting in uncon-scious wish feelings, can neither be seized norinhibited by the foreconscious, whose part isonce for all restricted to the indication of themost suitable paths for the wish feelings origi-nating in the unconscious. These unconsciouswishes establish for all subsequent psychic ef-forts a compulsion to which they have to sub-mit and which they must strive if possible to di-
  • 351. 349vert from its course and direct to higher aims.In consequence of this retardation of the fore-conscious occupation a large sphere of the mem-ory material remains inaccessible.Among these indestructible and unincum-bered wish feelings originating from the infan-tile life, there are also some, the fulfillments ofwhich have entered into a relation of contradic-tion to the end-presentation of the secondarythinking. The fulfillment of these wishes wouldno longer produce an affect of pleasure but oneof pain; -and it is just this transformation ofaffect that constitutes the nature of what wedesignate as ”repression,” in which we recog-nize the infantile first step of passing adversesentence or of rejecting through reason-. To in-vestigate in what way and through what motiveforces such a transformation can be producedconstitutes the problem of repression, which
  • 352. 350Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)we need here only skim over. It will sufficeto remark that such a transformation of affectoccurs in the course of development (one maythink of the appearance in infantile life of dis-gust which was originally absent), and that itis connected with the activity of the secondarysystem. The memories from which the uncon-scious wish brings about the emotional dischargehave never been accessible to the Forec., andfor that reason their emotional discharge can-not be inhibited. It is just on account of thisaffective development that these ideas are noteven now accessible to the foreconscious thoughtsto which they have transferred their wishingpower. On the contrary, the principle of paincomes into play, and causes the Forec. to de-viate from these thoughts of transference. Thelatter, left to themselves, are ”repressed,” andthus the existence of a store of infantile mem-
  • 353. 351ories, from the very beginning withdrawn fromthe Forec., becomes the preliminary conditionof repression.In the most favorable case the developmentof pain terminates as soon as the energy hasbeen withdrawn from the thoughts of transfer-ence in the Forec., and this effect character-izes the intervention of the principle of pain asexpedient. It is different, however, if the re-pressed unconscious wish receives an organicenforcement which it can lend to its thoughtsof transference and through which it can en-able them to make an effort towards penetra-tion with their excitement, even after they havebeen abandoned by the occupation of the Forec.A defensive struggle then ensues, inasmuch asthe Forec. reinforces the antagonism againstthe repressed ideas, and subsequently this leadsto a penetration by the thoughts of transference
  • 354. 352Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)(the carriers of the unconscious wish) in someform of compromise through symptom forma-tion. But from the moment that the suppressedthoughts are powerfully occupied by the un-conscious wish-feeling and abandoned by theforeconscious occupation, they succumb to theprimary psychic process and strive only for mo-tor discharge; or, if the path be free, for halluci-natory revival of the desired perception identity.We have previously found, empirically, that theincorrect processes described are enacted onlywith thoughts that exist in the repression. Wenow grasp another part of the connection. Theseincorrect processes are those that are primaryin the psychic apparatus; -they appear wher-ever thoughts abandoned by the foreconsciousoccupation are left to themselves, and can fillthemselves with the uninhibited energy, striv-ing for discharge from the unconscious-. We
  • 355. 353may add a few further observations to supportthe view that these processes designated ”in-correct” are really not falsifications of the nor-mal defective thinking, but the modes of activ-ity of the psychic apparatus when freed frominhibition. Thus we see that the transferenceof the foreconscious excitement to the motilitytakes place according to the same processes,and that the connection of the foreconsciouspresentations with words readily manifest thesame displacements and mixtures which areascribed to inattention. Finally, I should liketo adduce proof that an increase of work neces-sarily results from the inhibition of these pri-mary courses from the fact that we gain a -comical effect-, a surplus to be discharged throughlaughter, -if we allow these streams of thoughtto come to consciousness-.The theory of the psychoneuroses asserts with
  • 356. 354Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)complete certainty that only sexual wish-feelingsfrom the infantile life experience repression (emo-tional transformation) during the developmen-tal period of childhood. These are capable ofreturning to activity at a later period of devel-opment, and then have the faculty of being re-vived, either as a consequence of the sexualconstitution, which is really formed from theoriginal bisexuality, or in consequence of un-favorable influences of the sexual life; and theythus supply the motive power for all psychoneu-rotic symptom formations. It is only by the in-troduction of these sexual forces that the gapsstill demonstrable in the theory of repressioncan be filled. I will leave it undecided whetherthe postulate of the sexual and infantile mayalso be asserted for the theory of the dream; Ileave this here unfinished because I have al-ready passed a step beyond the demonstrable
  • 357. 355in assuming that the dream-wish invariably orig-inates from the unconscious.[2] Nor will I fur-ther investigate the difference in the play of thepsychic forces in the dream formation and inthe formation of the hysterical symptoms, forto do this we ought to possess a more explicitknowledge of one of the members to be com-pared. But I regard another point as impor-tant, and will here confess that it was on ac-count of this very point that I have just un-dertaken this entire discussion concerning thetwo psychic systems, their modes of operation,and the repression. For it is now immaterialwhether I have conceived the psychological re-lations in question with approximate correct-ness, or, as is easily possible in such a difficultmatter, in an erroneous and fragmentary man-ner. Whatever changes may be made in the in-terpretation of the psychic censor and of the
  • 358. 356Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)correct and of the abnormal elaboration of thedream content, the fact nevertheless remainsthat such processes are active in dream forma-tion, and that essentially they show the closestanalogy to the processes observed in the for-mation of the hysterical symptoms. The dreamis not a pathological phenomenon, and it doesnot leave behind an enfeeblement of the men-tal faculties. The objection that no deductioncan be drawn regarding the dreams of healthypersons from my own dreams and from thoseof neurotic patients may be rejected withoutcomment. Hence, when we draw conclusionsfrom the phenomena as to their motive forces,we recognize that the psychic mechanism madeuse of by the neuroses is not created by a mor-bid disturbance of the psychic life, but is foundready in the normal structure of the psychicapparatus. The two psychic systems, the cen-
  • 359. 357sor crossing between them, the inhibition andthe covering of the one activity by the other, therelations of both to consciousness–or whatevermay offer a more correct interpretation of theactual conditions in their stead–all these belongto the normal structure of our psychic instru-ment, and the dream points out for us one ofthe roads leading to a knowledge of this struc-ture. If, in addition to our knowledge, we wishto be contented with a minimum perfectly es-tablished, we shall say that the dream givesus proof that the -suppressed, material contin-ues to exist even in the normal person and re-mains capable of psychic activity-. The dreamitself is one of the manifestations of this sup-pressed material; theoretically, this is true in-all- cases; according to substantial experienceit is true in at least a great number of suchas most conspicuously display the prominent
  • 360. 358Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)characteristics of dream life. The suppressedpsychic material, which in the waking state hasbeen prevented from expression and cut off frominternal perception -by the antagonistic adjust-ment of the contradictions-, finds ways and meansof obtruding itself on consciousness during thenight under the domination of the compromiseformations.-”Flectere si nequeo superos, Acheronta movebo.”-At any rate the interpretation of dreams isthe -via regia- to a knowledge of the uncon-scious in the psychic life.In following the analysis of the dream wehave made some progress toward an under-standing of the composition of this most mar-velous and most mysterious of instruments; tobe sure, we have not gone very far, but enoughof a beginning has been made to allow us to
  • 361. 359advance from other so-called pathological for-mations further into the analysis of the uncon-scious. Disease–at least that which is justlytermed functional–is not due to the destructionof this apparatus, and the establishment of newsplittings in its interior; it is rather to be ex-plained dynamically through the strengtheningand weakening of the components in the playof forces by which so many activities are con-cealed during the normal function. We havebeen able to show in another place how thecomposition of the apparatus from the two sys-tems permits a subtilization even of the normalactivity which would be impossible for a singlesystem.[1] -Cf.- the significant observations by J.Bueuer in our -Studies on Hysteria-, 1895, and2nd ed. 1909.[2] Here, as in other places, there are gaps in
  • 362. 360Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)the treatment of the subject, which I have leftintentionally, because to fill them up would re-quire on the one hand too great effort, and onthe other hand an extensive reference to ma-terial that is foreign to the dream. Thus I haveavoided stating whether I connect with the word”suppressed” another sense than with the word”repressed.” It has been made clear only thatthe latter emphasizes more than the former therelation to the unconscious. I have not en-tered into the cognate problem why the dreamthoughts also experience distortion by the cen-sor when they abandon the progressive contin-uation to consciousness and choose the pathof regression. I have been above all anxiousto awaken an interest in the problems to whichthe further analysis of the dreamwork leads andto indicate the other themes which meet theseon the way. It was not always easy to decide
  • 363. 361just where the pursuit should be discontinued.That I have not treated exhaustively the partplayed in the dream by the psychosexual lifeand have avoided the interpretation of dreamsof an obvious sexual content is due to a specialreason which may not come up to the reader’sexpectation. To be sure, it is very far from myideas and the principles expressed by me inneuropathology to regard the sexual life as a”pudendum” which should be left unconsideredby the physician and the scientific investiga-tor. I also consider ludicrous the moral indigna-tion which prompted the translator of Artemi-doros of Daldis to keep from the reader’s knowl-edge the chapter on sexual dreams containedin the -Symbolism of the Dreams-. As for my-self, I have been actuated solely by the convic-tion that in the explanation of sexual dreamsI should be bound to entangle myself deeply
  • 364. 362Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)in the still unexplained problems of perversionand bisexuality; and for that reason I have re-served this material for another connection.
  • 365. IX THEUNCONSCIOUS ANDCONSCIOUSNESS–REALITYOn closer inspection we find that it is not theexistence of two systems near the motor endof the apparatus but of two kinds of processesor modes of emotional discharge, the assump-tion of which was explained in the psycholog-ical discussions of the previous chapter. This363
  • 366. 364Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)can make no difference for us, for we must al-ways be ready to drop our auxiliary ideas when-ever we deem ourselves in position to replacethem by something else approaching more closelyto the unknown reality. Let us now try to cor-rect some views which might be erroneouslyformed as long as we regarded the two sys-tems in the crudest and most obvious senseas two localities within the psychic apparatus,views which have left their traces in the terms”repression” and ”penetration.” Thus, when wesay that an unconscious idea strives for trans-ference into the foreconscious in order later topenetrate consciousness, we do not mean thata second idea is to be formed situated in a newlocality like an interlineation near which theoriginal continues to remain; also, when we speakof penetration into consciousness, we wish care-fully to avoid any idea of change of locality. When
  • 367. 365we say that a foreconscious idea is repressedand subsequently taken up by the unconscious,we might be tempted by these figures, borrowedfrom the idea of a struggle over a territory, toassume that an arrangement is really brokenup in one psychic locality and replaced by anew one in the other locality. For these com-parisons we substitute what would seem to cor-respond better with the real state of affairs bysaying that an energy occupation is displacedto or withdrawn from a certain arrangement sothat the psychic formation falls under the dom-ination of a system or is withdrawn from thesame. Here again we replace a topical mode ofpresentation by a dynamic; it is not the psychicformation that appears to us as the moving fac-tor but the innervation of the same.I deem it appropriate and justifiable, how-ever, to apply ourselves still further to the illus-
  • 368. 366Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)trative conception of the two systems. We shallavoid any misapplication of this manner of rep-resentation if we remember that presentations,thoughts, and psychic formations should gen-erally not be localized in the organic elementsof the nervous system, but, so to speak, be-tween them, where resistances and paths formthe correlate corresponding to them. Every-thing that can become an object of our internalperception is virtual, like the image in the tele-scope produced by the passage of the rays oflight. But we are justified in assuming the ex-istence of the systems, which have nothing psy-chic in themselves and which never become ac-cessible to our psychic perception, correspond-ing to the lenses of the telescope which designthe image. If we continue this comparison, wemay say that the censor between two systemscorresponds to the refraction of rays during their
  • 369. 367passage into a new medium.Thus far we have made psychology on ourown responsibility; it is now time to examinethe theoretical opinions governing present-daypsychology and to test their relation to our the-ories. The question of the unconscious, in psy-chology is, according to the authoritative wordsof Lipps, less a psychological question than thequestion of psychology. As long as psychologysettled this question with the verbal explana-tion that the ”psychic” is the ”conscious” andthat ”unconscious psychic occurrences” are anobvious contradiction, a psychological estimateof the observations gained by the physician fromabnormal mental states was precluded. Thephysician and the philosopher agree only whenboth acknowledge that unconscious psychic pro-cesses are ”the appropriate and well-justifiedexpression for an established fact.” The physi-
  • 370. 368Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)cian cannot but reject with a shrug of his shoul-ders the assertion that ”consciousness is theindispensable quality of the psychic”; he mayassume, if his respect for the utterings of thephilosophers still be strong enough, that he andthey do not treat the same subject and do notpursue the same science. For a single intelli-gent observation of the psychic life of a neu-rotic, a single analysis of a dream must forceupon him the unalterable conviction that themost complicated and correct mental operations,to which no one will refuse the name of psychicoccurrences, may take place without excitingthe consciousness of the person. It is true thatthe physician does not learn of these uncon-scious processes until they have exerted suchan effect on consciousness as to admit com-munication or observation. But this effect ofconsciousness may show a psychic character
  • 371. 369widely differing from the unconscious process,so that the internal perception cannot possiblyrecognize the one as a substitute for the other.The physician must reserve for himself the rightto penetrate, by a process of deduction, fromthe effect on consciousness to the unconsciouspsychic process; he learns in this way that theeffect on consciousness is only a remote psy-chic product of the unconscious process andthat the latter has not become conscious assuch; that it has been in existence and oper-ative without betraying itself in any way to con-sciousness.A reaction from the over-estimation of thequality of consciousness becomes the indispens-able preliminary condition for any correct in-sight into the behavior of the psychic. In thewords of Lipps, the unconscious must be ac-cepted as the general basis of the psychic life.
  • 372. 370Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)The unconscious is the larger circle which in-cludes within itself the smaller circle of the con-scious; everything conscious has its prelimi-nary step in the unconscious, whereas the un-conscious may stop with this step and still claimfull value as a psychic activity. Properly speak-ing, the unconscious is the real psychic; -itsinner nature is just as unknown to us as thereality of the external world, and it is just asimperfectly reported to us through the data ofconsciousness as is the external world throughthe indications of our sensory organs-.A series of dream problems which have in-tensely occupied older authors will be laid asidewhen the old opposition between conscious lifeand dream life is abandoned and the uncon-scious psychic assigned to its proper place. Thusmany of the activities whose performances inthe dream have excited our admiration are now
  • 373. 371no longer to be attributed to the dream butto unconscious thinking, which is also activeduring the day. If, according to Scherner, thedream seems to play with a symboling repre-sentation of the body, we know that this is thework of certain unconscious phantasies whichhave probably given in to sexual emotions, andthat these phantasies come to expression notonly in dreams but also in hysterical phobiasand in other symptoms. If the dream contin-ues and settles activities of the day and evenbrings to light valuable inspirations, we haveonly to subtract from it the dream disguise asa feat of dream-work and a mark of assistancefrom obscure forces in the depth of the mind(-cf.- the devil in Tartini’s sonata dream). Theintellectual task as such must be attributed tothe same psychic forces which perform all suchtasks during the day. We are probably far too
  • 374. 372Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)much inclined to over-estimate the consciouscharacter even of intellectual and artistic pro-ductions. From the communications of someof the most highly productive persons, such asGoethe and Helmholtz, we learn, indeed, thatthe most essential and original parts in theircreations came to them in the form of inspira-tions and reached their perceptions almost fin-ished. There is nothing strange about the as-sistance of the conscious activity in other caseswhere there was a concerted effort of all thepsychic forces. But it is a much abused priv-ilege of the conscious activity that it is allowedto hide from us all other activities wherever itparticipates.It will hardly be worth while to take up thehistorical significance of dreams as a specialsubject. Where, for instance, a chieftain hasbeen urged through a dream to engage in a bold
  • 375. 373undertaking the success of which has had theeffect of changing history, a new problem re-sults only so long as the dream, regarded asa strange power, is contrasted with other morefamiliar psychic forces; the problem, however,disappears when we regard the dream as a formof expression for feelings which are burdenedwith resistance during the day and which canreceive reinforcements at night from deep emo-tional sources. But the great respect shown bythe ancients for the dream is based on a cor-rect psychological surmise. It is a homage paidto the unsubdued and indestructible in the hu-man mind, and to the demoniacal which fur-nishes the dream-wish and which we find againin our unconscious.Not inadvisedly do I use the expression ”inour unconscious,” for what we so designate doesnot coincide with the unconscious of the philoso-
  • 376. 374Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)phers, nor with the unconscious of Lipps. Inthe latter uses it is intended to designate onlythe opposite of conscious. That there are alsounconscious psychic processes beside the con-scious ones is the hotly contested and energet-ically defended issue. Lipps gives us the morefar-reaching theory that everything psychic ex-ists as unconscious, but that some of it mayexist also as conscious. But it was not to provethis theory that we have adduced the phenom-ena of the dream and of the hysterical symp-tom formation; the observation of normal lifealone suffices to establish its correctness be-yond any doubt. The new fact that we havelearned from the analysis of the psychopatho-logical formations, and indeed from their firstmember, viz. dreams, is that the unconscious–hence the psychic–occurs as a function of twoseparate systems and that it occurs as such
  • 377. 375even in normal psychic life. Consequently thereare two kinds of unconscious, which we do notas yet find distinguished by the psychologists.Both are unconscious in the psychological sense;but in our sense the first, which we call Unc.,is likewise incapable of consciousness, whereasthe second we term ”Forec.” because its emo-tions, after the observance of certain rules, canreach consciousness, perhaps not before theyhave again undergone censorship, but still re-gardless of the Unc. system. The fact thatin order to attain consciousness the emotionsmust traverse an unalterable series of events orsuccession of instances, as is betrayed throughtheir alteration by the censor, has helped usto draw a comparison from spatiality. We de-scribed the relations of the two systems to eachother and to consciousness by saying that thesystem Forec. is like a screen between the sys-
  • 378. 376Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)tem Unc. and consciousness. The system Forec.not only bars access to consciousness, but alsocontrols the entrance to voluntary motility andis capable of sending out a sum of mobile en-ergy, a portion of which is familiar to us as at-tention.We must also steer clear of the distinctionssuperconscious and subconscious which havefound so much favor in the more recent liter-ature on the psychoneuroses, for just such adistinction seems to emphasize the equivalenceof the psychic and the conscious.What part now remains in our descriptionof the once all-powerful and all-overshadowingconsciousness? None other than that of a sen-sory organ for the perception of psychic quali-ties. According to the fundamental idea of schematicundertaking we can conceive the conscious per-ception only as the particular activity of an in-
  • 379. 377dependent system for which the abbreviated des-ignation ”Cons.” commends itself. This systemwe conceive to be similar in its mechanical char-acteristics to the perception system P, hence ex-citable by qualities and incapable of retainingthe trace of changes, -i.e.- it is devoid of mem-ory. The psychic apparatus which, with thesensory organs of the P-system, is turned to theouter world, is itself the outer world for the sen-sory organ of Cons.; the teleological justifica-tion of which rests on this relationship. We arehere once more confronted with the principleof the succession of instances which seems todominate the structure of the apparatus. Thematerial under excitement flows to the Cons,sensory organ from two sides, firstly from the P-system whose excitement, qualitatively deter-mined, probably experiences a new elaborationuntil it comes to conscious perception; and, sec-
  • 380. 378Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ondly, from the interior of the apparatus itself,the quantitative processes of which are perceivedas a qualitative series of pleasure and pain assoon as they have undergone certain changes.The philosophers, who have learned that cor-rect and highly complicated thought structuresare possible even without the cooeperation ofconsciousness, have found it difficult to attributeany function to consciousness; it has appearedto them a superfluous mirroring of the perfectedpsychic process. The analogy of our Cons. sys-tem with the systems of perception relieves usof this embarrassment. We see that perceptionthrough our sensory organs results in direct-ing the occupation of attention to those pathson which the incoming sensory excitement isdiffused; the qualitative excitement of the P-system serves the mobile quantity of the psy-chic apparatus as a regulator for its discharge.
  • 381. 379We may claim the same function for the over-lying sensory organ of the Cons. system. Byassuming new qualities, it furnishes a new con-tribution toward the guidance and suitable dis-tribution of the mobile occupation quantities.By means of the perceptions of pleasure andpain, it influences the course of the occupa-tions within the psychic apparatus, which nor-mally operates unconsciously and through thedisplacement of quantities. It is probable thatthe principle of pain first regulates the displace-ments of occupation automatically, but it is quitepossible that the consciousness of these quali-ties adds a second and more subtle regulationwhich may even oppose the first and perfect theworking capacity of the apparatus by placingit in a position contrary to its original designfor occupying and developing even that whichis connected with the liberation of pain. We
  • 382. 380Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)learn from neuropsychology that an importantpart in the functional activity of the appara-tus is attributed to such regulations throughthe qualitative excitation of the sensory organs.The automatic control of the primary principleof pain and the restriction of mental capacityconnected with it are broken by the sensibleregulations, which in their turn are again au-tomatisms. We learn that the repression which,though originally expedient, terminates never-theless in a harmful rejection of inhibition andof psychic domination, is so much more eas-ily accomplished with reminiscences than withperceptions, because in the former there is noincrease in occupation through the excitementof the psychic sensory organs. When an idea tobe rejected has once failed to become consciousbecause it has succumbed to repression, it canbe repressed on other occasions only because it
  • 383. 381has been withdrawn from conscious perceptionon other grounds. These are hints employed bytherapy in order to bring about a retrogressionof accomplished repressions.The value of the over-occupation which isproduced by the regulating influence of the Cons.sensory organ on the mobile quantity, is demon-strated in the teleological connection by noth-ing more clearly than by the creation of a newseries of qualities and consequently a new regu-lation which constitutes the precedence of manover the animals. For the mental processes arein themselves devoid of quality except for theexcitements of pleasure and pain accompany-ing them, which, as we know, are to be held incheck as possible disturbances of thought. Inorder to endow them with a quality, they areassociated in man with verbal memories, thequalitative remnants of which suffice to draw
  • 384. 382Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)upon them the attention of consciousness whichin turn endows thought with a new mobile en-ergy.The manifold problems of consciousness intheir entirety can be examined only through ananalysis of the hysterical mental process. Fromthis analysis we receive the impression that thetransition from the foreconscious to the occu-pation of consciousness is also connected witha censorship similar to the one between theUnc. and the Forec. This censorship, too, be-gins to act only with the reaching of a certainquantitative degree, so that few intense thoughtformations escape it. Every possible case of de-tention from consciousness, as well as of pen-etration to consciousness, under restriction isfound included within the picture of the psy-choneurotic phenomena; every case points tothe intimate and twofold connection between
  • 385. 383the censor and consciousness. I shall concludethese psychological discussions with the reportof two such occurrences.On the occasion of a consultation a few yearsago the subject was an intelligent and innocent-looking girl. Her attire was strange; whereasa woman’s garb is usually groomed to the lastfold, she had one of her stockings hanging downand two of her waist buttons opened. She com-plained of pains in one of her legs, and exposedher leg unrequested. Her chief complaint, how-ever, was in her own words as follows: She hada feeling in her body as if something was stuckinto it which moved to and fro and made hertremble through and through. This sometimesmade her whole body stiff. On hearing this,my colleague in consultation looked at me; thecomplaint was quite plain to him. To both ofus it seemed peculiar that the patient’s mother
  • 386. 384Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)thought nothing of the matter; of course sheherself must have been repeatedly in the situa-tion described by her child. As for the girl, shehad no idea of the import of her words or shewould never have allowed them to pass her lips.Here the censor had been deceived so success-fully that under the mask of an innocent com-plaint a phantasy was admitted to conscious-ness which otherwise would have remained inthe foreconscious.Another example: I began the psychoana-lytic treatment of a boy of fourteen years whowas suffering from -tic convulsif-, hysterical vom-iting, headache, &c., by assuring him that, af-ter closing his eyes, he would see pictures orhave ideas, which I requested him to commu-nicate to me. He answered by describing pic-tures. The last impression he had received be-fore coming to me was visually revived in his
  • 387. 385memory. He had played a game of checkerswith his uncle, and now saw the checkerboardbefore him. He commented on various posi-tions that were favorable or unfavorable, on movesthat were not safe to make. He then saw adagger lying on the checker-board, an objectbelonging to his father, but transferred to thechecker-board by his phantasy. Then a sicklewas lying on the board; next a scythe was added;and, finally, he beheld the likeness of an oldpeasant mowing the grass in front of the boy’sdistant parental home. A few days later I dis-covered the meaning of this series of pictures.Disagreeable family relations had made the boynervous. It was the case of a strict and crabbedfather who lived unhappily with his mother, andwhose educational methods consisted in threats;of the separation of his father from his ten-der and delicate mother, and the remarrying of
  • 388. 386Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)his father, who one day brought home a youngwoman as his new mamma. The illness of thefourteen-year-old boy broke out a few days later.It was the suppressed anger against his fatherthat had composed these pictures into intel-ligible allusions. The material was furnishedby a reminiscence from mythology, The sicklewas the one with which Zeus castrated his fa-ther; the scythe and the likeness of the peas-ant represented Kronos, the violent old manwho eats his children and upon whom Zeuswreaks vengeance in so unfilial a manner. Themarriage of the father gave the boy an oppor-tunity to return the reproaches and threats ofhis father–which had previously been made be-cause the child played with his genitals (thecheckerboard; the prohibitive moves; the dag-ger with which a person may be killed). Wehave here long repressed memories and their
  • 389. 387unconscious remnants which, under the guiseof senseless pictures have slipped into conscious-ness by devious paths left open to them.I should then expect to find the theoreticalvalue of the study of dreams in its contributionto psychological knowledge and in its prepara-tion for an understanding of neuroses. Whocan foresee the importance of a thorough knowl-edge of the structure and activities of the psy-chic apparatus when even our present state ofknowledge produces a happy therapeutic influ-ence in the curable forms of the psychoneu-roses? What about the practical value of suchstudy some one may ask, for psychic knowl-edge and for the discovering of the secret pecu-liarities of individual character? Have not theunconscious feelings revealed by the dream thevalue of real forces in the psychic life? Shouldwe take lightly the ethical significance of the
  • 390. 388Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)suppressed wishes which, as they now createdreams, may some day create other things?I do not feel justified in answering these ques-tions. I have not thought further upon this sideof the dream problem. I believe, however, thatat all events the Roman Emperor was in thewrong who ordered one of his subjects executedbecause the latter dreamt that he had killedthe Emperor. He should first have endeavoredto discover the significance of the dream; mostprobably it was not what it seemed to be. Andeven if a dream of different content had thesignificance of this offense against majesty, itwould still have been in place to remember thewords of Plato, that the virtuous man contentshimself with dreaming that which the wickedman does in actual life. I am therefore of theopinion that it is best to accord freedom to dreams.Whether any reality is to be attributed to the
  • 391. 389unconscious wishes, and in what sense, I amnot prepared to say offhand. Reality must nat-urally be denied to all transition–and interme-diate thoughts. If we had before us the uncon-scious wishes, brought to their last and truestexpression, we should still do well to remem-ber that more than one single form of existencemust be ascribed to the psychic reality. Actionand the conscious expression of thought mostlysuffice for the practical need of judging a man’scharacter. Action, above all, merits to be placedin the first rank; for many of the impulses pen-etrating consciousness are neutralized by realforces of the psychic life before they are con-verted into action; indeed, the reason why theyfrequently do not encounter any psychic obsta-cle on their way is because the unconscious iscertain of their meeting with resistances later.In any case it is instructive to become familiar
  • 392. 390Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)with the much raked-up soil from which ourvirtues proudly arise. For the complication ofhuman character moving dynamically in all di-rections very rarely accommodates itself to ad-justment through a simple alternative, as ourantiquated moral philosophy would have it.And how about the value of the dream fora knowledge of the future? That, of course,we cannot consider. One feels inclined to sub-stitute: ”for a knowledge of the past.” For thedream originates from the past in every sense.To be sure the ancient belief that the dream re-veals the future is not entirely devoid of truth.By representing to us a wish as fulfilled thedream certainly leads us into the future; butthis future, taken by the dreamer as present,has been formed into the likeness of that pastby the indestructible wish.Produced by David Newman, Joel Schlos-
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  • 405. 403The Foundation is committed to complyingwith the laws regulating charities and chari-table donations in all 50 states of the UnitedStates. Compliance requirements are not uni-form and it takes a considerable effort, muchpaperwork and many fees to meet and keep upwith these requirements. We do not solicit do-nations in locations where we have not receivedwritten confirmation of compliance. To SENDDONATIONS or determine the status of compli-ance for any particular state visit http://pglaf.orgWhile we cannot and do not solicit contri-butions from states where we have not met thesolicitation requirements, we know of no prohi-bition against accepting unsolicited donationsfrom donors in such states who approach uswith offers to donate.International donations are gratefully accepted,but we cannot make any statements concern-
  • 406. 404Dream Psychology (Solar Research Archive)ing tax treatment of donations received fromoutside the United States. U.S. laws alone swampour small staff.Most people start at our Web site which hasthe main PG search facility: