Project Plan: Scanner Tutorial for Davis Library, UNC-CH
Katherine Knott and Laura O’Neill
The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill is home to over 28,000 graduate and undergraduate
students. The University Library’s mission is to “support inquiry and learning at the university and for
the people of North Carolina. Library collections, services, staff, and facilities further the university's
mission. The library provides leadership in the development of scholarly communication systems and in
the application of information technology to teaching, research and learning” (University Library System-
Administration, 2005). To assist with this mission, the University Library provides resources and
equipment for academic purposes. Scanners and scanning software are one type of equipment that users
of the library have access to. The scanners in Davis Library are housed in the reference room, on the first
floor. The main stakeholders in this project are the reference librarians whose job it is to assist users with
the scanners. The clients are people affiliated with the university and residents of North Carolina.
Problem / opportunity
Students, faculty, and community members use the scanners in Davis Library to create digital copies of a
wide range of materials including photographs, journal articles, and book chapters. Many users, especially
those scanning for the first time, need assistance operating the scanners. The reference staff is trained to
assist patrons and there are signs posted with scanning directions. However, the signs are frequently
misplaced or not read. Additionally, the reference staff is often busy with other patrons and does not have
the time or manpower to conduct lengthy, one-on-one scanning instruction sessions. This project will
develop a quick, user-friendly scanning tutorial, available online.
Requirement Gathering Methods
Requirements gathering will be done by examining the specific scanning needs that people have, so that
the tutorial can include information that covers most of the potential needs of library patrons. For
example, information needed would include the types of documents that people are scanning (images or
text documents); type of software most frequently used (Adobe Acrobat, Adobe Photoshop, OmniPage
for OCR needs); and types of common problems people have.
In order to accomplish this, a combination of the following methods will be used:
• Examine system logs that show what programs people are using
• Interview staff about the type of scanning needs that users have
• Instruct staff to keep a log of questions they receive about scanning, including the type of item
being scanned and which part of the process the patron needed assistance with
• Conduct a technology overview of the literature to determine strategies and methods that have
been successful in similar circumstances.
The costs of gathering this information will be manageable because the library will not need to purchase
any new resources and most of the raw data required is already being collected.
• The tutorial should decrease the amount of time patrons spend scanning and increase the quality
of their scanning.
• A system capable of generating a web-based tutorial is needed. A web-based tutorial will allow
library staff to update the tutorial from one place rather than making updates at every scanning
• The tutorial must be easy and fast for user to access; it should not require a special plug-in for
• The tutorial should be supported by the operating systems run on the scanning computers in
Davis, currently this includes only Windows XP. Similarly, since this is an online tutorial, the
tutorial’s makeup and features will have to be supported and compatible with the internet
browsers provided by the University Library on the public scanning computers; currently this
includes only Internet Explorer (currently version 6.0) and Firefox (currently version 220.127.116.11).
• First priority will be given to examining software that UNC already owns/licenses; that way the
cost would be even less if we already have access to software that will do that job. For instance,
various departments at UNC already use Dreamweaver, Photoshop, and Captivate.
• The tutorial pages / files need to be small enough and simple enough that they load quickly.
• The tutorial files will need to be stored on a network file server.
• The system will allow the tutorial to be interactive so that patrons can select and get help on the
type(s) of scanning that are relevant to their specific needs.
• Users need to have the option to go back, jump ahead, or repeat sections of the tutorial.
• The tutorial should be accessible to people with disabilities, which means the tutorial will need to
support the special software the University Library provides on all computers to assist those with
special needs. Also, the tutorial could provide the option for captioned narration, or audio
instructions to assist deaf and blind users.
This tutorial will take a user through the necessary steps and decisions needed to scan. Users will
navigate through different steps based on their scanning needs. For example, the tutorial will begin by
asking if the user needs to scan an image or a text document. Based on the user’s selection, the tutorial’s
next screen will present the user with the next step of the process involved in scanning that type of
Project objectives and schedule
For this scanning tutorial to be a success, the following objectives must be met:
• April: Research and Requirements Gathering phase
o Two library science graduate assistants will gather information about patron scanning
needs. They will do this by looking at system logs that show what scanning programs
patrons use and interviewing staff about the type of scanning needs that users have. The
graduate assistants will also ask staff to keep a record of questions they receive about
scanning; this record can be easily created by using Desk Tracker, a program that the
library already uses to track different types of questions. “Scanning” will be listed as a
type of question, with space for the librarian to describe the patron’s scanning need more
o The graduate assistants will review literature detailing similar projects.
o The graduate assistants will examine available software packages/systems that might be
used in developing the web-based tutorial.
• May: The graduate students will plan how the tutorial will work. This will involve writing a
script for the tutorial, creating a flowchart showing different paths that users can take, and
creating wireframes for pages of tutorial.
• June 15th-July 15th: The graduate students will write html code, program interactive
components, and produce multimedia.
• July 15th-July 31st: The graduate assistants will ask librarians to evaluate the tutorial and they
will conduct usability testing by having six to ten students use the tutorial.
• August 1st-August 15th: The graduate assistants will make any necessary changes based on
findings from librarian evaluations and usability testing.
• August 15th (start of school year): The tutorial will be published and the library will publicize
this resource with signs next to scanning stations and with desktop wallpaper on computer
Site-maintenance and assessment will be on-going.
This section explores technologies that may meet the requirements for this project (as listed above). The
different types of software are reviewed according to three different categories: web-authoring software,
screencasting software, and software for editing images and creating animation
Product Pros Cons Price
Basic Text Many are free to download. No Requires knowledge of Free
Editor, such as update fees either. hand-coding html and other
Notepad or code. Hand-coding is time-
TextEdit consuming and increases
the likelihood of making
mistakes in the code. These
mistakes would then require
more time to fix (Smith,
2006, p. 71).
HTML Kit Free, although extra features can Requires knowledge of Free
be purchased for a fee. Code is hand-coding html and other
colored to aid reading. Users can code.
Dreamweaver One of the most popular web- Expensive. However, the Dreamweaver
authoring tools available, which University Library has CS4 costs $199
means more people are going to be Dreamweaver CS3 so with education
familiar with using it. The additional money will not discount (Adobe,
University Library has access to be necessary. 2009).
this program already. Software
integrates well with Flash.
WYSIWYG program that makes
web page creation and editing easy
because it does not require
knowledge of coding (Smith,
Software for Editing Images and Creating Animation
Product Pros Cons Price
GIMP Free. Open source. Image Lacks the advanced Free
Manipulation Program for tasks such as features of Adobe
photo retouching, image composition products. Can be difficult
and image authoring. to use (Quaint, 2008).
Adobe Vector-based drawing program for Steep learning curve; Adobe Illustrator
Illustrator creating original artwork, such as logos most likely would require CS4 costs $199
and graphics for web sites. Creates formal training or a staff with education
professional-looking graphics desired member with graphic discount (Adobe,
for tutorial. The University Library has design knowledge 2009).
Illustrator CS3 so additional money (Binder, 2007).
will not be necessary.
Adobe Allows users to optimize or reduce More advanced features Adobe
Photoshop images for the web. The University may require formal Photoshop CS4
Library has access to Photoshop CS3 training or staff member costs $299 with
already. with significant education
experience using the discount (Adobe,
software (Smith, 2006). 2009).
Adobe Can combine images with text and Interface is complicated Fireworks CS4
Fireworks other line art to make interactive Web and can be difficult to costs $99 with
graphics, such as navigation bars, learn; may require formal education
rollover buttons, pop-up menus, and training. discount.
image maps. Lets users to create (Adobe, 2009).
Adobe Flash Can be used to design animation and The latest version of Flash Flash CS4 costs
Professional make pages more interactive. Allows is easier to use than $249 with
users to copy and paste files from previous versions, but education
Photoshop and Illustrator into Flash users still must study discount (Adobe,
files. The University Library has Flash Flash before being able to 2009).
CS3 so additional money will not be use it (Karlins, 2007)
Product Pros Cons Price
Wink Free to download. Provides basic Does not have as many Free
screen-capture technology. features as other, non-
. free, software (Betty,
Adobe Intuitive and easy to learn. Doesn’t Expensive. For Captivate 4 costs
Captivate involve programming skills. Doesn't advanced features, $249 with
require experience using Flash (“Adobe Captivate can be difficult education
Captivate 2,” 2007). Allows branching to learn. Can result in discount (Adobe,
so that developers can create different larger file sizes than in 2009).
paths for users to follow depending on Camtasia (Clark & Khou,
their choices (Clark & Khou, 2008). 2008).
The University Library has Captivate 3
so additional money will not be
Techsmith's Easy to learn. Doesn’t involve Editing is more tedious $299
Camtasia programming skills. Offers more than with Captivate (TechSmith,
Studio choices for media types than Captivate (Clark &Khou, 2008). 2009)
(Clark &Khou, 2008). Expensive.
CamStudio Free. Open-source. Easy to use. No editing capabilities. Free
2.0 (Rethlefsen, 2009). Annotations must be
prepared ahead of time
and then added in during
Based on this overview of available technology, it was decided that the project team would create an
online tutorial using the Dreamweaver web-authoring software and the Photoshop image-editing software.
This is believed to be the best, most efficient software combination for this project – Dreamweaver to
create the web pages (no html knowledge needed) and Photoshop to provide simple, yet professional
graphics for the pages. While open-source products offer much of the same functionality at no cost, these
proprietary lco paproducts were chosen because of their ease-of-use and availability to the project team
(the University Library already has access to both of these programs). After evaluating screencasting
software, it was decided that screencasts would not be necessary. Rather than having patrons watch a
screencast demonstrating all of the scanning steps, this tutorial will allow patrons to step through their
own scanning as they move from one page of the tutorial to the next.
Assumptions, risks, and obstacles
An assumption is that the Library will support this project by having two graduate assistants focus their
work time on the project and having an instructional design librarian oversee their work. Additionally, it
is assumed that these employees will be able to stay through the duration of the project, committing to
each stage of the project. Another assumption is that the library will continue to license the software
needed for the project through its completion and will support the software as updates are needed for the
The risks of this project are fairly minimal. The major risk is wasting staff time for the tutorial
development and assessment. For the graduate assistants and the instructional design librarian, this
project will require a great deal of time. For most of the library staff, they will only be asked to record
details about patron scanning needs (something they do anyway). For the evaluation stage of the project,
several librarians will also be asked to assess the tutorial and suggest improvements. While these tasks
will take time, librarians will likely see the potential benefit, recognizing that the development of this
tutorial will lead to saving time in the future. The technical risks are minimal, as UNC already hosts /
supports many websites and online tutorials.
An additional risk involves the loss of money required to purchase developmental software. After
researching a number of products, Adobe Dreamweaver and Photoshop have been selected for this
project. Flash and Captivate are exciting programs, but, from information gathered during the
requirements gathering phase, it was determined that students would be best served if they could quickly
move through html pages to the information specific to their needs. UNC Libraries already have both of
these programs, so the software for this project will not pose any additional cost. (For a smaller college
without these programs, Adobe offers educational discounts bringing the cost of Dreamweaver to $199
and Photoshop Elements to $69. Or, another school might look into free web-authoring software. Web-
authoring/editing software is preferable for this program, because it allows users to create professional
looking web pages with little to no knowledge of html.) An additional small cost will involve
compensation for those who volunteer for the usability testing on the tutorial. The library has conducted
similar testing in the past and has successfully recruited participants by offering about eight dollars for
forty-five minutes of time.
If the tutorial is successful, the reference librarians will notice that far fewer people come to ask for
scanning assistance. To quantify the tutorial’s success, the graduate assistants will examine the library’s
record of scanning questions from Desk Tracker again in the month following the tutorial’s publication.
These statistics will then be compared to those gathered before the tutorial implementation. Additionally,
the assessment will involve looking at how many people access the tutorial at the library. If records
indicate that patrons paged through to the end of the tutorial, this will indicate that patrons found the
tutorial helpful enough to follow through to the end. For additional feedback, the library will conduct a
survey to make sure that patrons are receiving satisfactory assistance through the tutorial, asking if
patrons have seen increased quality and efficiency in their scanning jobs. With just two questions, this
optional survey will be short and will follow the last page of the scanning tutorial.
If the project fails, the users are no worse off than they are currently. They can continue to receive
scanning assistance at the reference desk, which has been an adequate service option for both users and
librarians for many years, with most users seeming get their scanning needs met. If the tutorial is not a
success, the project team could make better/more permanent signs and printed directions in the scanner
area, in the hopes that users would see them (i.e. use them) to meet their needs.
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