Monopolistic Competition
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Monopolistic Competition

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A2 Microeconomics: This is a revision presentation on aspects of monopolistic competition designed for A2 business economics students

A2 Microeconomics: This is a revision presentation on aspects of monopolistic competition designed for A2 business economics students

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    Monopolistic Competition Monopolistic Competition Presentation Transcript

    • A2 Micro Monopolistic Competition
    • Get help from fellow students, teachers and tutor2u on Twitter: #econ3 @tutor2u_econ www.tutor2u.net
    • Monopolistic Competition • Monopolistic competition is a form of imperfect competition • It can be found in many real world markets ranging from clusters of sandwich bars, other fast food shops and coffee stores in a busy town centre to pizza delivery businesses in a city or hairdressers in a local area • Monopolistic competition is similar to perfect competition, some economist regard it as more realistic, because the products are differentiated
    • Assumptions of the Market 1. There are many producers and many consumers - the concentration ratio is low 2. Consumers perceive that there are non-price differences among products i.e. there is product differentiation – competition is strong, plenty of consumer switching takes place 3. Producers have some control over price - they are “price makers” not “price takers” but the price elasticity of demand is higher than it would be under a situation of monopoly 4. The barriers to entry and exit into and out of the market are low
    • Monopolistic Competition: Falling AR and MR, Price and Profits Price, Cost MC AC AR MR Output
    • Monopolistic Competition: Price, Cost MC AC P1 AR MR Q1 Output
    • Monopolistic Competition: Price, Cost MC AC P1 C1 AR MR Q1 Output
    • Monopolistic Competition: Price, Cost Abnormal profits MC AC P1 C1 AR MR Q1 Output
    • Identify three factors that affect the “pricing power” of an individual firm in monopolistic competition 1. There still may be many competitors keeping pricing ‘low’ 2. Product ‘differentiation’ allows firm to charge a different price to reflect any unique qualities of the product/service 3. Barriers to entry and exit of the market are low so this requires firms to price competitively
    • Long Run Equilibrium for Monopolistic Competition Price, Cost MC AC P1 Unlike monopoly, there are no barriers to entry. This means that short run supernormal profit attracts new producers into the market AR MR Q1 Output
    • Long Run Equilibrium for Monopolistic Competition Price, C ost As more firms enter the market, the demand curve facing any existing firm moves to the left MC AC P2 AR2 MR2 Q2 Output
    • Long Run Equilibrium for Monopolistic Competition Price, Cost The demand curve continues to move to the left until it is tangential to the AC curve. At this point, the firm is at its profitmaximising level of output (because MR = MC) but is making normal profit (because AR = AC) MC AC P2 AR2 MR2 Q2 Output
    • How does Monopolistic Competition differ from Perfect Competition? Perfect Competition Number of producers (sellers in the market) Types of goods and services available for consumers Does the firm have control over their own prices? Is branding / marketing important? Are entry barriers zero, low or high? Does this market structure lead to allocative efficiency in the long run? Does this market structure lead to productive efficiency in the long run? Monopolistic Competition Many Many
    • How does Monopolistic Competition differ from Perfect Competition? Perfect Competition Number of producers (sellers in the market) Types of goods and services available for consumers Does the firm have control over their own prices? Is branding / marketing important? Are entry barriers zero, low or high? Does this market structure lead to allocative efficiency in the long run? Does this market structure lead to productive efficiency in the long run? Monopolistic Competition Many Many Homogeneous Differentiated
    • How does Monopolistic Competition differ from Perfect Competition? Perfect Competition Monopolistic Competition Many Many Types of goods and services available for consumers Homogeneous Differentiated Does the firm have control over their own prices? No – price takers Yes – some pricing power Number of producers (sellers in the market) Is branding / marketing important? Are entry barriers zero, low or high? Does this market structure lead to allocative efficiency in the long run? Does this market structure lead to productive efficiency in the long run?
    • How does Monopolistic Competition differ from Perfect Competition? Perfect Competition Monopolistic Competition Many Many Types of goods and services available for consumers Homogeneous Differentiated Does the firm have control over their own prices? No – price takers Yes – some pricing power No Yes – key non-price competition Number of producers (sellers in the market) Is branding / marketing important? Are entry barriers zero, low or high? Does this market structure lead to allocative efficiency in the long run? Does this market structure lead to productive efficiency in the long run?
    • How does Monopolistic Competition differ from Perfect Competition? Perfect Competition Monopolistic Competition Many Many Types of goods and services available for consumers Homogeneous Differentiated Does the firm have control over their own prices? No – price takers Yes – some pricing power Is branding / marketing important? No Yes – key non-price competition Are entry barriers zero, low or high? Zero barriers Low barriers Number of producers (sellers in the market) Does this market structure lead to allocative efficiency in the long run? Does this market structure lead to productive efficiency in the long run?
    • How does Monopolistic Competition differ from Perfect Competition? Perfect Competition Monopolistic Competition Many Many Types of goods and services available for consumers Homogeneous Differentiated Does the firm have control over their own prices? No – price takers Yes – some pricing power Is branding / marketing important? No Yes – key non-price competition Are entry barriers zero, low or high? Zero barriers Low barriers Yes: Price = MC Not quite (P>MC) Number of producers (sellers in the market) Does this market structure lead to allocative efficiency in the long run? Does this market structure lead to productive efficiency in the long run?
    • How does Monopolistic Competition differ from Perfect Competition? Perfect Competition Monopolistic Competition Many Many Types of goods and services available for consumers Homogeneous Differentiated Does the firm have control over their own prices? No – price takers Yes – some pricing power Is branding / marketing important? No Yes – key non-price competition Are entry barriers zero, low or high? Zero barriers Low barriers Does this market structure lead to allocative efficiency in the long run? Yes: Price = MC Not quite (P>MC) Does this market structure lead to productive efficiency in the long run? Yes – min LRAC No – higher LRAC Number of producers (sellers in the market)
    • Economic efficiency? • Prices are above marginal cost – meaning that the equilibrium is not allocatively efficient • Saturation of the market may lead to businesses being unable to exploit fully economies of scale - causing average cost to be higher than if less firms and products were in the market • Critics of heavy spending on marketing and advertising argue that much of this spending is wasted and is an inefficient use of scarce resources. The debate over the environmental impact of packaging is linked strongly to this aspect of monopolistic competition
    • Application: The UK Taxi and Private Hire Vehicle Industry A fragmented market Addison Lee Private hire vehicles London Black Taxis Estimated 78,000 taxis and 153,000 licensed private hire vehicles in England and Wales Founded by minicab driver John Griffin in 1975 with just one car, Addison Lee has become a major competitor to London's black cabs and now carries more than 10m passengers a year. Mini cabs cannot be hailed from the street and must rely on telephone and internet bookings and walk-in reservations There are over 23,000 black cab drivers An estimated 80% of UK taxis are relatively small owner-operator businesses The industry as a whole generates revenues of nearly £9 billion per year Bought by Carlyle, the US hedge fund manager in July 2013 Most private hire vehicles are licensed but there are also some un-licensed operators Entry is restricted to those with licence and drivers who have passed “the Knowledge”
    • Application: The UK Taxi and Private Hire Vehicle Industry A fragmented market Addison Lee Private hire vehicles London Black Taxis Estimated 78,000 taxis and 153,000 licensed private hire vehicles in England and Wales Founded by minicab driver John Griffin in 1975 with just one car, Addison Lee has become a major competitor to London's black cabs and now carries more than 10m passengers a year. Mini cabs cannot be hailed from the street and must rely on telephone and internet bookings and walk-in reservations There are over 23,000 black cab drivers An estimated 80% of UK taxis are relatively small owner-operator businesses The industry as a whole generates revenues of nearly £9 billion per year Bought by Carlyle, the US hedge fund manager in July 2013 Most private hire vehicles are licensed but there are also some un-licensed operators Entry is restricted to those with licence and drivers who have passed “the Knowledge”
    • Application: The UK Taxi and Private Hire Vehicle Industry A fragmented market Addison Lee Private hire vehicles London Black Taxis Estimated 78,000 taxis and 153,000 licensed private hire vehicles in England and Wales Founded by minicab driver John Griffin in 1975 with just one car, Addison Lee has become a major competitor to London's black cabs and now carries more than 10m passengers a year. Mini cabs cannot be hailed from the street and must rely on telephone and internet bookings and walk-in reservations There are over 23,000 black cab drivers An estimated 80% of UK taxis are relatively small owner-operator businesses The industry as a whole generates revenues of nearly £9 billion per year Bought by Carlyle, the US hedge fund manager in July 2013 Most private hire vehicles are licensed but there are also some un-licensed operators Entry is restricted to those with licence and drivers who have passed “the Knowledge”
    • Application: The UK Taxi and Private Hire Vehicle Industry A fragmented market Addison Lee Private hire vehicles London Black Taxis Estimated 78,000 taxis and 153,000 licensed private hire vehicles in England and Wales Founded by minicab driver John Griffin in 1975 with just one car, Addison Lee has become a major competitor to London's black cabs and now carries more than 10m passengers a year. Mini cabs cannot be hailed from the street and must rely on telephone and internet bookings and walk-in reservations There are over 23,000 black cab drivers An estimated 80% of UK taxis are relatively small owner-operator businesses The industry as a whole generates revenues of nearly £9 billion per year Bought by Carlyle, the US hedge fund manager in July 2013 Most private hire vehicles are licensed but there are also some un-licensed operators Entry is restricted to those with licence and drivers who have passed “the Knowledge”
    • Examples of Price and Non-Price Competition in the Taxi Industry Examples of price competition by taxi businesses 1 2 Pre-arranged agreed fares Different price per time/mile 3 Examples of Different price for ‘hail’ over ‘booked’ vehicles 1 ‘Luxury’ cars, personal driver non-price competition in the 2 licensed taxi market 3 ‘Disabled-access’ for car use Later pick-up times (after 12pm)
    • Examples of Price and Non-Price Competition in the Taxi Industry Examples of price competition by taxi businesses 1 2 Pre-arranged agreed fares Different price per time/mile 3 Examples of Different price for ‘hail’ over ‘booked’ vehicles 1 ‘Luxury’ cars, personal driver non-price competition in the 2 licensed taxi market 3 ‘Disabled-access’ for car use Later pick-up times (after 12pm)
    • London Taxi Fares in 2013 The table shows typical fares and journey times based on distance for three types of tariff. Fares and journey times may be higher if there are delays or heavy traffic. There is a minimum fare of £2.40 at all times. Source: Transport for London website Distance Approx journey time Monday to Friday 06:00 - 20:00 Monday to Friday 20:00 - 22:00 Saturday and Sunday 06:00 - 22:00 1 mile 6 - 13 mins £5.60 - £8.80 £5.60 - £8.80 2 miles 10 - 20 mins £8.60 - £13.80 £9.00 - £13.80 4 miles 16 - 30 mins £15 - £22 £16 - £22 £18 - £27 6 miles 28 - 40 mins £23 - £29 £28 - £31 £28 - £33 Between Heathrow and Central London 30 - 60 mins £45 - £85 £45 - £85 £45 - £85 Every night 22:00 - 06:00 Public holidays £6.80 - £9.00 £10.40 £14.60
    • How might an increase in competition impact on consumers? London Taxi Fares in 2013 The table shows typical fares and journey times based on distance for three types of tariff. Fares and journey times may be higher if there are delays or heavy traffic. There is a minimum fare of £2.40 at all times. Source: Transport for London website Distance Approx journey time Monday to Friday 06:00 20:00 Monday to Friday 20:00 22:00 Saturday and Sunday 06:00 22:00 Every night 22:00 06:00 Public holidays 1 mile 6 - 13 mins £5.60 £8.80 £5.60 £8.80 £6.80 £9.00 2 miles 10 - 20 mins £8.60 £13.80 £9.00 £13.80 £10.40 £14.60 4 miles 16 - 30 mins £15 - £22 £16 - £22 £18 - £27 6 miles 28 - 40 mins £23 - £29 £28 - £31 £28 - £33 Between Heathrow and Central London 30 - 60 mins £45 - £85 £45 - £85 £45 - £85 1. Lower Prices 2. More availability of taxis 3. Better quality taxis 4. Increased safety for journey home
    • Get help from fellow students, teachers and tutor2u on Twitter: #econ3 @tutor2u_econ www.tutor2u.net