Lean Production


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An introduction to the concept of lean producti

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Lean Production

  1. 1. Lean Production
  2. 2. What is lean production? An approach to management that focuses on cutting out waste , whilst ensuring quality. This approach can be applied to all aspects of a business – from design, through production to distribution.
  3. 3. Lean production in a nutshell <ul><li>Doing the simple things well </li></ul><ul><li>Doing things better </li></ul><ul><li>Involving employees in the continuous process of improvement </li></ul><ul><li>… and as a result, avoiding waste </li></ul>
  4. 4. Why cut out waste? Waste = Cost
  5. 5. The waste hierarchy
  6. 6. Examples of waste in business Type of waste Description Over-production Making more than is needed – leads to excess stocks Waiting time Equipment and people standing idle waiting for a production process to be completed or resources to arrive Transport Moving resources (people, materials) around unnecessarily Stocks Often held as an acceptable buffer, but should not be excessive Motion A worker who appears busy but is not actually adding any value Defects Output that does not reach the required quality standard – often a significant cost to an uncompetitive business
  7. 7. Key topics in lean production <ul><li>Time based management </li></ul><ul><li>Simultaneous engineering </li></ul><ul><li>Just in time production (JIT) </li></ul><ul><li>Cell production </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizen (Continuous improvement) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Effective lean production requires… <ul><li>Good relations with suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Committed, skilled and motivated employees </li></ul><ul><li>A culture of quality assurance; continuous improvement & willingness to embrace change </li></ul><ul><li>Trust between management and employees </li></ul>
  9. 9. Time-based management An general approach that recognises the importance of time and seeks to reduce the level of wasted time in the production processes of a business
  10. 10. Benefits of effective time management <ul><li>Quicker response times (reduced lead times) to meet changing market and customer needs </li></ul><ul><li>Faster new product development </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction in waste, therefore greater efficiency </li></ul>
  11. 11. Requirements for time-based management <ul><li>Flexible production methods </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Able to change products quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can change production volumes / runs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Trained employees </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multi-skilled staff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Trust between workers and managers </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Simultaneous engineering An approach to project management that helps firms develop and launch new products more quickly. All parts of the project are planned together. Everything is considered simultaneously (together, in parallel) rather than separately (in series)
  13. 13. Benefits of simultaneous engineering <ul><li>New product is brought to the market much more quickly </li></ul><ul><li>Business may be able to charge a premium price that will give a better profit margin and help recoup R&D costs </li></ul><ul><li>Less likelihood of a need to modify the product later due to unforeseen problems </li></ul><ul><li>A greater sense of involvement across business functions improves staff commitment to the project </li></ul><ul><li>Can be a source of competitive advantage (‘first mover advantage’) for the firm if it can get a reliable new product into the market and build brand loyalty before its competitors </li></ul>
  14. 14. Cell production A form of team working where production processes are split into cells. Each cell is responsible for a complete unit of work
  15. 15. Potential benefits of cell production <ul><li>Closeness of cell members should improve communication </li></ul><ul><li>Workers become multi-skilled and more adaptable to the needs of the business </li></ul><ul><li>Greater employee motivation , from variety of work, team working and responsibility </li></ul><ul><li>Quality improvements as each cell has ‘ownership’ for quality on its area </li></ul>
  16. 16. Potential drawbacks of cell production <ul><li>Culture has to embrace trust & participation or workers can feel they are being pushed for greater output with no respite </li></ul><ul><li>Business may have to invest in new materials handling and ordering systems suitable for cell production </li></ul><ul><li>Cell production may not allow a firm to use its machinery as intensively as in traditional flow production </li></ul><ul><li>Some small scale production lines may not yield enough savings to make a switch cell production worthwhile </li></ul><ul><li>Allocation of work to cells has to be efficient so that employees have enough work, but not so much that they are unable to cope </li></ul><ul><li>Recruitment and training of staff must support this approach to production </li></ul>
  17. 17. Just-in-time Just-in-time (“JIT”) aims to ensure that inputs into the production process only arrive when they are needed
  18. 18. How does JIT work? <ul><li>Based on a &quot;pull&quot; system of production - customer orders determine what is produced </li></ul><ul><li>Requires complex production scheduling - achieved using specialist software to connect production dept with suppliers </li></ul><ul><li>Supplies delivered to production line only when needed </li></ul><ul><li>Requires close cooperation with high-quality suppliers </li></ul>
  19. 19. Benefits and drawbacks of JIT Advantages Disadvantages Lower stock holding means a reduction in storage space which saves rent and insurance costs There is little room for mistakes as minimal stock is kept for re-working faulty product As stock is only obtained when it is needed, less working capital is tied up in stock Production is highly reliant on suppliers and if stock is not delivered on time, the whole production schedule can be delayed Less likelihood of stock perishing, becoming obsolete or out of date There is no spare finished product available to meet unexpected orders, because all product is made to meet actual orders Less time spent on checking and re-working production as the emphasis is on getting the work right first time A need for complex, specialist stock systems
  20. 20. Kaizen Kaizen (or ‘ continuous improvement ’) is an approach of constantly introducing small incremental changes in a business in order to improve quality and/or efficiency
  21. 21. How Kaizen works <ul><li>Leaner production is based on making many small changes </li></ul><ul><li>As the ideas come from employees, they are less likely to be radically different and probably easier to implement </li></ul><ul><li>Small improvements are less likely to require major capital investment than major process changes </li></ul><ul><li>The culture - all employees should continually look for ways to improve their own performance </li></ul><ul><li>Kaizen encourages employees to take ownership for their work = can help reinforce team working and improve motivation </li></ul>
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