Hereditary And Acquired Causes Of InfertilitySubmitted by: Tushar m. Watane M.V.Sc. 1st year Dept. Of Veterinary Reproduction, Gynaecology And Obstetrics.Submitted to:: Dr. Chinchkar Head of Dept Of Veterinary Reproduction, Gynaecology And Obstetrics.
1. Freemartin• *Feremartin are sterile heifers(905) born co-twin with males.• *most of twin births are dizygotic(90-99%).• *This condition is a unique form of intersexuality characterized by abnormal developmental changes during sexual differentiation.• Symptoms and clinical findings_• 1-Fremartins are phenotypicaly similar in appearance andnever comes in heat despite passing age of puberty (Ox horn massive shoulder , high limbs ,narrow pelvis, small narrow vulva, large prominent clitoris, prominent tuft of coarse hair arises from yhe ventral vulval commissure, and udder is underdeveloped with small rudimentary teats).• 2- Clinical examinaition reveals that the measurements of alll reproductive organs are markdly decreased (size & weigght).
• 3- The length of both vagina and vulva is markdly decreases (6-8 cm) and reveals blind vestibule as detected by Fincher pencil test .• 4-Gonads are either aplastic or hypoplastic and detected as firm noduar structure.• 5- Uterus , uterine horns, cervix and anterior vagina are uncanalized (can be detected as cord like structures).• 6.testicular structure and male accesory glands (seminal gland) can also be detected in some cases.
2. Hermaphrodites• .Hermaphrodite is a term applied to individuals whose genital organs exhibiting both sexes.• .hermaphroditism has been recorded in all animal species , but high frequently in goats(6-14.9%) and in pigs.• .Hermaphroditism in goats caused by an autosomal recessive gene linked to an autosomal dominant gene polledness or hornlessness.• .This gene have variable penetrations, and be responcible for sex reversal of genetic females to phenotypic males (because all hermaphrodites are genetipically females, 60XX kariotype).CLASSIFICATION OF HERMAPHRODITISM-. They are classified according to the dominating genital organs into:1. True hemaphrodite (low incidence).2. Pseudo-hermaphrodites( high incidence.)
Morphological features of masculinetype male pseudohermaphroditekids• 1.pseudohemaphrodites kids are hornless, and develops an abnormal pouch at the terminal part of urethra that filled with urine.• 2 such a condition suffer urine incontinence that was treated by surgical dilatation of the external urethral orifice.• 3. External genetalia reveals absence of scritum, the penis is abnormally short, and the external urethral orifice opens just cranial to the ischial arch.
Marphological featurs ofpseudohermaphrodies:• 1. older cases are hornless and exhibiting either masculine or feminine appearance.• 2. The external genetalia consists of small subcutaneously located testes and the scrotum is seldom developed.• 3.The penis is short and exhibits no sigmoid flexure.• 4. The free end of the penis is bent upwards that makes urine stream directed upwards.
Marphological featires of trueHermaphrodites:• 1. Phenotypically , those cases were either feminine or masculine in appearance (depending upon the dominating sex gonads).• 2. Enlarged clitoris and small underdeveloped vulva make the urine directed upward in those cases.• 3.Both genital tract were present and underdeveloped.• 4.They are infertile , but some cases may becomrs pregnant.
3. White Heifer Disease-• 1. It is caused by single recessive sex linked to the gene of white color of Short Horn Breed.• 2. Such gene induces arrest in the development ofMullarian ducts with different degrees.• 3. Three classes of the disease can be detected : • A-class:segmental aplasia of Mullarian ducts. B-class: Uterus unicornis. C-class: Impeforated hymen.
4- Ovarian Aplasia (Gonadlesscondition)• 1. The condition denotes absence of gonads ( unilateral or bilateral).• 2. In bilateral cases , the affected heife is steer like and never cycle despite passing age of puberty. The genital tract is infantile and the heifer must be discarded from breeding (sterile).• 3. In unilateral casas , compensatory hypertrophy can be detected in the existed ovary and heifer can cycle normally, but the fertility is theoreticallu decreased to50%.Detected
5. Ovarian Hypoplasia.• 1.the condition means underdevelopment of the ovary (failure in the migration of germinal cells). It is due to a single recessive autosomal gene with incomplete penetreation. Adverse envioronmental condition may also affect ovarian development,• 2.It may be complete or incomplete and may affect either ovaries (unulateral ) or both ovaries (bilateral).• 3. In case of complete bilateral ovarian hypoplasia , the affected heifer is steer like and never cycle despite passing age of puberty. Both ovaries are small , firm , smooth structuresless, and the genital tract is infantile.
6. Paraovarian Cyst-• 1. These cysts develop as cystic dilatation in vestige of wolffian ductin broad ligament around the ovary.• 2. These cysts sre either rounded , oval or ovoid in shape and measure about 2-10 cm in diameter.• 3.Adverse effect on reproduction could not detected in the presence of these cysts.
ACQUIRED CAUSES OFINFERTILITY-• .These causes fall into several categories like somatic diseases, genital infections, feeding faults, climatic factors and management factors.
Somatic Diseases-• When an animal is sick or suffering from a serious ailment or disease, conception will not occur.• . Somatic diseases, like FMD, Johnes disease, brucellosis, lymphadenosis, meta bolic disturbances, intestinal parasites, gastro-intestinal intoxications, deficiency and metabolic diseases etc., can cause infertility.
• Genital infections, like puerperal infections (endometritis, pyometra), venereal infections, ovarobursal adhesions of the uterus, parturition trauma of the tubular genital tract and rupture of the peritoneum, are important.
Feeding Faults-• .over feeding• .under feeding• .unbalanced diet• Deficiency of minerals , vitamins or traces elements• .Lack of TDN , Energy, proteins, dry matter, etc. in diet.
Climatic factors-• .sunlight• .Temperature• .Changes in vegetation.
Managmental factors-• .Detection of estrus• .Timing of insemination• .Handling of Animal at Breeding
Tumors- Granulose cell tumour of• . ovary commonly cause infertility in females
• Anestrus, subestrus or silent heat, ovulatory dysfunction, delayed ovulation, ovulatory failure on ovulation, cystic ovarian conditions, failure of fertilization and dysfunction of the fallopian tube and death or loss of the conceptus fall under this category.